澳 門 特 別 行 政 區

行政長官辦公室

法規:

第22/2008號行政長官公告

公報編號:

30/2008

刊登日期:

2008.7.25

版數:

7282-7370

  • 命令公佈一九九一年十月四日在馬德里簽訂的《關於環境保護的南極條約議定書》及於同日通過的附件一、二、三和四,以及一九九一年十月十七日在波恩通過的附件五的英文正式文本及中、葡文譯本。

葡文版本

相關法規 :
  • 第10/2008號行政長官公告 - 命令公佈一九五九年十二月一日訂於華盛頓的《南極條約》的英文正式文本及中、葡文譯本。
  • 相關類別 :
  • 環境 - 國際法 - 其他 - 對外事務 - 國際法 - 其他 - 環境保護局 - 法務局 -
  • 《LegisMac》的法例註釋

    《公報》原始 PDF 版本

    第22/2008號行政長官公告

    鑑於中華人民共和國是一九九一年十月四日在馬德里簽訂的《關於環境保護的南極條約議定書》(以下簡稱“議定書”)及於同日通過的附件一、二、三和四的簽署方,並於一九九四年八月二日向美利堅合眾國政府交存核准書;

    又鑑於中華人民共和國於一九九五年一月二十六日通知接受一九九一年十月十七日在波恩通過的議定書附件五;

    再鑑於根據議定書第二十三的規定,議定書及其附件一、二、三和四自一九九八年一月十四日起於全國生效,並於一九九九年十二月二十日按照中華人民共和國對外受該議定書及其附件約束的相同規定和條件自動在澳門特別行政區生效;

    同時,議定書附件五自二零零二年五月二十四日起在國際上對中華人民共和國生效,包括對澳門特別行政區生效;

    行政長官根據澳門特別行政區第3/1999號法律第六條第一款的規定,命令公佈議定書及其附件一、二、三、四和五的英文正式文本及以該議定書及其附件各正式文本為依據的中、葡文譯本。

    二零零八年七月十一日發佈。

    行政長官 何厚鏵

    ———

    二零零八年七月十四日於行政長官辦公室

    辦公室代主任 白麗嫻


    PROTOCOL ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TO THE ANTARCTIC TREATY

    PREAMBLE

    The States Parties to this Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty, hereinafter referred to as the Parties,

    Convinced of the need to enhance the protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems;

    Convinced of the need to strengthen the Antarctic Treaty system so as to ensure that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord;

    Bearing in mind the special legal and political status of Antarctica and the special responsibility of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties to ensure that all activities in Antarctica are consistent with the purposes and principles of the Antarctic Treaty;

    Recalling the designation of Antarctica as a Special Conservation Area and other measures adopted under the Antarctic Treaty system to protect the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems;

    Acknowledging further the unique opportunities Antarctica offers for scientific monitoring of and research on processes of global as well as regional importance;

    Reaffirming the conservation principles of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources;

    Convinced that the development of a comprehensive regime for the protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems is in the interest of mankind as a whole;

    Desiring to supplement the Antarctic Treaty to this end;

    Have agreed as follows:

    Article 1

    Definitions

    For the purposes of this Protocol:

    (a) “The Antarctic Treaty” means the Antarctic Treaty done at Washington on 1 December 1959;

    (b) “Antarctic Treaty area” means the area to which the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty apply in accordance with Article VI of that Treaty;

    (c) “Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings” means the meetings referred to in Article IX of the Antarctic Treaty;

    (d) “Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties” means the Contracting Parties to the Antarctic Treaty entitled to appoint representatives to participate in the meetings referred to in Article IX of that Treaty;

    (e) “Antarctic Treaty system” means the Antarctic Treaty, the measures in effect under that Treaty, its associated separate international instruments in force and the measures in effect under those instruments;

    (f) “Arbitral Tribunal” means the Arbitral Tribunal established in accordance with the Schedule to this Protocol, which forms an integral part thereof;

    (g) “Committee” means the Committee for Environmental Protection established in accordance with Article 11.

    Article 2

    Objective and Designation

    The Parties commit themselves to the comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems and hereby designate Antarctica as a natural reserve, devoted to peace and science.

    Article 3

    Environmental principles

    1. The protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems and the intrinsic value of Antarctica, including its wilderness and aesthetic values and its value as an area for the conduct of scientific research, in particular research essential to understanding the global environment, shall be fundamental considerations in the planning and conduct of all activities in the Antarctic Treaty area.

    2. To this end:

    (a) activities in the Antarctic Treaty area shall be planned and conducted so as to limit adverse impacts on the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems;

    (b) activities in the Antarctic Treaty area shall be planned and conducted so as to avoid:

    (i) adverse effects on climate or weather patterns;

    (ii) significant adverse effects on air or water quality;

    (iii) significant changes in the atmospheric, terrestrial (including aquatic), glacial or marine environments;

    (iv) detrimental changes in the distribution, abundance or productivity of species or populations of species of fauna and flora;

    (v) further jeopardy to endangered or threatened species or populations of such species; or

    (vi) degradation of, or substantial risk to, areas of biological, scientific, historic, aesthetic or wilderness significance;

    (c) activities in the Antarctic Treaty area shall be planned and conducted on the basis of information sufficient to allow prior assessments of, and informed judgments about, their possible impacts on the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems and on the value of Antarctica for the conduct of scientific research; such judgments shall take account of:

    (i) he scope of the activity, including its area, duration and intensity;

    (ii) the cumulative impacts of the activity, both by itself and in combination with other activities in the Antarctic Treaty area;

    (iii) whether the activity will detrimentally affect any other activity in the Antarctic Treaty area;

    (iv) whether technology and procedures are available to provide for environmentally safe operations;

    (v) whether there exists the capacity to monitor key environmental parameters and ecosystem components so as to identify and provide early warning of any adverse effects of the activity and to provide for such modification of operating procedures as may be necessary in the light of the results of monitoring or increased knowledge of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems; and

    (vi) whether there exists the capacity to respond promptly and effectively to accidents, particularly those with potential environmental effects;

    (d) regular and effective monitoring shall take place to allow assessment of the impacts of ongoing activities, including the verification of predicted impacts;

    (e) regular and effective monitoring shall take place to facilitate early detection of the possible unforeseen effects of activities carried on both within and outside the Antarctic Treaty area on the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems.

    3. Activities shall be planned and conducted in the Antarctic Treaty area so as to accord priority to scientific research and to preserve the value of Antarctica as an area for the conduct of such research, including research essential to understanding the global environment.

    4. Activities undertaken in the Antarctic Treaty area pursuant to scientific research programmes, tourism and all other governmental and non-governmental activities in the Antarctic Treaty area for which advance notice is required in accordance with Article VII (5) of the Antarctic Treaty, including associated logistic support activities, shall:

    (a) take place in a manner consistent with the principles in this Article; and

    (b) be modified, suspended or cancelled if they result in or threaten to result in impacts upon the Antarctic environment or dependent or associated ecosystems inconsistent with those principles.

    Article 4

    Relationship with other Components of the Antarctic Treaty System

    1. This Protocol shall supplement the Antarctic Treaty and shall neither modify nor amend that Treaty.

    2. Nothing in this Protocol shall derogate from the rights and obligations of the Parties to this Protocol under the other international instruments in force within the Antarctic Treaty system.

    Article 5

    Consistency with the other Components of the Antarctic Treaty System

    The Parties shall consult and co-operate with the Contracting Parties to the other international instruments in force within the Antarctic Treaty system and their respective institutions with a view to ensuring the achievement of the objectives and principles of this Protocol and avoiding any interference with the achievement of the objectives and principles of those instruments or any inconsistency between the implementation of those instruments and of this Protocol.

    Article 6

    Cooperation

    1. The Parties shall cooperate in the planning and conduct of activities in the Antarctic Treaty area. To this end, each Party shall endeavour to:

    (a) promote cooperative programmes of scientific, technical and educational value, concerning the protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems;

    (b) provide appropriate assistance to other Parties in the preparation of environmental impact assessments;

    (c) provide to other Parties upon request information relevant to any potential environmental risk and assistance to minimize the effects of accidents which may damage the Antarctic environment or dependent and associated ecosystems;

    (d) consult with other Parties with regard to the choice of sites for prospective stations and other facilities so as to avoid the cumulative impacts caused by their excessive concentration in any location;

    (e) where appropriate, undertake joint expeditions and share the use of stations and other facilities; and

    (f) carry out such steps as may be agreed upon at Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings.

    2. Each Party undertakes, to the extent possible, to share information that may be helpful to other Parties in planning and conducting their activities in the Antarctic Treaty area, with a view to the protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems.

    3. The Parties shall co-operate with those Parties which may exercise jurisdiction in areas adjacent to the Antarctic Treaty area with a view to ensuring that activities in the Antarctic Treaty area do not have adverse environmental impacts on those areas.

    Article 7

    Prohibition of Mineral Resource Activities

    Any activity relating to mineral resources, other than scientific research, shall be prohibited.

    Article 8

    Environmental Impact and Assessment

    1. Proposed activities referred to in paragraph 2 below shall be subject to the procedures set out in Annex I for prior assessment of the impacts of those activities on the Antarctic environment or on dependent or associated ecosystems according to whether those activities are identified as having:

    (a) less than a minor or transitory impact;

    (b) a minor or transitory impact; or

    (c) more than a minor or transitory impact.

    2. Each Party shall ensure that the assessment procedures set out in Annex I are applied in the planning processes leading to decisions about any activities undertaken in the Antarctic Treaty area pursuant to scientific research programmes, tourism and all other governmental and non-governmental activities in the Antarctic Treaty area for which advance notice is required under Article VII (5) of the Antarctic Treaty, including associated logistic support activities.

    3. The assessment procedures set out in Annex I shall apply to any change in an activity whether the change arises from an increase or decrease in the intensity of an existing activity, from the addition of an activity, the decommissioning of a facility, or otherwise.

    4. Where activities are planned jointly by more than one Party, the Parties involved shall nominate one of their number to coordinate the implementation of the environmental impact assessment procedures set out in Annex I.

    Article 9

    Annexes

    1. The Annexes to this Protocol shall form an integral part thereof.

    2. Annexes, additional to Annexes I-IV, may be adopted and become effective in accordance with Article IX of the Antarctic Treaty.

    3. Amendments and modifications to Annexes may be adopted and become effective in accordance with Article IX of the Antarctic Treaty, provided that any Annex may itself make provision for amendments and modifications to become effective on an accelerated basis.

    4. Annexes and any amendments and modifications thereto which have become effective in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3 above shall, unless an Annex itself provides otherwise in respect of the entry into effect of any amendment or modification thereto, become effective for a Contracting Party to the Antarctic Treaty which is not an Antarctic Treaty Consultative Party, or which was not an Antarctic Treaty Consultative Party at the time of the adoption, when notice of approval of that Contracting Party has been received by the Depository.

    5. Annexes shall, except to the extent that an Annex provides otherwise, be subject to the procedures for dispute settlement set out in Articles 18 to 20.

    Article 10

    Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings

    1. Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings shall, drawing upon the best scientific and technical advice available:

    (a) define, in accordance with the provisions of this Protocol, the general policy for the comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems; and

    (b) adopt measures under Article IX of the Antarctic Treaty for the implementation of this Protocol.

    2. Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings shall review the work of the Committee and shall draw fully upon its advice and recommendations in carrying out the tasks referred to in paragraph 1 above, as well as upon the advice of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.

    Article 11

    Committee for Environmental Protection

    1. There is hereby established the Committee for Environmental Protection.

    2. Each Party shall be entitled to be a member of the Committee and to appoint a representative who may be accompanied by experts and advisers.

    3. Observer status in the Committee shall be open to any Contracting Party to the Antarctic Treaty which is not a Party to this Protocol.

    4. The Committee shall invite the President of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research and the Chairman of the Scientific Committee for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources to participate as observers at its sessions. The Committee may also, with the approval of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, invite such other relevant scientific, environmental and technical organisations which can contribute to its work to participate as observers at its sessions.

    5. The Committee shall present a report on each of its sessions to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting. The report shall cover all matters considered at the session and shall reflect the views expressed. The report shall be circulated to the Parties and to observers attending the session, and shall thereupon be made publicly available.

    6. The Committee shall adopt its rules of procedure which shall be subject to approval by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting.

    Article 12

    Functions of the Committee

    1. The functions of the Committee shall be to provide advice and formulate recommendations to the Parties in connection with the implementation of this Protocol, including the operation of its Annexes, for consideration at Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings, and to perform such other functions as may be referred to it by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings. In particular, it shall provide advice on:

    (a) the effectiveness of measures taken pursuant to this Protocol;

    (b) the need to update, strengthen or otherwise improve such measures;

    (c) the need for additional measures, including the need for additional Annexes, where appropriate;

    (d) the application and implementation of the environmental impact assessment procedures set out in Article 8 and Annex I;

    (e) means of minimising or mitigating environmental impacts of activities in the Antarctic Treaty area;

    (f) procedures for situations requiring urgent action, including response action in environmental emergencies;

    (g) the operation and further elaboration of the Antarctic Protected Area system;

    (h) inspection procedures, including formats for inspection reports and checklists for the conduct of inspections;

    (i) the collection, archiving, exchange and evaluation of information related to environmental protection;

    (j) the state of the Antarctic environment; and

    (k) the need for scientific research, including environmental monitoring, related to the implementation of this Protocol.

    2. In carrying out its functions, the Committee shall, as appropriate, consult with the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, the Scientific Committee for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and other relevant scientific, environmental and technical organizations.

    Article 13

    Compliance with this Protocol

    1. Each Party shall take appropriate measures within its competence, including the adoption of laws and regulations, administrative actions and enforcement measures, to ensure compliance with this Protocol.

    2. Each Party shall exert appropriate efforts, consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, to the end that no one engages in any activity contrary to this Protocol.

    3. Each Party shall notify all other Parties of the measures it takes pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2 above.

    4. Each Party shall draw the attention of all other Parties to any activity which in its opinion affects the implementation of the objectives and principles of this Protocol.

    5. The Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings shall draw the attention of any State which is not a Party to this Protocol to any activity undertaken by that State, its agencies, instrumentalities, natural or juridical persons, ships, aircraft or other means of transport which affects the implementation of the objectives and principles of this Protocol.

    Article 14

    Inspection

    1. In order to promote the protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems, and to ensure compliance with this Protocol, the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties shall arrange, individually or collectively, for inspections by observers to be made in accordance with Article VII of the Antarctic Treaty.

    2. Observers are:

    (a) observers designated by any Antarctic Treaty Consultative Party who shall be nationals of that Party; and

    (b) any observers designated at Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings to carry out inspections under procedures to be established by an Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting.

    3. Parties shall co-operate fully with observers undertaking inspections, and shall ensure that during inspections, observers are given access to all parts of stations, installations, equipment, ships and aircraft open to inspection under Article VII (3) of the Antarctic Treaty, as well as to all records maintained thereon which are called for pursuant to this Protocol.

    4. Reports of inspections shall be sent to the Parties whose stations, installations, equipment, ships or aircraft are covered by the reports. After those Parties have been given the opportunity to comment, the reports and any comments thereon shall be circulated to all the Parties and to the Committee, considered at the next Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, and thereafter made publicly available.

    Article 15

    Emergency Response Action

    1. In order to respond to environmental emergencies in the Antarctic Treaty area, each Party agrees to:

    (a) provide for prompt and effective response action to such emergencies which might arise in the performance of scientific research programmes, tourism and all other governmental and non-governmental activities in the Antarctic Treaty area for which advance notice is required under Article VII (5) of the Antarctic Treaty, including associated logistic support activities; and

    (b) establish contingency plans for response to incidents with potential adverse effects on the Antarctic environment or dependent and associated ecosystems.

    2. To this end, the Parties shall:

    (a) co-operate in the formulation and implementation of such contingency plans; and

    (b) establish procedures for immediate notification of, and co-operative response to, environmental emergencies.

    3. In the implementation of this Article, the Parties shall draw upon the advice of the appropriate international organisations.

    Article 16

    Liability

    Consistent with the objectives of this Protocol for the comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems, the Parties undertake to elaborate rules and procedures relating to liability for damage arising from activities taking place in the Antarctic Treaty area and covered by this Protocol. Those rules and procedures shall be included in one or more Annexes to be adopted in accordance with Article 9 (2).

    Article 17

    Annual Report by Parties

    1. Each Party shall report annually on the steps taken to implement this Protocol. Such reports shall include notifications made in accordance with Article 13 (3), contingency plans established in accordance with Article 15 and any other notifications and information called for pursuant to this Protocol for which there is no other provision concerning the circulation and exchange of information.

    2. Reports made in accordance with paragraph 1 above shall be circulated to all Parties and to the Committee, considered at the next Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, and made publicly available.

    Article 18

    Dispute Settlement

    If a dispute arises concerning the interpretation or application of this Protocol, the parties to the dispute shall, at the request of any one of them, consult among themselves as soon as possible with a view to having the dispute resolved by negotiation, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement or other peaceful means to which the parties to the dispute agree.

    Article 19

    Choice of Dispute Settlement Procedure

    1. Each Party, when signing, ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Protocol, or at any time thereafter, may choose, by written declaration, one or both of the following means for the settlement of disputes concerning the interpretation or application of Articles 7, 8 and 15 and, except to the extent that an Annex provides otherwise, the provisions of any Annex and, insofar as it relates to these Articles and provisions, Article 13:

    (a) the International Court of Justice;

    (b) the Arbitral Tribunal.

    2. A declaration made under paragraph 1 above shall not affect the operation of Article 18 and Article 20 (2).

    3. A Party which has not made a declaration under paragraph 1 above or in respect of which a declaration is no longer in force shall be deemed to have accepted the competence of the Arbitral Tribunal.

    4. If the parties to a dispute have accepted the same means for the settlement of a dispute, the dispute may be submitted only to that procedure, unless the parties otherwise agree.

    5. If the parties to a dispute have not accepted the same means for the settlement of a dispute, or if they have both accepted both means, the dispute may be submitted only to the Arbitral Tribunal, unless the parties otherwise agree.

    6. A declaration made under paragraph 1 above shall remain in force until it expires in accordance with its terms or until three months after written notice of revocation has been deposited with the Depositary.

    7. A new declaration, a notice of revocation or the expiry of a declaration shall not in any way affect proceedings pending before the International Court of Justice or the Arbitral Tribunal, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree.

    8. Declarations and notices referred to in this Article shall be deposited with the Depositary who shall transmit copies thereof to all Parties.

    Article 20

    Dispute Settlement Procedure

    1. If the parties to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of Articles 7, 8 or 15 or, except to the extent that an Annex provides otherwise, the provisions of any Annex or, insofar as it relates to these Articles and provisions, Article 13, have not agreed on a means for resolving it within 12 months of the request for consultation pursuant to Article 18, the dispute shall be referred, at the request of any party to the dispute, for settlement in accordance with the procedure determined by Article 19 (4) and (5).

    2. The Arbitral Tribunal shall not be competent to decide or rule upon any matter within the scope of Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty. In addition, nothing in this Protocol shall be interpreted as conferring competence or jurisdiction on the International Court of Justice or any other tribunal established for the purpose of settling disputes between Parties to decide or otherwise rule upon any matter within the scope of Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty.

    Article 21

    Signature

    This Protocol shall be open for signature at Madrid on the 4th of October 1991 and thereafter at Washington until the 3rd of October 1992 by any State which is a Contracting Party to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Article 22

    Ratification, Acceptance, Approval or Accession

    1. This Protocol is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by signatory States.

    2. After the 3rd of October 1992 this Protocol shall be open for accession by any State which is a Contracting Party to the Antarctic Treaty.

    3. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Government of the United States of America, hereby designated as the Depositary.

    4. After the date on which this Protocol has entered into force, the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties shall not act upon a notification regarding the entitlement of a Contracting Party to the Antarctic Treaty to appoint representatives to participate in Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings in accordance with Article IX (2) of the Antarctic Treaty unless that Contracting Party has first ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to this Protocol.

    Article 23

    Entry into Force

    1. This Protocol shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by all States which are Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties at the date on which this Protocol is adopted.

    2. For each Contracting Party to the Antarctic Treaty which, subsequent to the date of entry into force of this Protocol, deposits an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, this Protocol shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following such deposit.

    Article 24

    Reservations

    Reservations to this Protocol shall not be permitted.

    Article 25

    Modification or Amendment

    1. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 9, this Protocol may be modified or amended at any time in accordance with the procedures set forth in Article XII (1) (a) and (b) of the Antarctic Treaty.

    2. If, after the expiration of 50 years from the date of entry into force of this Protocol, any of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties so requests by a communication addressed to the Depositary, a conference shall be held as soon as practicable to review the operation of this Protocol.

    3. A modification or amendment proposed at any Review Conference called pursuant to paragraph 2 above shall be adopted by a majority of the Parties, including 3/4 of the States which are Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties at the time of adoption of this Protocol.

    4. A modification or amendment adopted pursuant to paragraph 3 above shall enter into force upon ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by 3/4 of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties, including ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by all States which are Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties at the time of adoption of this Protocol.

    5.

    (a) With respect to Article 7, the prohibition on Antarctic mineral resource activities contained therein shall continue unless there is in force a binding legal regime on Antarctic mineral resource activities that includes an agreed means for determining whether, and, if so, under which conditions, any such activities would be acceptable. This regime shall fully safeguard the interests of all States referred to in Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty and apply the principles thereof. Therefore, if a modification or amendment to Article 7 is proposed at a Review Conference referred to in paragraph 2 above, it shall include such a binding legal regime.

    (b) If any such modification or amendment has not entered into force within 3 years of the date of its adoption, any Party may at any time thereafter notify to the epositary of its withdrawal from this Protocol, and such withdrawal shall take effect 2 years after receipt of the notification by the Depositary.

    Article 26

    Notifications by the Depositary

    The Depositary shall notify all Contracting Parties to the Antarctic Treaty of the following:

    (a) signatures of this Protocol and the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;

    (b) the date of entry into force of this Protocol and any additional Annex thereto;

    (c) the date of entry into force of any amendment or modification to this Protocol;

    (d) the deposit of declarations and notices pursuant to Article 19; and

    (e) any notification received pursuant to Article 25 (5) (b).

    Article 27

    Authentic Texts and Registration with the United Nations

    1. This Protocol, done in the English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America, which shall transmit duly certified copies thereof to all Contracting Parties to the Antarctic Treaty.

    2. This Protocol shall be registered by the Depositary pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

    SCHEDULE TO THE PROTOCOL

    ARBITRATION

    Article 1

    1. The Arbitral Tribunal shall be constituted and shall function in accordance with the Protocol, including this Schedule.

    2. The Secretary referred to in this Schedule is the Secretary General of the Permanent Court of Arbitration.

    Article 2

    1. Each Party shall be entitled to designate up to three Arbitrators, at least one of whom shall be designated within three months of the entry into force of the Protocol for that Party. Each Arbitrator shall be experienced in Antarctic affairs, have thorough knowledge of international law and enjoy the highest reputation for fairness, competence and integrity. The names of the persons so designated shall constitute the list of Arbitrators. Each Party shall at all times maintain the name of at least one Arbitrator on the list.

    2. Subject to paragraph 3 below, an Arbitrator designated by a Party shall remain on the list for a period of five years and shall be eligible for redesignation by that Party for additional five year periods.

    3. A Party which designated an Arbitrator may withdraw the name of that Arbitrator from the list. If an Arbitrator dies or if a Party for any reason withdraws from the list the name of an Arbitrator designated by it, the Party which designated the Arbitrator in question shall notify the Secretary promptly. An Arbitrator whose name is withdrawn from the list shall continue to serve on any Arbitral Tribunal to which that Arbitrator has been appointed until the completion of proceedings before the Arbitral Tribunal.

    4. The Secretary shall ensure that an up-to-date list is maintained of the Arbitrators designated pursuant to this Article.

    Article 3

    1. The Arbitral Tribunal shall be composed of three Arbitrators who shall be appointed as follows:

    (a) The party to the dispute commencing the proceedings shall appoint one Arbitrator, who may be its national, from the list referred to in Article 2. This appointment shall be included in the notification referred to in Article 4.

    (b) Within 40 days of the receipt of that notification, the other party to the dispute shall appoint the second Arbitrator, who may be its national, from the list referred to in Article 2.

    (c) Within 60 days of the appointment of the second Arbitrator, the parties to the dispute shall appoint by agreement the third Arbitrator from the list referred to in Article 2. The third Arbitrator shall not be either a national of a party to the dispute, or a person designated for the list referred to in Article 2 by a party to the dispute, or of the same nationality as either of the first two Arbitrators. The third Arbitrator shall be the Chairperson of the Arbitral Tribunal.

    (d) If the second Arbitrator has not been appointed within the prescribed period, or if the parties to the dispute have not reached agreement within the prescribed period on the appointment of the third Arbitrator, the Arbitrator or Arbitrators shall be appointed, at the request of any party to the dispute and within 30 days of the receipt of such request, by the President of the International Court of Justice from the list referred to in Article 2 and subject to the conditions prescribed in subparagraphs (b) and (c) above. In performing the functions accorded him or her in this subparagraph, the President of the Court shall consult the parties to the dispute.

    (e) If the President of the International Court of Justice is unable to perform the functions accorded him or her in subparagraph (d) above or is a national of a party to the dispute, the functions shall be performed by the Vice-President of the Court, except that if the Vice-President is unable to perform the functions or is a national of a party to the dispute the functions shall be performed by the next most senior member of the Court who is available and is not a national of a party to the dispute.

    2. Any vacancy shall be filled in the manner prescribed for the initial appointment.

    3. In any dispute involving more than two Parties, those Parties having the same interest shall appoint one Arbitrator by agreement within the period specified in paragraph l (b) above.

    Article 4

    The party to the dispute commencing proceedings shall so notify the other party or parties to the dispute and the Secretary in writing. Such notification shall include a statement of the claim and the grounds on which it is based. The notification shall be transmitted by the Secretary to all Parties.

    Article 5

    1. Unless the parties to the dispute agree otherwise, arbitration shall take place at The Hague, where the records of the Arbitral Tribunal shall be kept. The Arbitral Tribunal shall adopt its own rules of procedure. Such rules shall ensure that each party to the dispute has a full opportunity to be heard and to present its case and shall also ensure that the proceedings are conducted expeditiously.

    2. The Arbitral Tribunal may hear and decide counterclaims arising out of the dispute.

    Article 6

    1. The Arbitral Tribunal, where it considers that prima facie it has jurisdiction under the Protocol, may:

    (a) at the request of any party to a dispute, indicate such provisional measures as it considers necessary to preserve the respective rights of the parties to the dispute;

    (b) prescribe any provisional measures which it considers appropriate under the circumstances to prevent serious harm to the Antarctic environment or dependent or associated ecosystems.

    2. The parties to the dispute shall comply promptly with any provisional measures prescribed under paragraph 1 (b) above pending an award under Article 10.

    3. Notwithstanding the time period in Article 20 of the Protocol, a party to a dispute may at any time, by notification to the other party or parties to the dispute and to the Secretary in accordance with Article 4, request that the Arbitral Tribunal be constituted as a matter of exceptional urgency to indicate or prescribe emergency provisional measures in accordance with this Article. In such case, the Arbitral Tribunal shall be constituted as soon as possible in accordance with Article 3, except that the time periods in Article 3 (1) (b), (c) and (d) shall be reduced to 14 days in each case. The Arbitral Tribunal shall decide upon the request for emergency provisional measures within two months of the appointment of its Chairperson.

    4. Following a decision by the Arbitral Tribunal upon a request for emergency provisional measures in accordance with paragraph 3 above, settlement of the dispute shall proceed in accordance with Articles 18, 19 and 20 of the Protocol.

    Article 7

    Any Party which believes it has a legal interest, whether general or individual, which may be substantially affected by the award of an Arbitral Tribunal, may, unless the Arbitral Tribunal decides otherwise, intervene in the proceedings.

    Article 8

    The parties to the dispute shall facilitate the work of the Arbitral Tribunal and, in particular, in accordance with their law and using all means at their disposal, shall provide it with all relevant documents and information, and enable it, when necessary, to call witnesses or experts and receive their evidence.

    Article 9

    If one of the parties to the dispute does not appear before the Arbitral Tribunal or fails to defend its case, any other party to the dispute may request the Arbitral Tribunal to continue the proceedings and make its award.

    Article 10

    1. The Arbitral Tribunal shall, on the basis of the provisions of the Protocol and other applicable rules and principles of international law that are not incompatible with such provisions, decide such disputes as are submitted to it.

    2. The Arbitral Tribunal may decide, ex aequo et bono, a dispute submitted to it, if the parties to the dispute so agree.

    Article 11

    1. Before making its award, the Arbitral Tribunal shall satisfy itself that it has competence in respect of the dispute and that the claim or counterclaim is well founded in fact and law.

    2. The award shall be accompanied by a statement of reasons for the decision and shall be communicated to the Secretary who shall transmit it to all Parties.

    3. The award shall be final and binding on the parties to the dispute and on any Party which intervened in the proceedings and shall be complied with without delay. The Arbitral Tribunal shall interpret the award at the request of a party to the dispute or of any intervening Party.

    4. The award shall have no binding force except in respect of that particular case.

    5. Unless the Arbitral Tribunal decides otherwise, the expenses of the Arbitral Tribunal, including the remuneration of the Arbitrators, shall be borne by the parties to the dispute in equal shares.

    Article 12

    All decisions of the Arbitral Tribunal, including those referred to in Articles 5, 6 and 11, shall be made by a majority of the Arbitrators who may not abstain from voting.

    Article 13

    1. This Schedule may be amended or modified by a measure adopted in accordance with Article IX (1) of the Antarctic Treaty. Unless the measure specifies otherwise, the amendment or modification shall be deemed to have been approved, and shall become effective, one year after the close of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at which it was adopted, unless one or more of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties notifies the Depositary, within that time period, that it wishes an extension of that period or that it is unable to approve the measure.

    2. Any amendment or modification of this Schedule which becomes effective in accordance with paragraph 1 above shall thereafter become effective as to any other Party when notice of approval by it has been received by the Depositary.

    ANNEX I

    TO THE PROTOCOL ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TO HE ANTARCTIC TREATY

    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    Article 1

    Preliminary Stage

    1. The environmental impacts of proposed activities referred to in Article 8 of the Protocol shall, before their commencement, be considered in accordance with appropriate national procedures.

    2. If an activity is determined as having less than a minor or transitory impact, the activity may proceed forthwith.

    Article 2

    Initial Environmental Evaluation

    1. Unless it has been determined that an activity will have less than a minor or transitory impact, or unless a Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation is being prepared in accordance with Article 3, an Initial Environmental Evaluation shall be prepared. It shall contain sufficient detail to assess whether a proposed activity may have more than a minor or transitory impact and shall include:

    (a) a description of the proposed activity, including its purpose, location, duration and intensity; and

    (b) consideration of alternatives to the proposed activity and any impacts that the activity may have, including consideration of cumulative impacts in the light of existing and known planned activities.

    2. If an Initial Environmental Evaluation indicates that a proposed activity is likely to have no more than a minor or transitory impact, the activity may proceed, provided that appropriate procedures, which may include monitoring, are put in place to assess and verify the impact of the activity.

    Article 3

    Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation

    1. If an Initial Environmental Evaluation indicates or if it is otherwise determined that a proposed activity is likely to have more than a minor or transitory impact, a Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation shall be prepared.

    2. A Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation shall include:

    (a) a description of the proposed activity including its purpose, location, duration and intensity, and possible alternatives to the activity, including the alternative of not proceeding, and the consequences of those alternatives;

    (b) a description of the initial environmental reference state with which predicted changes are to be compared and a prediction of the future environmental reference state in the absence of the proposed activity;

    (c) a description of the methods and data used to forecast the impacts of the proposed activity;

    (d) estimation of the nature, extent, duration, and intensity of the likely direct impacts of the proposed activity;

    (e) consideration of possible indirect or second order impacts of the proposed activity;

    (f) consideration of cumulative impacts of the proposed activity in the light of existing activities and other known planned activities;

    (g) identification of measures, including monitoring programmes, that could be taken to minimise or mitigate impacts of the proposed activity and to detect unforeseen impacts and that could provide early warning of any adverse effects of the activity as well as to deal promptly and effectively with accidents;

    (h) identification of unavoidable impacts of the proposed activity;

    (i) consideration of the effects of the proposed activity on the conduct of scientific research and on other existing uses and values;

    (j) an identification of gaps in knowledge and uncertainties encountered in compiling the information required under this paragraph;

    (k) a non-technical summary of the information provided under this paragraph; and

    (l) the name and address of the person or organization which prepared the Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation and the address to which comments thereon should be directed.

    3. The draft Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation shall be made publicly available and shall be circulated to all Parties, which shall also make it publicly available, for comment. A period of 90 days shall be allowed for the receipt of comments.

    4. The draft Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation shall be forwarded to the Committee at the same time as it is circulated to the Parties, and at least 120 days before the next Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, for consideration as appropriate.

    5. No final decision shall be taken to proceed with the proposed activity in the Antarctic Treaty area unless there has been an opportunity for consideration of the draft Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting on the advice of the Committee, provided that no decision to proceed with a proposed activity shall be delayed through the operation of this paragraph for longer than 15 months from the date of circulation of the draft Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation.

    6. A final Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation shall address and shall include or summarise comments received on the draft Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation. The final Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation, notice of any decisions relating thereto, and any evaluation of the significance of the predicted impacts in relation to the advantages of the proposed activity, shall be circulated to all Parties, which shall also make them publicly available, at least 60 days before the commencement of the proposed activity in the Antarctic Treaty area.

    Article 4

    Decisions to be based on Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations

    Any decision on whether a proposed activity, to which Article 3 applies, should proceed, and, if so, whether in its original or in a modified form, shall be based on the Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation as well as other relevant considerations.

    Article 5

    Monitoring

    1. Procedures shall be put in place, including appropriate monitoring of key environmental indicators, to assess and verify the impact of any activity that proceeds following the completion of a Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation.

    2. The procedures referred to in paragraph 1 above and in Article 2 (2) shall be designed to provide a regular and verifiable record of the impacts of the activity in order, inter alia, to:

    (a) enable assessments to be made of the extent to which such impacts are consistent with the Protocol; and

    (b) provide information useful for minimising or mitigating impacts, and, where appropriate, information on the need for suspension, cancellation or modification of the activity.

    Article 6

    Circulation of Information

    1. The following information shall be circulated to the Parties, forwarded to the Committee and made publicly available:

    (a) a description of the procedures referred to in Article 1;

    (b) an annual list of any Initial Environmental Evaluations prepared in accordance with Article 2 and any decisions taken in consequence thereof;

    (c) significant information obtained, and any action taken in consequence thereof, from procedures put in place in accordance with Articles 2 (2) and 5; and

    (d) information referred to in Article 3 (6).

    2. Any Initial Environmental Evaluation prepared in accordance with Article 2 shall be made available on request.

    Article 7

    Cases of Emergency

    1. This Annex shall not apply in cases of emergency relating to the safety of human life or of ships, aircraft or equipment and facilities of high value, or the protection of the environment, which require an activity to be undertaken without completion of the procedures set out in this Annex.

    2. Notice of activities undertaken in cases of emergency, which would otherwise have required preparation of a Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation, shall be circulated immediately to all Parties and to the Committee and a full explanation of the activities carried out shall be provided within 90 days of those activities.

    Article 8

    Amendment or Modification

    1. This Annex may be amended or modified by a measure adopted in accordance with Article IX (1) of the Antarctic Treaty. Unless the measure specifies otherwise, the amendment or modification shall be deemed to have been approved, and shall become effective, one year after the close of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at which it was adopted, unless one or more of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties notifies the Depositary, within that period, that it wishes an extension of that period or that it is unable to approve the measure.

    2. Any amendment or modification of this Annex which becomes effective in accordance with paragraph 1 above shall thereafter become effective as to any other Party when notice of approval by it has been received by the Depositary.

    ANNEX II

    TO THE PROTOCOL ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TO THE ANTARCTIC TREATY

    CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC FAUNA AND FLORA

    Article 1

    Definitions

    For the purposes of this Annex:

    (a) “native mammal” means any member of any species belonging to the Class Mammalia, indigenous to the Antarctic Treaty area or occurring there seasonally through natural migrations;

    (b) “native bird” means any member, at any stage of its life cycle (including eggs), of any species of the Class Aves indigenous to the Antarctic Treaty area or occurring there seasonally through natural migrations;

    (c) “native plant” means any terrestrial or freshwater vegetation, including bryophytes, lichens, fungi and algae, at any stage of its life cycle (including seeds, and other propagules), indigenous to the Antarctic Treaty area;

    (d) “native invertebrate” means any terrestrial or freshwater invertebrate, at any stage of its life cycle, indigenous to the Antarctic Treaty area;

    (e) “appropriate authority” means any person or agency authorized by a Party to issue permits under this Annex;

    (f) “permit” means a formal permission in writing issued by an appropriate authority;

    (g) “take” or “taking” means to kill, injure, capture, handle or molest, a native mammal or bird, or to remove or damage such quantities of native plants that their local distribution or abundance would be significantly affected;

    (h) “harmful interference” means:

    (i) flying or landing helicopters or other aircraft in a manner that disturbs concentrations of birds and seals;

    (ii) using vehicles or vessels, including hovercraft and small boats, in a manner that disturbs concentrations of birds and seals;

    (iii) using explosives or firearms in a manner that disturbs concentrations of birds and seals;

    (iv) wilfully disturbing breeding or moulting birds or concentrations of birds and seals by persons on foot;

    (v) significantly damaging concentrations of native terrestrial plants by landing aircraft, driving vehicles, or walking on them, or by other means; and

    (vi) any activity that results in the significant adverse modification of habitats of any species or population of native mammal, bird, plant or invertebrate.

    (i) “International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling” means the Convention done at Washington on 2 December 1946.

    Article 2

    Cases of Emergency

    1. This Annex shall not apply in cases of emergency relating to the safety of human life or of ships, aircraft, or equipment and facilities of high value, or the protection of the environment.

    2. Notice of activities undertaken in cases of emergency shall be circulated immediately to all Parties and to the Committee.

    Article 3

    Protection of Native Fauna and Flora

    1. Taking or harmful interference shall be prohibited, except in accordance with a permit.

    2. Such permits shall specify the authorized activity, including when, where and by whom it is to be conducted and shall be issued only in the following circumstances:

    (a) to provide specimens for scientific study or scientific information;

    (b) to provide specimens for museums, herbaria, zoological and botanical gardens, or other educational or cultural institutions or uses; and

    (c) to provide for unavoidable consequences of scientific activities not otherwise authorized under sub-paragraphs (a) or (b) above, or of the construction and operation of scientific support facilities.

    3. The issue of such permits shall be limited so as to ensure that:

    (a) no more native mammals, birds, or plants are taken than are strictly necessary to meet the purposes set forth in paragraph 2 above;

    (b) only small numbers of native mammals or birds are killed and in no case more native mammals or birds are killed from local populations than can, in combination with other permitted takings, normally be replaced by natural reproduction in the following season; and

    (c) the diversity of species, as well as the habitats essential to their existence, and the balance of the ecological systems existing within the Antarctic Treaty area are maintained.

    4. Any species of native mammals, birds and plants listed in Appendix A to this Annex shall be designated “Specially Protected Species”, and shall be accorded special protection by the Parties.

    5. A permit shall not be issued to take a Specially Protected Species unless the taking:

    (a) is for a compelling scientific purpose;

    (b) will not jeopardize the survival or recovery of that species or local population; and

    (c) uses non-lethal techniques where appropriate.

    6. All taking of native mammals and birds shall be done in the manner that involves the least degree of pain and suffering practicable.

    Article 4

    Introduction of Non-native Species, Parasites and Diseases

    1. No species of animal or plant not native to the Antarctic Treaty area shall be introduced onto land or ice shelves, or into water in the Antarctic Treaty area except in accordance with a permit.

    2. Dogs shall not be introduced onto land or ice shelves and dogs currently in those areas shall be removed by April 1, 1994.

    3. Permits under paragraph 1 above shall be issued to allow the importation only of the animals and plants listed in Appendix B to this Annex and shall specify the species, numbers and, if appropriate, age and sex and precautions to be taken to prevent escape or contact with native fauna and flora.

    4. Any plant or animal for which a permit has been issued in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 3 above, shall, prior to expiration of the permit, be removed from the Antarctic Treaty area or be disposed of by incineration or equally effective means that eliminates risk to native fauna or flora. The permit shall specify this obligation. Any other plant or animal introduced into the Antarctic Treaty area not native to that area, including any progeny, shall be removed or disposed of, by incineration or by equally effective means, so as to be rendered sterile, unless it is determined that they pose no risk to native flora or fauna.

    5. Nothing in this Article shall apply to the importation of food into the Antarctic Treaty area provided that no live animals are imported for this purpose and all plants and animal parts and products are kept under carefully controlled conditions and disposed of in accordance with Annex III to the Protocol and Appendix C to this Annex.

    6. Each Party shall require that precautions, including those listed in Appendix C to this Annex, be taken to prevent the introduction of micro-organisms (e.g., viruses, bacteria, parasites, yeasts, fungi) not present in the native fauna and flora.

    Article 5

    Information

    Each Party shall prepare and make available information setting forth, in particular, prohibited activities and providing lists of Specially Protected Species and relevant Protected Areas to all those persons present in or intending to enter the Antarctic Treaty area with a view to ensuring that such persons understand and observe the provisions of this Annex.

    Article 6

    Exchange of Information

    1. The Parties shall make arrangements for:

    (a) collecting and exchanging records (including records of permits) and statistics concerning the numbers or quantities of each species of native mammal, bird or plant taken annually in the Antarctic Treaty area;

    (b) obtaining and exchanging information as to the status of native mammals, birds, plants, and invertebrates in the Antarctic Treaty area, and the extent to which any species or population needs protection;

    (c) establishing a common form in which this information shall be submitted by Parties in accordance with paragraph 2 below.

    2. Each Party shall inform the other Parties as well as the Committee before the end of November of each year of any step taken pursuant to paragraph 1 above and of the number and nature of permits issued under this Annex in the preceding period of 1st July to 30th June.

    Article 7

    Relationship with other Agreements outside the Antarctic Treaty System

    Nothing in this Annex shall derogate from the rights and obligations of Parties under the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling.

    Article 8

    Review

    The Parties shall keep under continuing review measures for the conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, taking into account any recommendations from the Committee.

    Article 9

    Amendment or Modification

    1. This Annex may be amended or modified by a measure adopted in accordance with Article IX (1) of the Antarctic Treaty. Unless the measure specifies otherwise, the amendment or modification shall be deemed to have been approved, and shall become effective, one year after the close of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at which it was adopted, unless one or more of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties notifies the Depositary, within that time period, that it wishes an extension of that period or that it is unable to approve the measure.

    2. Any amendment or modification of this Annex which becomes effective in accordance with paragraph 1 above shall thereafter become effective as to any other Party when notice of approval by it has been received by the Depositary.

    Appendices to the Annex

    Appendix A

    Specially Protected Species

    All species of the genus Arctocephalus, Fur Seals. Ommatophoca rossii, Ross Seal.

    Appendix B

    Importation of Animals and Plants

    The following animals and plants may be imported into the Antarctic Treaty area in accordance with permits issued under Article 4 of this Annex:

    (a) domestic plants; and

    (b) laboratory animals and plants including viruses, bacteria, yeasts and fungi.

    Appendix C

    Precautions to Prevent Introductions of Micro-organisms

    1. Poultry. No live poultry or other living birds shall be brought into the Antarctic Treaty area. Before dressed poultry is packaged for shipment to the Antarctic Treaty area, it shall be inspected for evidence of disease, such as Newcastle’s Disease, tuberculosis, and yeast infection. Any poultry or parts not consumed shall be removed from the Antarctic Treaty area or disposed of by incineration or equivalent means that eliminates risks to native flora and fauna.

    2. The importation of non-sterile soil shall be avoided to the maximum extent practicable.

    ANNEX III

    TO THE PROTOCOL ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TO THE ANTARCTIC TREATY

    WASTE DISPOSAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Article 1

    General Obligations

    1. This Annex shall apply to activities undertaken in the Antarctic Treaty area pursuant to scientific research programmes, tourism and all other governmental and non-governmental activities in the Antarctic Treaty area for which advance notice is required under Article VII (5) of the Antarctic Treaty, including associated logistic support activities.

    2. The amount of wastes produced or disposed of in the Antarctic Treaty area shall be reduced as far as practicable so as to minimise impact on the Antarctic environment and to minimise interference with the natural values of Antarctica, with scientific research and with other uses of Antarctica which are consistent with the Antarctic Treaty.

    3.Waste storage, disposal and removal from the Antarctic Treaty area, as well as recycling and source reduction, shall be essential considerations in the planning and conduct of activities in the Antarctic Treaty area.

    4. Wastes removed from the Antarctic Treaty area shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be returned to the country from which the activities generating the waste were organized or to any other country in which arrangements have been made for the disposal of such wastes in accordance with relevant international agreements.

    5. Past and present waste disposal sites on land and abandoned work sites of Antarctic activities shall be cleaned up by the generator of such wastes and the user of such sites. This obligation shall not be interpreted as requiring:

    (a) the removal of any structure designated as a historic site or monument; or

    (b) the removal of any structure or waste material in circumstances where the removal by any practical option would result in greater adverse environmental impact than leaving the structure or waste material in its existing location.

    Article 2

    Waste Disposal by Removal from the Antarctic Treaty Area

    1. The following wastes, if generated after entry into force of this Annex, shall be removed from the Antarctic Treaty area by the generator of such wastes:

    (a) radio-active materials;

    (b) electrical batteries;

    (c) fuel, both liquid and solid;

    (d) wastes containing harmful levels of heavy metals or acutely toxic or harmful persistent compounds;

    (e) poly-vinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane foam, polystyrene foam, rubber and lubricating oils, treated timbers and other products which contain additives that could produce harmful emissions if incinerated;

    (f) all other plastic wastes, except low density polyethylene containers (such as bags for storing wastes), provided that such containers shall be incinerated in accordance with Article 3 (1);

    (g) fuel drums; and

    (h) other solid, non-combustible wastes;

    provided that the obligation to remove drums and solid non-combustible wastes contained in subparagraphs (g) and (h) above shall not apply in circumstances where the removal of such wastes by any practical option would result in greater adverse environmental impact than leaving them in their existing locations.

    2. Liquid wastes which are not covered by paragraph 1 above and sewage and domestic liquid wastes, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be removed from the Antarctic Treaty area by the generator of such wastes.

    3. The following wastes shall be removed from the Antarctic Treaty area by the generator of such wastes, unless incinerated, autoclaved or otherwise treated to be made sterile:

    (a) residues of carcasses of imported animals;

    (b) laboratory culture of micro-organisms and plant pathogens; and

    (c) introduced avian products.

    Article 3

    Waste Disposal by Incineration

    1. Subject to paragraph 2 below, combustible wastes, other than those referred to in Article 2 (1), which are not removed from the Antarctic Treaty area shall be burnt in incinerators which to the maximum extent practicable reduce harmful emissions. Any emission standards and equipment guidelines which may be recommended by, inter alia, the Committee and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research shall be taken into account. The solid residue of such incineration shall be removed from the Antarctic Treaty area.

    2. All open burning of wastes shall be phased out as soon as practicable, but no later than the end of the 1998/1999 season. Pending the completion of such phase-out, when it is necessary to dispose of wastes by open burning, allowance shall be made for the wind direction and speed and the type of wastes to be burnt to limit particulate deposition and to avoid such deposition over areas of special biological, scientific, historic, aesthetic or wilderness significance including, in particular, areas accorded protection under the Antarctic Treaty.

    Article 4

    Other Waste Disposal on Land

    1. Wastes not removed or disposed of in accordance with Articles 2 and 3 shall not be disposed of onto ice-free areas or into fresh water systems.

    2. Sewage, domestic liquid wastes and other liquid wastes not removed from the Antarctic Treaty area in accordance with Article 2, shall, to the maximum extent practicable, not be disposed of onto sea ice, ice shelves or the grounded ice-sheet, provided that such wastes which are generated by stations located inland on ice shelves or on the grounded ice-sheet may be disposed of in deep ice pits where such disposal is the only practicable option. Such pits shall not be located on known ice-flow lines which terminate at ice-free areas or in areas of high ablation.

    3.Wastes generated at field camps shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be removed by the generator of such wastes to supporting stations or ships for disposal in accordance with this Annex.

    Article 5

    Disposal of Waste in the Sea

    1. Sewage and domestic liquid wastes may be discharged directly into the sea, taking into account the assimilative capacity of the receiving marine environment and provided that:

    (a) such discharge is located, wherever practicable, where conditions exist for initial dilution and rapid dispersal; and

    (b) large quantities of such wastes (generated in a station where the average weekly occupancy over the austral summer is approximately 30 individuals or more) shall be treated at least by maceration.

    2. The by-product of sewage treatment by the Rotary Biological Contacter process or similar processes may be disposed of into the sea provided that such disposal does not adversely affect the local environment, and provided also that any such disposal at sea shall be in accordance with Annex IV to the Protocol.

    Article 6

    Storage of Waste

    All wastes to be removed from the Antarctic Treaty area, or otherwise disposed of, shall be stored in such a way as to prevent their dispersal into the environment.

    Article 7

    Prohibited Products

    No polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-sterile soil, polystyrene beads, chips or similar forms of packaging, or pesticides (other than those required for scientific, medical or hygiene purposes) shall be introduced onto land or ice shelves or into water in the Antarctic Treaty area.

    Article 8

    Waste Management Planning

    1. Each Party which itself conducts activities in the Antarctic Treaty area shall, in respect of those activities, establish a waste disposal classification system as a basis for recording wastes and to facilitate studies aimed at evaluating the environmental impacts of scientific activity and associated logistic support. To that end, wastes produced shall be classified as:

    (a) sewage and domestic liquid wastes (Group 1);

    (b) other liquid wastes and chemicals, including fuels and lubricants (Group 2);

    (c) solids to be combusted (Group 3);

    (d) other solid wastes (Group 4); and

    (e) radioactive material (Group 5).

    2. In order to reduce further the impact of waste on the Antarctic environment, each such Party shall prepare and annually review and update its waste management plans (including waste reduction, storage and disposal), specifying for each fixed site, for field camps generally, and for each ship (other than small boats that are part of the operations of fixed sites or of ships and taking into account existing management plans for ships):

    (a) programmes for cleaning up existing waste disposal sites and abandoned work sites;

    (b) current and planned waste management arrangements, including final disposal;

    (c) current and planned arrangements for analysing the environmental effects of waste and waste management; and

    (d) other efforts to minimise any environmental effects of wastes and waste management.

    3. Each such Party shall, as far as is practicable, also prepare an inventory of locations of past activities (such as traverses, field depots, field bases, crashed aircraft) before the information is lost, so that such locations can be taken into account in planning future scientific programmes (such as snow chemistry, pollutants in lichens or ice core drilling).

    Article 9

    Circulation and Review of Waste Management Plans

    1. The waste management plans prepared in accordance with Article 8, reports on their implementation, and the inventories referred to in Article 8 (3), shall be included in the annual exchanges of information in accordance with Articles III and VII of the Antarctic Treaty and related Recommendations under Article IX of the Antarctic Treaty.

    2. Each Party shall send copies of its waste management plans, and reports on their implementation and review, to the Committee.

    3. The Committee may review waste management plans and reports thereon and may offer comments, including suggestions for minimising impacts and modifications and improvement to the plans, for the consideration of the Parties.

    4. The Parties may exchange information and provide advice on, inter alia, available low waste technologies, reconversion of existing installations, special requirements for effluents, and appropriate disposal and discharge methods.

    Article 10

    Management Plans

    Each Party shall:

    (a) designate a waste management official to develop and monitor waste management plans; in the field, this responsibility shall be delegated to an appropriate person at each site;

    (b) ensure that members of its expeditions receive training designed to limit the impact of its operations on the Antarctic environment and to inform them of requirements of this Annex; and

    (c) discourage the use of poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) products and ensure that its expeditions to the Antarctic Treaty are advised of any PVC products they may introduce into that area in order that these products may be removed subsequently in accordance with this Annex.

    Article 11

    Review

    This Annex shall be subject to regular review in order to ensure that it is updated to reflect improvement in waste disposal technology and procedures and to ensure thereby maximum protection of the Antarctic environment.

    Article 12

    Cases of Emergency

    1. This Annex shall not apply in cases of emergency relating to the safety of human life or of ships, aircraft or equipment and facilities of high value or the protection of the environment.

    2. Notice of activities undertaken in cases of emergency shall be circulated immediately to all Parties and to the Committee.

    Article 13

    Amendment or Modification

    1. This Annex may be amended or modified by a measure adopted in accordance with Article IX (1) of the Antarctic Treaty. Unless the measure specifies otherwise, the amendment or modification shall be deemed to have been approved, and shall become effective, one year after the close of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at which it was adopted, unless one or more of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties notifies the Depositary, within that time period, that it wishes an extension of that period or that it is unable to approve the amendment.

    2. Any amendment or modification of this Annex which becomes effective in accordance with paragraph 1 above shall thereafter become effective as to any other Party when notice of approval by it has been received by the Depositary.

    ANNEX IV

    TO THE PROTOCOL ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TO THE ANTARCTIC TREATY

    PREVENTION OF MARINE POLLUTION

    Article 1

    Definitions

    For the purposes of this Annex:

    (a) “discharge” means any release howsoever caused from a ship and includes any escape, disposal, spilling, leaking, pumping, emitting or emptying;

    (b) “garbage” means all kinds of victual, domestic and operational waste excluding fresh fish and parts thereof, generated during the normal operation of the ship, except those substances which are covered by Articles 3 and 4;

    (c) “MARPOL 73/78” means the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as amended by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto and by any other amendment in force thereafter;

    (d) “noxious liquid substance” means any noxious liquid substance as defined in Annex II of MARPOL 73/78;

    (e) “oil” means petroleum in any form including crude oil, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse and refined oil products (other than petrochemicals which are subject to the provisions of Article 4);

    (f) “oily mixture” means a mixture with any oil content; and

    (g) “ship” means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in the marine environment and includes hydrofoil boats, air-cushion vehicles, submersibles, floating craft and fixed or floating platforms.

    Article 2

    Application

    This Annex applies, with respect to each Party, to ships entitled to fly its flag and to any other ship engaged in or supporting its Antarctic operations, while operating in the Antarctic Treaty area.

    Article 3

    Discharge of Oil

    1. Any discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture shall be prohibited, except in cases permitted under Annex I of MARPOL 73/78. While operating in the Antarctic Treaty area, ships shall retain on board all sludge, dirty ballast, tank washing waters and other oily residues and mixtures which may not be discharged into the sea. Ships shall discharge these residues only outside the Antarctic Treaty area, at reception facilities or as otherwise permitted under Annex I of MARPOL 73/78.

    2. This Article shall not apply to:

    (a) the discharge into the sea of oil or oily mixture resulting from damage to a ship or its equipment:

    (i) provided that all reasonable precautions have been taken after the occurrence of the damage or discovery of the discharge for the purpose of preventing or minimising the discharge; and

    (ii) except if the owner or the Master acted either with intent to cause damage, or recklessly and with the knowledge that damage would probably result; or

    (b) the discharge into the sea of substances containing oil which are being used for the purpose of combating specific pollution incidents in order to minimise the damage from pollution.

    Article 4

    Discharge of Noxious Liquid Substances

    The discharge into the sea of any noxious liquid substance, and any other chemical or other substances, in quantities or concentrations that are harmful to the marine environment, shall be prohibited.

    Article 5

    Disposal of Garbage

    1. The disposal into the sea of all plastics, including but not limited to synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets, and plastic garbage bags, shall be prohibited.

    2. The disposal into the sea of all other garbage, including paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery, incineration ash, dunnage, lining and packing materials, shall be prohibited.

    3. The disposal into the sea of food wastes may be permitted when they have been passed through a comminuter or grinder, provided that such disposal shall, except in cases permitted under Annex V of MARPOL 73/78, be made as far as practicable from land and ice shelves but in any case not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land or ice shelf. Such comminuted or ground food wastes shall be capable of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25 millimeters.

    4. When a substance or material covered by this Article is mixed with other such substance or material for discharge or disposal, having different disposal or discharge requirements, the most stringent disposal or discharge requirements shall apply.

    5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 above shall not apply to:

    (a) the escape of garbage resulting from damage to a ship or its equipment provided all reasonable precautions have been taken, before and after the occurrence of the damage, for the purpose of preventing or minimising the escape; or

    (b) the accidental loss of synthetic fishing nets, provided all reasonable precautions have been taken to prevent such loss.

    6. The Parties shall, where appropriate, require the use of garbage record books.

    Article 6

    Discharge of Sewage

    1. Except where it would unduly impair Antarctic operations:

    (a) each Party shall eliminate all discharge into the sea of untreated sewage (“sewage” being defined in Annex IV of MARPOL 73/78) within 12 nautical miles of land or ice shelves;

    (b) beyond such distance, sewage stored in a holding tank shall not be discharged instantaneously but at a moderate rate and, where practicable, while the ship is en route at a speed of no less than 4 knots.

    This paragraph does not apply to ships certified to carry not more than 10 persons.

    2. The Parties shall, where appropriate, require the use of sewage record books.

    Article 7

    Cases of Emergency

    1. Articles 3, 4, 5 and 6 of this Annex shall not apply in cases of emergency relating to the safety of a ship and those on board or saving life at sea.

    2. Notice of activities undertaken in cases of emergency shall be circulated immediately to all Parties and to the Committee.

    Article 8

    Effect on Dependent and Associated Ecosystems

    In implementing the provisions of this Annex, due consideration shall be given to the need to avoid detrimental effects on dependent and associated ecosystems, outside the Antarctic Treaty area.

    Article 9

    Ship Retention Capacity and Reception Facilities

    1. Each Party shall undertake to ensure that all ships entitled to fly its flag and any other ship engaged in or supporting its Antarctic operations, before entering the Antarctic Treaty area, are fitted with a tank or tanks of sufficient capacity on board for the retention of all sludge, dirty ballast, tank washing water and other oily residues and mixtures, and have sufficient capacity on board for the retention of garbage, while operating in the Antarctic Treaty area and have concluded arrangements to discharge such oily residues and garbage at a reception facility after leaving that area. Ships shall also have sufficient capacity on board for the retention of noxious liquid substances.

    2. Each Party at whose ports ships depart en route to or arrive from the Antarctic Treaty area undertakes to ensure that as soon as practicable adequate facilities are provided for the reception of all sludge, dirty ballast, tank washing water, other oily residues and mixtures, and garbage from ships, without causing undue delay, and according to the needs of the ships using them.

    3. Parties operating ships which depart to or arrive from the Antarctic Treaty area at ports of other Parties shall consult with those Parties with a view to ensuring that the establishment of port reception facilities does not place an inequitable burden on Parties adjacent to the Antarctic Treaty area.

    Article 10

    Design, Construction, Manning and Equipment of Ships

    In the design, construction, manning and equipment of ships engaged in or supporting Antarctic operations, each Party shall take into account the objectives of this Annex.

    Article 11

    Sovereign Immunity

    1. This Annex shall not apply to any warship, naval auxiliary or other ship owned or operated by a State and used, for the time being, only on government non-commercial service. However, each Party shall ensure by the adoption of appropriate measures not impairing the operations or operational capabilities of such ships owned or operated by it, that such ships act in a manner consistent, so far as is reasonable and practicable, with this Annex.

    2. In applying paragraph 1 above, each Party shall take into account the importance of protecting the Antarctic environment.

    3. Each Party shall inform the other Parties of how it implements this provision.

    4. The dispute settlement procedure set out in Articles 18 to 20 of the Protocol shall not apply to this Article.

    Article 12

    Preventive Measures and Emergency Preparedness and Response

    1. In order to respond more effectively to marine pollution emergencies or the threat thereof in the Antarctic Treaty area, the Parties, in accordance with Article 15 of the Protocol, shall develop contingency plans for marine pollution response in the Antarctic Treaty area, including contingency plans for ships (other than small boats that are part of the operations of fixed sites or of ships) operating in the Antarctic Treaty area, particularly ships carrying oil as cargo, and for oil spills, originating from coastal installations, which enter into the marine environment. To this end they shall:

    (a) co-operate in the formulation and implementation of such plans; and

    (b) draw on the advice of the Committee, the International Maritime Organization and other international organizations.

    2. The Parties shall also establish procedures for cooperative response to pollution emergencies and shall take appropriate response actions in accordance with such procedures.

    Article 13

    Review

    The Parties shall keep under continuous review the provisions of this Annex and other measures to prevent, reduce and respond to pollution of the Antarctic marine environment, including any amendments and new regulations adopted under MARPOL 73/78, with a view to achieving the objectives of this Annex.

    Article 14

    Relationship with MARPOL 73/78

    With respect to those Parties which are also Parties to MARPOL 73/78, nothing in this Annex shall derogate from the specific rights and obligations thereunder.

    Article 15

    Amendment or Modification

    1. This Annex may be amended or modified by a measure adopted in accordance with Article IX (1) of the Antarctic Treaty. Unless the measure specifies otherwise, the amendment or modification shall be deemed to have been approved, and shall become effective, one year after the close of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at which it was adopted, unless one or more of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties notifies the Depositary, within that time period, that it wishes an extension of that period or that it is unable to approve the measure.

    2. Any amendment or modification of this Annex which becomes effective in accordance with paragraph 1 above shall thereafter become effective as to any other Party when notice of approval by it has been received by the Depositary.

    ANNEX V

    TO THE PROTOCOL ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TO THE ANTARCTIC TREATY

    AREA PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT

    Article 1

    Definitions

    For the purposes of this Annex:

    (a) “appropriate authority” means any person or agency authorised by a Party to issue permits under this Annex;

    (b) “permit” means a formal permission in writing issued by an appropriate authority;

    (c) “Management Plan” means a plan to manage the activities and protect the special value or values in an Antarctic Specially Protected Area or an Antarctic Specially Managed Area.

    Article 2

    Objectives

    For the purposes set out in this Annex, any area, including any marine area, may be designated as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area or an Antarctic Specially Managed Area. Activities in those Areas shall be prohibited, restricted or managed in accordance with Management Plans adopted under the provisions of this Annex.

    Article 3

    Antarctic Specially Protected Areas

    1. Any area, including any marine area, may be designated as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area to protect outstanding environmental, scientific, historic, aesthetic or wilderness values, any combination of those values, or ongoing or planned scientific research.

    2. Parties shall seek to identify, within a systematic environmental-geographical framework, and to include in the series of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas:

    (a) areas kept inviolate from human interference so that future comparisons may be possible with localities that have been affected by human activities;

    (b) representative examples of major terrestrial, including glacial and aquatic, ecosystems and marine ecosystems;

    (c) areas with important or unusual assemblages of species, including major colonies of breeding native birds or mammals;

    (d) the type locality or only known habitat of any species;

    (e) areas of particular interest to ongoing or planned scientific research;

    (f) examples of outstanding geological, glaciological or geomorphological features;

    (g) areas of outstanding aesthetic and wilderness value;

    (h) sites or monuments of recognised historic value; and

    (i) such other areas as may be appropriate to protect the values set out in paragraph 1 above.

    3. Specially Protected Areas and Sites of Special Scientific Interest designated as such by past Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings are hereby designated as Antarctic Specially Protected Areas and shall be renamed and renumbered accordingly.

    4. Entry into an Antarctic Specially Protected Area shall be prohibited except in accordance with a permit issued under Article 7.

    Article 4

    Antarctic Specially Managed Areas

    1. Any area, including any marine area, where activities are being conducted or may in the future be conducted, may be designated as an Antarctic Specially Managed Area to assist in the planning and co-ordination of activities, avoid possible conflicts, improve cooperation between Parties or minimise environmental impacts.

    2. Antarctic Specially Managed Areas may include:

    (a) areas where activities pose risks of mutual interference or cumulative environmental impacts; and

    (b) sites or monuments of recognised historic value.

    3. Entry into an Antarctic Specially Managed Area shall not require a permit.

    4. Notwithstanding paragraph 3 above, an Antarctic Specially Managed Area may contain one or more Antarctic Specially Protected Areas, entry into which shall be prohibited except in accordance with a permit issued under Article 7.

    Article 5

    Management Plans

    1. Any Party, the Committee, the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research or the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources may propose an area for designation as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area or an Antarctic Specially Managed Area by submitting a proposed Management Plan to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting.

    2. The area proposed for designation shall be of sufficient size to protect the values for which the special protection or management is required.

    3. Proposed Management Plans shall include, as appropriate:

    (a) a description of the value or values for which special protection or management is required;

    (b) a statement of the aims and objectives of the Management Plan for the protection or management of those values;

    (c) management activities which are to be undertaken to protect the values for which special protection or management is required;

    (d) a period of designation, if any;

    (e) a description of the area, including:

    (i) the geographical co-ordinates, boundary markers and natural features that delineate the area;

    (ii) access to the area by land, sea or air including marine approaches and anchorages, pedestrian and vehicular routes within the area, and aircraft routes and landing areas;

    (iii) the location of structures, including scientific stations, research or refuge facilities, both within the area and near to it; and

    (iv) the location in or near the area of other Antarctic Specially Protected Areas or Antarctic Specially Managed Areas designated under this Annex, or other protected areas designated in accordance with measures adopted under other components of the Antarctic Treaty system;

    (f) the identification of zones within the area, in which activities are to be prohibited, restricted or managed for the purpose of achieving the aims and objectives referred to in subparagraph (b) above;

    (g) maps and photographs that show clearly the boundary of the area in relation to surrounding features and key features within the area;

    (h) supporting documentation;

    (i) in respect of an area proposed for designation as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area, a clear description of the conditions under which permits may be granted by the appropriate authority regarding:

    (i) access to and movement within or over the area;

    (ii) activities which are or may be conducted within the area, including restrictions on time and place;

    (iii) the installation, modification, or removal of structures;

    (iv) the location of field camps;

    (v) restrictions on materials and organisms which may be brought into the area;

    (vi) the taking of or harmful interference with native flora and fauna;

    (vii) the collection or removal of anything not brought into the area by the permit-holder;

    (viii) the disposal of waste;

    (ix) measures that may be necessary to ensure that the aims and objectives of the Management Plan can continue to be met; and

    (x) requirements for reports to be made to the appropriate authority regarding visits to the area;

    (j) in respect of an area proposed for designation as an Antarctic Specially Managed Area, a code of conduct regarding:

    (i) access to and movement within or over the area;

    (ii) activities which are or may be conducted within the area, including restrictions on time and place;

    (iii) the installation, modification, or removal of structures;

    (iv) the location of field camps;

    (v) the taking of or harmful interference with native flora and fauna;

    (vi) the collection or removal of anything not brought into the area by the visitor;

    (vii) the disposal of waste; and

    (viii) any requirements for reports to be made to the appropriate authority regarding visits to the area; and

    (k) provisions relating to the circumstances in which Parties should seek to exchange information in advance of activities which they propose to conduct.

    Article 6

    Designation Procedures

    1. Proposed Management Plans shall be forwarded to the Committee, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research and, as appropriate, to the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. In formulating its advice to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, the Committee shall take into account any comments provided by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research and, as appropriate, by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. Thereafter Management Plans may be approved by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties by a measure adopted at an Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting in accordance with Article IX(1) of the Antarctic Treaty. Unless the measure specifies otherwise, the Plan shall be deemed to have been approved 90 days after the close of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at which it was adopted, unless one or more of the Consultative Parties notifies the Depositary, within that time period, that it wishes an extension of that period or is unable to approve the measure.

    2. Having regard to the provisions of Articles 4 and 5 of the Protocol, no marine area shall be designated as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area or an Antarctic Specially Managed Area without the prior approval of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources.

    3. Designation of an Antarctic Specially Protected Area or an Antarctic Specially Managed Area shall be for an indefinite period unless the Management Plan provides otherwise. A review of a Management Plan shall be initiated at least every five years. The Plan shall be updated as necessary.

    4. Management Plans may be amended or revoked in accordance with paragraph 1 above.

    5. Upon approval Management Plans shall be circulated promptly by the Depositary to all Parties. The Depositary shall maintain a record of all currently approved Management Plans.

    Article 7

    Permits

    1. Each Party shall appoint an appropriate authority to issue permits to enter and engage in activities within an Antarctic Specially Protected Area in accordance with the requirements of the Management Plan relating to that Area. The permit shall be accompanied by the relevant sections of the Management Plan and shall specify the extent and location of the Area, the authorised activities and when, where and by whom the activities are authorised and any other conditions imposed by the Management Plan.

    2. In the case of a Specially Protected Area designated as such by past Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings which does not have a Management Plan, the appropriate authority may issue a permit for a compelling scientific purpose which cannot be served elsewhere and which will not jeopardise the natural ecological system in that Area.

    3. Each Party shall require a permit-holder to carry a copy of the permit while in the Antarctic Specially Protected Area concerned.

    Article 8

    Historic Sites and Monuments

    1. Sites or monuments of recognised historic value which have been designated as Antarctic Specially Protected Areas or Antarctic Specially Managed Areas, or which are located within such Areas, shall be listed as Historic Sites and Monuments.

    2. Any Party may propose a site or monument of recognised historic value which has not been designated as an Antarctic Specially Protected Area or an Antarctic Specially Managed Area, or which is not located within such an Area, for listing as a Historic Site or Monument. The proposal for listing may be approved by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties by a measure adopted at an Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting in accordance with Article IX (1) of the Antarctic Treaty. Unless the measure specifies otherwise, the proposal shall be deemed to have been approved 90 days after the close of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at which it was adopted, unless one or more of the Consultative Parties notifies the Depositary, within that time period, that it wishes an extension of that period or is unable to approve the measure.

    3. Existing Historic Sites and Monuments which have been listed as such by previous Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings shall be included in the list of Historic Sites and Monuments under this Article.

    4. Listed Historic Sites and Monuments shall not be damaged, removed or destroyed.

    5. The list of Historic Sites and Monuments may be amended in accordance with paragraph 2 above. The Depositary shall maintain a list of current Historic Sites and Monuments.

    Article 9

    Information and Publicity

    1. With a view to ensuring that all persons visiting or proposing to visit Antarctica understand and observe the provisions of this Annex, each Party shall make available information setting forth, in particular:

    (a) the location of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas and Antarctic Specially Managed Areas;

    (b) listing and maps of those Areas;

    (c) the Management Plans, including listings of prohibitions relevant to each Area;

    (d) the location of Historic Sites and Monuments and any relevant prohibition or restriction.

    2. Each Party shall ensure that the location and, if possible, the limits, of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas, Antarctic Specially Managed Areas and Historic Sites and Monuments are shown on its topographic maps, hydrographic charts and in other relevant publications.

    3. Parties shall co-operate to ensure that, where appropriate, the boundaries of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas, Antarctic Specially Managed Areas and Historic Sites and Monuments are suitably marked on the site.

    Article 10

    Exchange of Information

    1. The Parties shall make arrangements for:

    (a) collecting and exchanging records, including records of permits and reports of visits, including inspection visits, to Antarctic Specially Protected Areas and reports of inspection visits to Antarctic Specially Managed Areas;

    (b) obtaining and exchanging information on any significant change or damage to any Antarctic Specially Managed Area, Antarctic Specially Protected Area or Historic Site or Monument; and

    (c) establishing common forms in which records and information shall be submitted by Parties in accordance with paragraph 2 below.

    2. Each Party shall inform the other Parties and the Committee before the end of November of each year of the number and nature of permits issued under this Annex in the preceding period of 1st July to 30th June.

    3. Each Party conducting, funding or authorising research or other activities in Antarctic Specially Protected Areas or Antarctic Specially Managed Areas shall maintain a record of such activities and in the annual exchange of information in accordance with the Antarctic Treaty shall provide summary descriptions of the activities conducted by persons subject to its jurisdiction in such areas in the preceding year.

    4. Each Party shall inform the other Parties and the Committee before the end of November each year of measures it has taken to implement this Annex, including any site inspections and any steps it has taken to address instances of activities in contravention of the provisions of the approved Management Plan for an Antarctic Specially Protected Area or Antarctic Specially Managed Area.

    Article 11

    Cases of Emergency

    1. The restrictions laid down and authorised by this Annex shall not apply in cases of emergency involving safety of human life or of ships, aircraft, or equipment and facilities of high value or the protection of the environment.

    2. Notice of activities undertaken in cases of emergency shall be circulated immediately to all Parties and to the Committee.

    Article 12

    Amendment or Modification

    1. This Annex may be amended or modified by a measure adopted in accordance with Article IX (1) of the Antarctic Treaty. Unless the measure specifies otherwise, the amendment or modification shall be deemed to have been approved, and shall become effective, one year after the close of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at which it was adopted, unless one or more of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties notifies the Depositary, within that time period, that it wishes an extension of that period or that it is unable to approve the measure.

    2. Any amendment or modification of this Annex which becomes effective in accordance with paragraph 1 above shall thereafter become effective as to any other Party when notice of approval by it has been received by the Depositary.

    ———

    關於環境保護的南極條約議定書

    序言

    本南極條約議定書各締約國,以下簡稱各締約國,

    深信有必要加強對南極環境及依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統的保護;

    確信有必要加強南極條約體系以確保南極應繼續並永遠專為和平目的而使用,不應成為國際紛爭的場所或對象;

    牢記南極特殊的法律地位與政治地位以及各南極條約協商國保證使在南極的一切活動符合南極條約的宗旨與原則的特殊責任;

    憶及為了保護南極環境及依附於它和與其相關的生態系統,將南極確定為特別保護區以及根據南極條約體系所採取的其他措施;

    進一步確認南極給科學監測與研究具有全球重要性與區域重要性的演變進程所提供的獨特機會;

    重申南極海洋生物資源保護公約的保護原則;

    深信制訂一個保護南極環境及依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統的綜合制度是符合全人類利益的;

    希望為此目的補充南極條約;

    兹協議如下:

    第一條

    定義

    為本議定書的目的:

    (a)“南極條約”係指1959年12月1日訂於華盛頓的南極條約;

    (b)“南極條約地區”係指根據南極條約第六條南極條約各項規定所適用的地區;

    (c)“南極條約協商會議”係指南極條約第九條所指的會議;

    (d)“南極條約協商國”係指有權委派代表參加南極條約第九條所指的會議的締約國;

    (e)“南極條約體系”係指南極條約、根據南極條約實施的措施和與條約相關的單獨有效的國際文書和根據此類文書實施的措施;

    (f)“仲裁法庭”係指根據作為本議定書組成部分的議定書附則而設立的仲裁法庭;

    (g)“委員會”係指根據第十一條設立的環境保護委員會。

    第二條

    目標與指定

    各締約國承諾全面保護南極環境及依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統,特兹將南極指定為自然保護區,僅用於和平與科學。

    第三條

    環境原則

    1. 對南極環境及依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統的保護以及南極的內在價值,包括其荒野形態的價值、美學價值和南極作為從事科學研究,特別是從事認識全球環境所必需的研究的一個地區的價值應成為規劃和從事南極條約區一切活動時基本的考慮因素。

    2. 為此目的:

    (a)規劃和從事在南極條約地區的活動應旨在限制對南極環境及依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統的不利影響;

    (b)規劃和從事在南極條約地區的活動應避免:

    (I)對氣候或天氣類型的不利影響;

    (II)對空氣質地或水質的重大不良影響;

    (III)對大氣環境、陸地環境(包括水中環境)、冰環境或海洋環境的重大改變;

    (IV)對動植物物種或種群的分佈、豐度或繁殖的有害改變;

    (V)對瀕危或受到威脅的動植物種或其種群的進一步危害;或

    (VI)使具有生物、科學、歷史、美學或荒野意義的區域減損價值或面臨重大的危險;

    (c)在南極條約地區的活動應根據充分信息來規劃和進行,其充分程度應足以就該活動對南極環境及依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統以及對南極用來從事科學研究的價值可能產生的影響作出預先評價和有根據的判定。此種判定應充分考慮:

    (I)該活動的範圍,包括活動的地區、期限和強度;

    (II)該活動本身的累積影響和與在南極條約地區的其他活動一起產生的累積影響;

    (III)該活動是否會對在南極條約地區的其他活動產生不利影響;

    (IV)是否具備在環境方面安全作業的技術和程序;

    (V)是否具備監測關鍵環境參數和生態系統各組成部份的能力,以確定該活動的任何不良影響並就此提出早期預報,並且根據監測結果或對南極環境或依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統的進一步了解對作業程序進行必要的改進;並

    (VI)是否具備對事故特別是對具有潛在環境影響的事故作出迅速有效反應的能力;

    (d)應進行定期有效的監測,以便對正在從事的活動的影響,包括對預計產生的影響進行的核查作出評價;

    (e)應進行定期有效的監測,以便有利於早期檢測出在南極條約地區內外從事的活動對南極環境及依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統所可能產生的無法預見的影響。

    3. 在南極條約地區規劃和從事活動時,應優先考慮科學研究並且維護南極作為從事此類研究包括認識全球環境所必需的研究的一個地區的價值。

    4. 根據科學研究計劃在南極條約地區從事的活動、在南極條約地區的旅遊及一切其他政府性和非政府性活動,根據南極條約第七條第5款均須事先通知;上述一切活動包括相關的後勤支援:

    (a)均應遵守本條的各項原則;並且

    (b)如果違背上述各項原則,對南極環境或依附於它或與其相關的生態系統產生或者可能產生影響,均應予以修改、中止或取消。

    第四條

    與南極條約體系其他組成部分的關係

    1. 本議定書是對南極條約的補充,既不是對南極條約的修改也不是對該條約的修正。

    2. 本議定書任何條款都不應損害本議定書各締約國根據南極條約體系內其他有效的國際文書所承擔的權利和義務。

    第五條

    與南極條約體系其他組成部分的一致性

    各締約國應與南極條約體系內其他有效的國際文書的各締約國及各相應的機構協商並合作以保證本議定書各項目標和原則的實現,避免對實現這些國際文書各項目標與原則的任何干擾或者執行這些國際文書與執行本議定書之間的不一致性。

    第六條

    合作

    1. 各締約國在規劃和從事南極條約地區活動時應進行合作。為此目的,各締約國應努力:

    (a)促進具有科學、技術和教育價值的關於保護南極環境及依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統的合作性項目;

    (b)在其他締約國準備環境影響評價時向其提供適當的協助;

    (c)根據請求向其他締約國提供有關潛在環境危險的信息並提供協助,以最大程度地減少可能破壞南極環境或依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統的事故的影響;

    (d)與其他締約國就未來的南極站或其他設施的選址進行協商,以避免因過於集中在一個地方而造成累積性影響;

    (e)在適當的時候共同進行考察,共同使用南極站和其他設施;並且

    (f)執行南極條約協商會議一致同意的其他此類步驟。

    2. 各締約國保證儘最大可能共同享有可能有助於其他締約國在南極條約地區規劃和從事活動的信息以便保護南極環境及依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統。

    3. 各締約國應與可在南極條約地區的毗連區域行使管轄權的締約國進行合作,以保證在南極的活動不會對那些地區產生不良的環境影響。

    第七條

    禁止礦產資源活動

    任何有關礦產資源的活動都應予以禁止,但與科學研究有關的活動不在此限。

    第八條

    環境影響評價

    1. 下列第2款所涉及的擬議中的活動應在依照附件一所確定的就該活動對南極環境或依附於它的或與其相關的生態系統的影響進行預先評價的程序並根據此類活動是否確定為具有下列幾種影響來進行:

    (a)小於輕微或短暫的影響;或

    (b)輕微或短暫的影響;或

    (c)大於輕微或短暫的影響。

    2. 各締約國應保證在規劃階段實行附件一所確定的評價程序,以便根據南極條約第七條第5款需事先通知的並且就依據科學研究計劃在南極條約地區所從事的任何活動:在南極條約地區的旅遊及一切其他政府性和非政府性活動,包括與此相關的後勤支援活動作出決定。

    3. 附件一確定的評價程序應適用於一項活動的任何變化而不論該變化是起因於現有活動強度的增加或減少還是起因於活動的增加,設施的拆除或者其他方面的原因。

    4. 凡活動是由一個以上締約國共同規劃的,有關締約國應提名其中一國來協調執行附件一確定的環境影響評價程序。

    第九條

    附件

    1. 本議定書各附件均應構成本議定書的組成部分。

    2. 除附件一至附件四之外,各項附件得根據南極條約第九條的規定予以通過和生效。

    3. 各附件的修正和修改可根據南極條約第九條予以通過和生效,但是以任何附件本身可對修正和修改的便捷生效作出規定為限。

    4. 除非附件本身對其任何修正和修改的生效另有規定,各附件及其根據上述第2款和第3款已經生效的任何修正和修改應自保存國收到非南極條約協商國的南極條約締約國或在附件及其修正和修改通過之時尚未成為南極條約協商國的南極條約締約國的核准書之時起對該締約國生效。

    5. 除非附件另有規定,各附件應遵循第十八條至第二十條所規定的爭端解決程序。

    第十條

    南極條約協商會議

    1. 南極條約協商會議,應吸取現有的最佳科學和技術建議:

    (a)根據本議定書的規定,確定全面保護南極環境及依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統的總政策;並且

    (b)根據南極條約第九條制定執行本議定書措施。

    2. 南極條約協商會議應審查委員會的工作情況並且在執行上述第1款所指的任務時應充分吸取該委員會的意見和建議以及南極研究科學委員會的建議。

    第十一條

    環境保護委員會

    1. 兹設立環境保護委員會。

    2. 各締約國都有權成為委員會成員並任命1名代表,該代表可輔以若干專家和顧問。

    3. 委員會的觀察員地位應對任何不是本議定書締約國的南極條約締約國開放。

    4. 委員會應邀請南極研究科學委員會主席和保護南極海洋生物資源科學委員會主席作為觀察員參加委員會會議。經南極條約協商會議的同意委員會亦可邀請能夠對其工作作出貢獻的其他有關的科學、環境和技術組織作為觀察員與會。

    5. 委員會應向南極條約協商會議提交其每次會議的報告。報告應包括會議審議的所有問題並反映所表達的觀點。報告應分送與會的各締約國和觀察員並隨即公開。

    6. 委員會應制定其議事規則。該議事規則應經南極條約協商會議的批准。

    第十二條

    委員會的職能

    1. 委員會的職能應是就本議定書的執行包括議定書附件的實施向各締約國提供諮詢和建議,以供南極條約協商會議審議;並執行南極條約協商會議可能指派的其他職能。委員會應特別就下列事項提供諮詢:

    (a)依照本議定書採取的措施的有效性;

    (b)更新、加強或改進此類措施的必要性;

    (c)採取補充措施的必要性,包括於適當時制定補充附件的必要性;

    (d)第八條和附件一規定的環境影響評價程序的適用和實施;

    (e)減少或減輕在南極條約地區的各類活動造成環境影響的辦法;

    (f)處理需採取緊急行動的情勢的程序,包括在環境緊急事態下採取反應行動的程序;

    (g)南極條約保護區制度的運行和進一步說明;

    (h)視察程序,包括視察報告的格式和視察的項目清單;

    (i)有關環境保護的信息的收集、存檔、交換和評價;

    (j)南極環境狀況;並

    (k)開展與實施本議定書有關的科學研究包括環境監測的必要性。

    2. 委員會在履行其職能時應於適當時諮詢南極研究科學委員會、保護南極海洋生物資源科學委員會和其他有關的科學、環境和技術組織。

    第十三條

    遵守本議定書

    1. 各締約國應在其權限內採取適當的措施,包括採取法律和法規,採取適當的行政行動和執行措施,以便保證遵守本議定書。

    2. 各締約國應作出符合聯合國憲章的適當努力以使任何人不得從事違反本議定書的活動。

    3. 各締約國應將其依據上述第1和第2款採取的措施通知所有其他締約國。

    4. 各締約國應就其認為影響本議定書目標與原則實施的任何活動提請所有其他締約國注意。

    5. 南極條約協商會議應提請任何非本議定書締約國的國家注意該國、其機構、部門、自然人或法人、船隻、飛行器或其他運輸工具所進行的任何影響本議定書目標與原則的實施的活動。

    第十四條

    視察

    1. 為促進對南極環境和依附於它的及與其相關的生態系統的保護並保證本議定書的遵守,各南極條約協商國應單獨或集體安排根據南極條約第七條進行的觀察員的視察。

    2. 觀察員係指:

    (a)由任何南極條約協商國指派的觀察員,他應為該協商國的國民;和

    (b)為進行依照南極條約協商會議確定的程序的視察而在南極條約協商會議上指派的任何觀察員。

    3. 各締約國應與進行視察的觀察員充分合作,並應保證觀察員在視察期間可視察依南極條約第七條第3款向視察開放的站所、設施、設備、船舶和飛行器的全部以及依據本議定書在這些場所存放的所有記錄。

    4. 視察報告應送交該報告涉及其站所、設施、設備、船舶或飛行器的各締約國。在這些締約國得到機會進行評論後,報告及對報告的任何評論應分送給所有締約國和委員會,由下屆南極條約協商會議予以審議並於其後公開。

    第十五條

    緊急反應行動

    1. 為了對南極條約地區內的環境緊急事態作出反應,各締約國同意:

    (a)對於根據南極條約第七條第5款的規定需事先通知的在南極條約區所從事的科學研究項目、旅遊及一切其他政府性和非政府性活動包括相關的後勤支援活動可能產生的緊急事態採取迅速有效的反應;並

    (b)制定對南極環境或依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統有潛在不利影響的事故作出反應的應急計劃。

    2. 為此目的,各締約國應:

    (a)在制定和實施此類應急計劃時進行合作;並

    (b)確定對於環境緊急事態進行即時通知和作出共同反應的程序。

    3. 各締約國在實施本條時,應徵求有關國際組織的意見。

    第十六條

    責任

    根據本議定書全面保護南極環境及依附於它的和與其相關的生態系統的目標,各締約國承諾制定關於在南極條約地區進行的並為本議定書所涉及的活動造成損害的責任的詳細規則與程序。此類規則與程序應包括在根據第九條第2款將要通過的一項或多項附件之中。

    第十七條

    締約國的年度報告

    1. 每一締約國每年應就為實施本議定書所採取的步驟提交報告。該報告應包括根據第十三條第3款所作的通知、根據第十五條制定的應急計劃和本議定書所要求的而又未對其分發和交換另作規定的任何其他通知和信息。

    2. 根據上述第1款所提交的報告應分送所有締約國和委員會,由下屆南極條約協商會議審議並予以公開。

    第十八條

    爭端解決

    如果發生關於本議定書的解釋或適用的爭端,該爭端各方經其中任何一方提出要求,應儘早彼此協商,以便通過談判、調查、調解、和解、仲裁、司法解決或爭端各方同意的其他和平方法解決該爭端。

    第十九條

    爭端解決程序的選擇

    1. 各締約國可於簽署、批准、接受、核准或加入本議定書時,或在其後任何時間,以書面聲明的方式選擇下列一種或兩種方法來解決關於本議定書第七、第八和第十五條及任何議定書的規定(除非該附件另有規定)以及第十三條(如其與上述條款和規定有關)的解釋或適用的爭端:

    (a)國際法院;

    (b)仲裁法庭。

    2. 依據上述第1款作出的聲明不得影響第十八條和第二十條第2款的實施。

    3. 未依據上述第1款作出聲明或其在這方面的聲明已失效的締約國,應被視為已接受仲裁法庭的管轄權。

    4. 如爭端各方接受了解決爭端的同一方法,除非各方另有協議,該爭端僅可提交該程序。

    5. 如爭端各方未接受解決爭端的同一方法,或它們都接受了解決爭端的兩種方法,則除非各方另有協議,該爭端僅可提交仲裁法庭。

    6.依據上述第1款作出的聲明在按照該聲明的規定期滿之前或在撤銷該聲明的書面通知交存於保存國後滿3個月之前,應一直有效。

    7. 新的聲明、撤銷聲明的通知或聲明的期滿均不得影響國際法院或仲裁法庭中尚未終結的訴訟程序,除非爭端各方另有協議。

    8. 本條所指的聲明和通知應交存保存國,保存國應將其副本分送所有締約國。

    第二十條

    爭端解決程序

    1. 如關於本議定書第七、第八或第十五條或者任何附件的規定(除非該附件另有規定)或第十三條(視其與上述條款和規定的相關程度)的解釋或適用的爭端各方未能在依照上述第十八條的協商要求提出後12個月內就解決爭端的方法達成協議,經爭端任何一方提出要求,該爭端應提交根據第十九條第4和第5款的規定的程序加以解決。

    2. 仲裁法庭無權裁決或裁定南極條約第四條範圍內的任何事項。此外,本議定書任何規定不得解釋為授予國際法院或其他為解決各締約國之間爭端而設立的任何法庭裁判或以其他方式裁定南極條約第四條範圍內任何事項的權限或管轄權。

    第二十一條

    簽字

    本議定書自1991年10月4日在馬德里此後至1992年10月3日在華盛頓向任何為南極條約締約國的國家開放簽字。

    第二十二條

    批准、接受、核准或加入

    1. 本議定書須經簽字國批准、接受或核准。

    2. 本議定書應於1992年10月3日後開放由任何為南極條約締約國的國家加入。

    3. 批准書、接受書、核准書或加入書應存放於美利堅合眾國政府。玆指定該國為保存國。

    4. 本議定書生效之日後,南極條約各協商國不得根據關於南極條約締約國有權依照南極條約第九條第2款委派代表參加南極條約協商會議的通知採取行動,除非該締約國已經批准、接受、核准或加入本議定書。

    第二十三條

    生效

    1. 本議定書應於所有在本議定書通過之日為南極條約協商國的國家交存批准書、接受書、核准書或加入書之日後第30天生效。

    2. 對於在本議定書生效之日後交存批准書、接受書、核准書或加入書的每一個南極條約締約國,本議定書應於交存後第30天生效。

    第二十四條

    保留

    對本議定書不得作出保留。

    第二十五條

    修改或修正

    1. 在不損害第九條規定的情況下,本議定書可在任何時候根據南極條約第十二條第1款(甲)項和(乙)項規定的程序予以修改或修正。

    2. 如從本議定書生效之日起滿50年後,任何一個南極條約協商國用書面通知保存國的方式提出請求,則應儘快舉行一次會議,以便審查本議定書的實施情況。

    3. 在依據上述第2款召開的任何審查會議上提出的修改或修正應由締約國多數通過,其中包括在本議定書通過之時為南極條約協商國的3/4國家的通過。

    4. 依據上述第3款通過的修改或修正應經3/4的南極條約協商國的批准、接受、核准、或加入其中包括在本議定書通過之時為南極條約協商國的所有國家的批准、接受、核准或加入而生效。

    5.(a)關於第七條,除非存在一項有效的並有法律拘束力的關於南極礦產資源活動的制度,且該制度包括一項議定辦法,用以判定任何此種活動可否接受;如果可以,則在何種條件下可予接受,否則該條規定的關於南極礦產資源活動的禁止應當繼續有效。這一制度應充分保證南極條約第四條所指的所有國家的利益並實施第四條中的各項原則。因此,如果在上述第2款所指的審查會議上提出對第七條修改或修正,該修改或修正應包括該項有法律拘束力的制度。

    (b)如果任何此類修改或修正在其通過之日後3年內尚未生效,任何締約國在此之後可隨時通知保存國退出本議定書,此種退出應在保存國收到該通知書兩年之後生效。

    第二十六條

    保存國的通知

    保存國應將下列事項通知所有南極條約締約國:

    (a)本議定書的簽署及批准書、接受書、核准書或加入書的交存;

    (b)本議定書及其任何附件的生效日期;

    (c)本議定書任何修改或修正的生效日期;

    (d)依照本議定書第十九條的聲明和通知的交存,並

    (e)依據第二十五條第5款(b)項所收到任何通知。

    第二十七條

    作準文本及向聯合國登記

    1. 本議定書用英文、法文、俄文和西班牙文寫成,每種文本具有同等效力。本議定書應交存於美利堅合眾國政府的檔案庫中。該政府應將正式核證無誤的副本分送所有南極條約締約國。

    2. 保存國根據聯合國憲章第一百零二條進行登記。

    議定書附則

    仲裁

    第一條

    1. 仲裁法庭應依照本議定書、包括本附則組成並工作。

    2. 本附則中的秘書是指常設仲裁法庭的秘書長。

    第二條

    1. 每一締約國應有權指定至多3名仲裁員,其中至少1名應在本議定書對該締約國生效後3個月內指定。每1名仲裁員均應對南極事務富有經驗,精通國際法並在公正、能力和品德方面享有最高聲譽。仲裁員名單應由這樣的提名構成。每一締約國應在任何時候在該名單中保持至少一名仲裁員的姓名。

    2. 除下述第3款另有規定,由締約國指定的仲裁員應在名單中保留5年,並可由該締約國重新指定,每次任期5年。

    3. 已指定仲裁員的締約國可從名單中撤銷該仲裁員的姓名。如仲裁員死亡或締約國由於任何原因從名單中撤銷其已指定的仲裁員的姓名,指定該仲裁員的締約國應立即通知秘書長。其姓名已從名單中撤銷的仲裁員,應繼續在其已被委派的任何仲裁法庭中工作,直至該法庭的仲裁程序終結。

    4. 秘書長應保證保持一份最新的依本條指定的仲裁員名單。

    第三條

    1. 仲裁法庭應由按下列方式委派的3名仲裁員組成:

    (a)提起仲裁程序的爭端一方應從第二條所指的名單中委派1名仲裁員,該仲裁員可以是其國民。這一委派應在第四條所指的通知中述明。

    (b)爭端另一方應在收到通知後40天內,從第二條所指的名單中委派第2名仲裁員,該仲裁員可以是其國民。

    (c)爭端各方應在第2名仲裁員委派後60天內以協議從第二條所指的名單中委派第3名仲裁員。第3名仲裁員不應是爭端任何一方的國民或為構成第二條所指的名單而指定的人員,也不應與前兩名仲裁員中的任何1名國籍相同。第3名仲裁員應為仲裁法庭庭長。

    (d)如第2名仲裁員在規定時間內未予委派,或爭端各方未在規定的時間內就第3名仲裁員的委派達成協議,經爭端任何一方請求,該仲裁員應由國際法院院長在收到該請求後30天內,從第二條所指的名單中委派,並應受上述(b)和(c)項規定條件的限制。法院院長在執行本項賦予的職能時,應同爭端各方協商。

    (e)如國際法院院長不能執行上述(d)項賦予的職能,或是爭端一方的國民,該職能應由法院副院長執行。但如法院副院長不能執行該項賦予的職能或是爭端一方的國民,該職能應由可以擔任此項工作並且不是爭端一方國民的法院年資次深法官執行。

    2. 任何空缺應按最初委派時規定的方式填補。

    3. 在涉及兩個以上當事方的爭端中,利害關係相同的爭端各方應在上述第1款(b)項規定的期間內以協議委派一名仲裁員。

    第四條

    提起仲裁程序的爭端一方應就此書面通知爭端的另一或若干當事方和秘書長。此類通知應就請求及其依據的理由作出說明。通知應由秘書長轉送所有締約國。

    第五條

    1. 除非爭端各方另有協議,仲裁應在海牙進行,仲裁法庭的記錄應保存在海牙。仲裁法庭應制定自己的仲裁程序規則。此類規則應保證每一爭端當事方有出庭陳述其意見和主張的充分機會,還應保證仲裁程序得以迅速進行。

    2. 仲裁法庭可就爭端引起的反訴進行仲裁並作出裁決。

    第六條

    1. 如仲裁法庭初步認定法庭依據本議定書具有管轄權,它可:

    (a)經爭端任何一方請求,指定其認為必要的臨時措施,以保護爭端各方各自的權利。

    (b)規定任何其認為在當時情況下適當的臨時措施,以防止對南極環境或依附於它的或與其相關的生態系統的嚴重危害。

    2. 在依據本附則第十條作出裁決之前,爭端各方應立即遵守依上述第1款(b)項規定的任何臨時措施。

    3. 儘管有本議定書第二十條關於期限的規定,爭端一方,可於任何時候,按照第四條通知爭端另一或若干當事方及秘書長,請求作為特別緊急事項組成仲裁法庭,以按照本條指定或規定緊急臨時措施。在此種情況下,仲裁法庭應按第三條儘快組成,除非第三條第1款(b)、(c)和(d)項規定的期限在每一種情況下均減至14天。仲裁法庭應在庭長委派後兩個月內就指定和規定緊急臨時措施的請求作出裁決。

    4. 在仲裁法庭按照上述第3款就指定或規定緊急臨時措施的請求作出裁決後,爭端解決程序應按議定書第十八、十九條和二十條的規定進行。

    第七條

    任何締約國如認為其有自身的法律利益,不論其為一般的或個別的,可能在實質上受到仲裁法庭裁決的影響,可以參與仲裁程序,除非仲裁法庭另有裁定。

    第八條

    爭端各方應便利仲裁法庭的工作,尤應按照其法律並運用其擁有的一切手段為法庭提供有關文件和信息,並使之能夠在必要時通知證人或專家出庭並獲取其證據。

    第九條

    如爭端一方未出席或未能進行答辯,任何其他爭端方可請求仲裁法庭繼續該仲裁程序並作出裁決。

    第十條

    1. 仲裁法庭應依本議定書的規定和其他可適用的不與本議定書的規定相抵觸的規則和國際法原則為依據,對提交給它的爭端進行裁決。

    2. 如爭端各方同意,仲裁法庭可依據公允及善良原則對提交給它的爭端進行裁決。

    第十一條

    1. 在作出裁決前,仲裁法庭應證明不但法庭對爭端有管轄權,且請求或反訴有充分的事實根據和法律根據。

    2. 裁決應述明裁決理由並應通知秘書長,秘書長應將裁決轉送所有締約國。

    3. 裁決係屬終局,對爭端所有各方及參與仲裁程序的任何當事方具有拘束力,並應予以立即執行。經爭端一方或任何仲裁參與方要求,仲裁法庭應就裁決作出解釋。

    4. 裁決除對本案外,應無拘束力。

    5. 除仲裁法庭另有裁定外,仲裁法庭的費用,包括仲裁員的報酬,應由爭端各方平等分攤。

    第十二條

    所有仲裁法庭的裁決,包括第五、第六和第十一條所指的裁決,應由仲裁員多數作出。仲裁員在表決時不得棄權。

    第十三條

    1. 本附則可依符合南極條約第九條1款規定的措施予以修正或修改。除非該措施另有規定,修正或修改應視為已獲通過,並應在通過修正或修改的南極條約協商會議結束1年以後生效,除非一個或一個以上南極條約協商國在此期限內,通知保存國,希望延長該期限或不能同意該措施。

    2. 符合本條1款規定生效的本附則的任何修正或修改,應自保存國收到任何其他締約國的核准通知書時起對其生效。

    附件一

    環境影響評價

    第一條

    初始階段

    1. 本議定書第八條所提及的擬議中的活動對環境的影響應在活動開始之前按照有關的國內程序加以考慮。

    2. 如果一項活動被確定具有小於輕微或短暫的影響;活動可立即進行。

    第二條

    初步環境評價

    1. 除非業已確定一項活動將具有小於輕微或短暫的影響,或除非按照第三條正在準備全面環境評價,應準備初步環境評價。該評價應包括充分的詳細情況以便評估一項擬議中的活動是否或可能具有大於輕微或短暫的影響,並還應包括:

    (a)對擬議中的活動的說明,包括對活動的目的、地點、期限和強度的說明;並

    (b)對擬議活動替代方法的考慮和該項活動可能具有的任何影響的考慮,包括根據現有的和已知的規劃活動對累積性影響的考慮。

    2. 如果初步環境評價報告表明一項擬議中的活動可能只有小於輕微或短暫影響,並且制定了可能包括監測在內的有關程序以評估與核查這項活動的影響,則該活動可以進行。

    第三條

    全面環境評價

    1. 如果初步環境評價表明或如果確定一項擬議中的活動行為很可能具有大於輕微或短暫的影響,則應準備全面環境評價。

    2. 全面環境評價應包括:

    (a)對擬議中的活動的說明,包括活動的目的、地點期限和強度以及該活動的可能替代方法,包括不開展該活動的替代方法與這些替代方法的後果。

    (b)對用於同預測變化相比較的初步環境參考狀態的說明以及對在沒有開展擬議活動的情況下未來環境參考狀態的預測。

    (c)對用來預測擬議中的活動的影響的方法和資料的說明;

    (d)對擬議中的活動可能產生的直接影響的性質、程度、期限及強度的估計;

    (e)對擬議中的活動可能產生的間接或第二層次的影響的考慮;

    (f)按照現有的活動和其他已知的規劃活動,對擬議中的活動累積影響的考慮;

    (g)對能夠最大程度地減少或減輕擬議中的活動的影響並監測未能預見的影響的措施的鑑定和對能就該活動的任何不利影響作出早期預報以及迅速有效地處理事故的措施,包括監測項目的鑑定;

    (h)對擬議中的活動不可避免的影響的鑑定;

    (i)對擬議中的活動對從事科學研究及其他現有用途和價值的影響的考慮;

    (j)對在認識方面和在按本款所要求的匯編信息時所出現的不確定性方面的缺陷的確定;

    (k)對本款所規定的情報的非技術性概括;

    (l)準備全面環境評價報告的人或組織的姓名和地址以及對報告的評論應送往的地址。

    3. 全面環境評價草案應予以公開並分送各締約國,各締約國亦應公開該草案以供評論。收到評論的期限應為90天。

    4. 全面環境評價草案應在分送給各締約國的同時,並於適當時,在下一屆南極條約協商會議之前120天遞交給委員會供其審議。

    5. 除非南極條約協商會議按照委員會的建議有機會審議全面環境評價草案,不得作出在南極條約地區進行擬議中的活動的決定,但進行擬議中的活動的決定,不得因本款的實施自全面環境評價草案分發之日起被推遲15個月以上為限。

    6. 最後全面環境評價應提及並包括或總結所收到的關於全面環境評價草案的評論。最後全面環境評價、有關評價決定的通知以及對有關擬議中的活動的益處的預測影響的任何評價應分送給各締約國;各締約國也應在開始南極條約地區從事擬議中的活動至少60天之前將其予以公開。

    第四條

    基於全面環境評價的決定

    任何有關適用第三條的擬議中的活動是否應進行,如果應進行是按照原來的還是經修改的方式進行的決定,應基於全面環境評價及其他有關的考慮作出。

    第五條

    監測

    1. 應建立包括監測關鍵環境參數的程序,以評估和核實按照全面環境影響評價完成之後所進行的任何活動的影響。

    2. 上述第1款和第二條第2款所提及的程序應旨在對該活動產生的影響提供定期的和可核實的記錄,即是:

    (a)能夠評價此類影響達到與本議定書相符合的程度;並且

    (b)提供益於減少或減輕影響的信息,在適當的情況下,提供需要中止、取消或更改該活動的信息。

    第六條

    信息與傳播

    1. 下列信息應分送給各締約國,遞交委員會並予以公開:

    (a)第一條提及的程序的說明;

    (b)按照第二條準備的初步環境評價的年度表和由此而作出的任何決定;

    (c)根據第二條第2款和第五條所制定的程序而獲得的重要情報和由此而採取的任何行動;

    (d)第三條第6款所涉及的信息;

    2. 按照第二條準備的任何初步環境評價須應要求予以提供。

    第七條

    緊急情況

    1. 本附件不應適用於有關人身或船舶、飛行器或具有較高價值的設施和設備的安全,或環境保護的緊急情況,這些情況無需完成本附件規定的程序即可進行活動。

    2. 在緊急情況下進行活動(該活動在正常情況下本應需要準備全面環境評價報告)的通知,應立即分送給各締約國和委員會,並且在開展該活動的90天之內提供1份關於開展該活動的詳細說明。

    第八條

    修正或修改

    1. 本附件可按照南極條約第九條第1款採取的措施予以修正或修改。除非該措施另有規定,修正或修改應視為已獲通過,並將在通過修正或修改的南極條約協商會議結束1年之後生效,除非一個或一個以上南極條約協商國在此期限內通知保存國希望延長這一期限或不能同意該措施。

    2. 按照上述第1款生效的本附件的任何修正或修改應在保存國收到任何其他締約國的核准通知書時對其生效。

    附件二

    保護動植物

    第一條

    定義

    為本附件目的:

    (a)“本地哺乳動物”係指屬於南極條約地區當地的或因自然移棲而季節性存在那裡的哺乳綱動物種類的任何成員。

    (b)“本地鳥類”係指在南極條約地區當地的或因自然移棲而季節性存在那裡的處於其生命週期(包括蛋卵階段)任何階段的鳥綱中任何種類的成員。

    (c)“本地植物”係指在南極條約地區當地的處於其生命週期任何階段(包括種子和其他繁殖體)的陸上的或淡水中的任何植物,包括苔蘚、地衣、真菌和藻類。

    (d)“本地無脊椎動物”係指在南極條約地區當地的處於其生命週期任何階段的陸上的或淡水中的任何無脊椎動物。

    (e)“主管當局”係指由締約國授權的根據本附件規定發放許可證的任何人或機構;

    (f)“許可證”係指由主管當局發放的正式的書面許可。

    (g)“獲取”係指殺害、傷害、捕捉、處置或騷擾當地哺乳動物或鳥類,或者指遷移或大量損害本地植物致使其分佈或豐度受到重大影響;

    (h)“有害的干擾”指:

    (1)直升飛機或其他航空器的飛行或者降落干擾了鳥類或海豹的聚集地;

    (2)車輛或船舶,包括氣墊船和小船的使用干擾鳥類及海豹的聚集地;

    (3)炸藥或火器干擾了鳥類和海豹的聚集地;

    (4)行人故意干擾正在孵化或換羽的鳥或鳥類和海豹的聚集地;

    (5)航空器降落、車輛駕駛或在本地陸地上行走或以其他方式對本地陸地植物造成重大損害;並

    (6)任何會使本地任何種類或種群的哺乳動物、鳥類、植物或無脊椎動物的棲息地受到重大不利改變的活動。

    (i)“國際捕鯨公約”係指1946年12月2日在華盛頓簽署的公約。

    第二條

    緊急情況

    1. 本附件不應適用於有關人身安全或者船舶、航空器或具有較高價值的設施和設備的安全或者環境保護的緊急情況。

    2. 在緊急情況下採取活動的通知應立即分送給所有締約國和委員會。

    第三條

    保護本地動植物

    1. 除非依照許可證的規定,應禁止獲取或有害的干擾。

    2. 此類許可證應指明已獲准的活動,包括何時,何地,何人從事該活動,並且只有在下列條件下才應予以發放:

    (a)為科學研究或科學信息提供標本;

    (b)為博物館、植物標本室、動物圖、植物園或其他教育或文化的機構或用途提供標本;並

    (c)為非依照上述(a)或(b)項沒有獲准的科學活動或建造和使用科學支援設施而產生的不可避免的後果作準備。

    3. 應限制發放此類許可證以保證:

    (a)不得捕獵哺乳動物、鳥類或採摘植物,除非急需要達到以上第二條規定的目的;

    (b)只能少量捕殺本地哺乳動物或鳥類並且在任何情況下捕殺的本地哺乳動物或鳥類的數量不得超過它們在下一個季節靠自然繁殖通常所能彌補的數量與其他允許捕獵的數量之和;並

    (c)在南極條約地區現存的物種的多樣性及其生存所必需的棲息地的多樣化和生態系統的平衡得到維護。

    4. 本附件附錄A列舉的本地哺乳動物、鳥類和植物的任何種類應被定為“特別保護物種”,並應得到締約國特殊保護。

    5. 不應對獲取特別保護物種發放許可證,除非該種獲得:

    (a)是為了緊急的科學目的;

    (b)不會危害物種或本地種群的生存或恢復;並

    (c)適當時使用非致死性技術。

    6. 對本地哺乳動物和鳥類的一切獲取應最大程度減少其痛苦程度。

    第四條

    非本地物種、寄生蟲和病害的引進

    1. 除非符合許可證的規定,不得把不屬於南極條約地區本地種類的動物或植物引進到南極條約地區的陸地或冰架或水域。

    2. 不得將狗帶入陸地或冰架,目前在這些區域內的狗應於1994年4月1日前予以移出。

    3. 發放以上第1款規定的許可證只允許引進本附件附錄B所列舉的動物和植物並應規定種類、數目,適當時,還應規定年齡、性別和為防止逃跑或接觸本地動植物所採取的預防措施。

    4. 按照以上第1款和第3款發放的許可證而引進的動植物應在許可證期滿之前移出南極條約地區,或焚化處理,或以能消除對本地動植物危害的同樣有效的方式進行處理。許可證上應規定這一義務。任何引進到南極條約地區且不屬於本地的其他植物或動物,包括其後代,應予以移出,或以焚化,或以同樣有效的方式進行處理使其不再繁殖,除非確定它們不會對本地的動植物造成任何危害。

    5. 本條的任何規定不適用於運進南極條約地區的食品,但不得為此目的引進活的動物,而且所有的植物和動物及其產品都要置於謹慎控制的條件下,並按照議定書附件三和本附件附錄C的規定加以處理。

    6. 每一締約國應要求採取預防措施,包括本附件附錄C列舉的措施,以防止引進不存在於本地動植物上的微生物(病毒、細菌、寄生蟲、酵母菌、真菌)。

    第五條

    信息

    各締約國應準備並向正在或打算進入南極條約地區的所有人員提供特別是說明被禁止的活動和特別保護種類與有關保護地區的名單的信息,以確保他們了解和遵守本附件的規定。

    第六條

    信息的交流

    1. 締約國應為下列事宜作出安排:

    (a)搜集並交換各種記錄(包括許可證的記錄)和有關每年在南極條約地區捕獵的各種本地哺乳動物、鳥類或植物的數目或數量的統計資料;

    (b)獲得和交換有關南極條約地區本地哺乳動物、鳥類、植物和無脊椎動物狀況,以及任何種類或種群在多大程度上需要保護的信息;

    (c)確立締約國能按照以下第2款的規定提交這種信息的共同方式。

    2.各締約國應於每年11月底之前通知其他締約國和委員會其按照以上第1款所採取的任何步驟以及在上年7月1日至本年6月30日的前一時期內按照本附件發放的許可證的數目和性質。

    第七條

    與南極條約體系外的其他協定的關係

    本附件的任何規定不得損害締約國根據“國際捕鯨公約”承擔的權利和義務。

    第八條

    審查

    締約國應考慮委員會提出的任何建議不斷審查保護南極動植物措施。

    第九條

    修正或修改

    1. 本附件可由按照南極條約第九條第1款採取的措施予以修正或修改。除非該措施另有規定,修正或修改應視為已獲通過,並將在通過修正或修改的南極條約協商會議結束1年之後生效,除非一個或一個以上南極條約協商國在此期限內通知保存國希望延長這一期限或不能同意該措施。

    2. 按照上述第1款生效的本附件的任何修正或修改應在保存國收到任何其他締約國的核准書時對其生效。

    附錄

    附錄A

    特殊保護種類

    海狗和羅斯海豹的全部種類。

    附錄B

    動植物的引進

    下列動植物可按照依本附件第四條所發放的許可證引進南極條約地區:

    (a)本國植物;並

    (b)實驗室動植物,包括病毒、細菌、酵母菌和真菌。

    附錄C

    防止引進微生物的預防措施

    1. 家禽。不得把任何活家禽或其他活鳥帶入南極條約地區。在煺光的家禽包裝運往南極條約地區之前,應檢查其是否有疾病的跡象,例如雞瘟、肺結核和酵母菌感染。尚未用完的任何家禽或其部分應移出南極條約地區或以焚化,或能夠消除對本地植物危害的相同方法進行處理。

    2. 應儘最大實際可能避免引進帶菌土壤。

    附件三

    廢物處理及廢物管理

    第一條

    一般義務

    1. 本附件應適用於根據科學研究計劃在南極條約地區從事的活動、在南極條約地區的旅遊及一切其他政府性和非政府性活動。上述一切活動包括相關的後勤支援活動,根據南極條約第七條第5款均需事先通知。

    2. 應儘可能減少在南極條約地區產生或處理廢物的總量以便最大程度地減少對南極環境的影響和對南極自然價值、科學研究以及與南極條約相符合的南極其他用途的干擾。

    3. 廢物的貯存、處理和從南極條約地區的移出及其回收與資源的減少應成為規劃和從事南極條約地區活動時的必要考慮因素。

    4. 從南極條約地區移出的廢物應儘實際可能最大程度地運回為組織活動而產生該廢物的國家或運到按照有關的國際協定對該廢物的處理已作好安排的任何國家。

    5 .過去和現存的陸上廢物處理點和廢棄的南極活動的工作點應由該廢物的產生者和該地點的使用者清理。該義務不應解釋為必須:

    (a)遷移任何被指定為歷史遺址或紀念物的建築物;或

    (b)遷移任何建築或廢物材料,如果以任何實際可行的方式進行此遷移比將該建築或廢物材料保留在原地會導致更大的不利環境影響。

    第二條

    以移出南極條約地區的方式處理廢物

    1. 下列廢物若是在本附件生效之後產生的,應由該廢物的產生者將其移出南極條約地區:

    (a)放射性物質;

    (b)電池;

    (c)液體和固體燃料;

    (d)含有有害重金屬或者劇毒或有害持久性化合物的廢物;

    (e)聚氯乙烯、聚氨酯泡沫體、泡沫聚苯乙烯、橡膠油與潤滑油、經加工的木料以及其他含有如焚化可能產生有害排放物的添加劑的產品;

    (f)除低密度聚乙烯包裝袋(例如廢物貯存袋)之外的所有其他塑料廢物,但以此類包裝袋應按照第三條第1款進行焚化處理為限。

    (g)燃料桶;並

    (h)其他固體非易燃性廢物;

    如果以任何實際可行的方式移出燃料桶和固體非易燃性廢物比將其保留在原地會導致更大的不利環境影響,則上述第6項和第7項所規定的移出此類廢物的義務不應予以適用。

    2. 上述第1款沒有涉及的液體廢物、污水和室內液體廢物應儘實際可能最大程度地由該廢物的產生者移出南極條約地區。

    3. 除非予以焚化、高壓消毒或以其他使其無害的方法進行處理,下列廢物應由產生者移出南極條約地區。

    (a)引進的動物屍體的殘骸;

    (b)實驗室培養的微生物及植物病源體;並

    (c)引進的鳥類產品。

    第三條

    廢物的焚化處理

    1. 按照下列第2款的規定,除了第二條第1款所提及的廢物外,沒有從南極條約地區移出的易燃廢物,應在最大程度減少有害物排放的焚化爐中焚化,應對由委員會和南極研究科學委員會建議的排放標準和設備指標加以考慮。應將焚化遺留的固體殘餘物移出南極條約地區。

    2. 應儘早逐步停止所有露天焚化廢物的方法,但最遲也不應晚於1998/1999季節。在完全停止該焚化方法之前,如果必須以露天焚化的方法處理廢物,應考慮風向、風速和焚化廢物的種類,以限制微粒的沉積並且在有特殊生物、科學、歷史、美學或荒野意義的區域,特別是根據南極條約給予保護的地區避免此類沉積。

    第四條

    陸上其他廢物的處理方法

    1. 按照第二條和第三條沒有移出或處理的廢物不得在非冰凍區域上或進入淡水系內處理。

    2. 按照第二條不能從南極條約地區移出的污水、室內液體廢物和其他液體廢物應儘實際可能最大程度地不在海冰、冰架或陸地冰蓋上處理,但如果此類廢物是由設在內陸冰架上或陸地冰蓋上的站所產生的,則可在深冰壕裡處理,當這種處理是唯一可行的選擇。該冰壕不應坐落在界定非冰區或高融化區域的已知浮冰線上。

    3. 在野外營地產生的廢物應儘實際可能最大程度地由廢物產生者按照本附件的規定移至支援站或支援船舶進行處理。

    第五條

    海上處理廢物

    1. 污水和室內液體廢物可直接排放到海洋中,但應考慮到接納廢物的海洋環境的吸收能力和符合下列條件:

    (a)此種排放應在實際可行的並具有初步稀釋和迅速消散的地點進行;

    (b)大量的此類廢物(產生於夏季平均每週大約有30人或更多的人居住的站所)應至少作浸軟處理。

    2. 通過轉動生物接觸程序或類似程序所作的污水處理的副產品可在海洋中處理,但以此種處理不會對當地環境產生不利影響,並且任何此種海上處理應遵循議定書附件四為限。

    第六條

    廢物的存放

    所有將從南極條約地區移出的或以其他方式處理的廢物的存放應防止其擴散到環境中。

    第七條

    禁止的產品

    不得將多氯聯苯、帶菌土壤或類似方式的包裝或殺蟲劑(為科學、醫療或衛生目的所需要的除外)帶入南極條約地區的陸地、冰架或水域。

    第八條

    廢物管理計劃

    1. 在南極條約地區進行活動的各締約國應就這些活動建立一套廢物處理分類系統作為基礎以便記錄廢物與便利旨在評價科學活動及相關的後勤支援的環境影響為目標的研究。為此目的,產生的廢物應分為:

    (a)污水和室內液體廢物(第一類);

    (b)其他的液體廢物和化學品,包括燃料和潤滑油(第二類);

    (c)易燃固體(第三類);並

    (d)其他固體廢物(第四類);和

    (e)放射性材料(第五類)。

    2. 為了進一步減少廢物對南極環境的影響,每一締約國應準備廢物管理計劃,每年審查並更新該計劃(包括廢物的減少、貯存和處置),並就每個定點、一般營地和每艘船舶(屬於定點或船舶活動一部分的小船除外並考慮現有的船舶管理計劃)作出詳細的說明:

    (a)清理現存廢物處理點和遺棄工作點的方案;

    (b)現行的和已規劃的廢物管理安排,包括最後處理的安排;

    (c)為分析廢物和廢物管理產生環境影響所作的現行的和計劃的安排;並

    (d)為最大程度地減少廢物和廢物管理的任何環境影響所作的其他努力。

    3. 上述每一締約國還應儘實際可能在有關信息失去之前準備1份過去活動(如橫穿南極、燃料庫、野外基地、飛機墜毀)地點的清單,以便規劃未來科學計劃(雪化學、地衣污染物或冰核鑽探)時能對此類地點加以考慮。

    第九條

    廢物管理計劃的分發和審查

    1. 按照第八條準備的廢物管理計劃及其執行的報告和第八條第3款指的清單,應按照南極條約第三條和第七條以及根據南極條約第九條提出的有關的建議包括在年度信息交換中。

    2. 每一締約國應將其廢物管理計劃的副本及其執行和審查的報告送交委員會。

    3. 委員會可審查廢物管理計劃及其報告並可作出評論,包括最大程度地減少影響、修改及改進計劃的建議,以供締約國考慮。

    4. 各締約國可特別就現有的低廢物技術、現存設施的轉換、流出物的特別要求、合適的處理及排放方法交換信息並提出建議。

    第十條

    管理實踐

    每一締約國應:

    (a)指定一位廢物管理官員以制定和監測廢物管理計劃;在實地,該責任應由每個點的合適人員承擔;

    (b)保證其考察隊的成員接受旨在限制其行動對南極環境影響的訓練並告知他們本附件的要求;並

    (c)勸阻使用聚氯乙烯(PVC)產品並保證通知其赴南極條約地區的考察隊任何他們可帶入該地區的聚氯乙烯產品以便可根據本附件移出此類產品。

    第十一條

    審查

    本附件應定期進行審查以便保證其得到更新,反映廢物處理技術和程序的改進並進而確保最大程度地保護南極環境。

    第十二條

    緊急情況

    1. 本附件不應適用於有關人身安全或者船舶、飛行器或具有較高價值的設施和設備的安全或者環境保護的緊急情況。

    2.在緊急情況下採取活動的通知應立即分送給所有締約國和委員會。

    第十三條

    修正或修改

    1. 本附件可按照南極條約第九條第1款採取的措施予以修正或修改。除非該措施另有規定,修正或修改應視為已獲通過,並應在通過修正或修改的南極條約協商會議結束一年之後生效,除非一個或一個以上南極條約協商國在此期限內通知保存國希望延長這一期限或不能同意該修正案。

    2. 按照上述第1款生效的本附件的任何修正或修改應在保存國收到任何其他締約國的核准通知書時對其生效。

    附件四

    預防海洋污染

    第一條

    定義

    為本附件目的:

    (a)“排放”係指不論由於何種原因所造成的船舶的排放,包括任何逸漏、處置、溢出、滲漏、泵出、冒出或排空;

    (b)“垃圾”係指在船舶正常作業期間產生的除鮮魚及其各個部分以外的各種食品、日常用品和工作用品的廢棄物,但第三條和第四條所涉及的物質除外;

    (c)“MARPOL73/78”係指經1978年相關的議定書與此後生效的其他修正案修正的1973年《防止船舶污染國際公約》;

    (d)“有毒液體物質”係指任何MARPOL73/78附錄二所定義的有毒液體物質;

    (e)“油類”指任何形式的石油包括原油、燃料油、油泥、油渣和精煉油產品(第四條規定的石油化學產品除外);

    (f)“油性混合物”指含有任何油性成分的混合物;

    (g)“船舶”係指在海洋環境中運行的任何類型的船舶,包括水翼船、氣墊船、潛水艇、浮船和固定的或浮動的平台。

    第二條

    適用範圍

    就每一締約國而言,本附件適用於在南極條約地區運行時有資格懸掛締約國國旗的船舶和任何其他從事或支援其南極活動的船舶。

    第三條

    油類的排放

    1.禁止將任何油類或油性混合物排放入海,但MARPOL73/78附錄一准許的情形除外。船舶在南極條約地區運行時,應在船上留存所有油泥、髒的壓載水、洗艙水以及其他不得排放入海的殘油混合物。船舶只應在南極條約地區外的接收設備或在根據MARPOL73/78附錄一准許的其他情況下排放此類殘餘物。

    2. 本條不適用於下列情況:

    (a)因船舶或其設備受到損壞而將油類或油性混合物排放入海:

    (1)如果在發生損壞或發現排放後,為預防或最大程度地減少排放已採取了一切合理的預防措施;並

    (2)但船主或船長故意造成損害或因輕率行事而又知道可能會招致損害除外;或

    (b)為最大程度地減輕因污染引起的損害,將用以對付特殊污染事故的含油物質排放入海。

    第四條

    有毒液體的排放

    禁止將任何有毒液體物質和在數量或濃度上有害於海洋環境的任何其他化學物品或其他物質排放入海。

    第五條

    垃圾的處理

    1. 禁止將一切塑料製品包括但不限於合成纜繩、合成漁網和塑料垃圾袋處理入海。

    2. 禁止將所有其他垃圾,包括紙製品、破布、玻璃、金屬、瓶子、陶器、灰燼、襯艙物料、襯料和包裝材料處理入海。

    3. 食品廢棄物在經過了粉碎機或磨碎機的處理後,可准許處理入海,但是此種處理除MARPOL73/78附錄五准許的情形外,應在儘可能遠離陸地或冰架但無論如何距最近陸地或冰架不得少於12海里之處進行。此類已經粉碎或磨碎的食品廢棄物應能通過篩眼不大於25毫米的篩子。

    4. 如果排放或處理本條所包括的物質或材料與其他此類待排放或處理但具有不同處理或排放標準的物質或材料混在一起時,則應適用最嚴格的排放或處理要求。

    5. 以上第1款和第2款的規定不適用於:

    (a)因船舶或其設備受到損害而逸漏的垃圾,如果在損壞發生之前為防止或最大程度地減少逸漏已採取了所有合理的預防措施;

    (b)合成漁網的意外失落,如果為防止失落已採取了所有合理的防範措施。

    6. 締約國應在適當時要求使用垃圾記錄本。

    第六條

    污水的排放

    1. 除非會不適當損害南極活動:

    (a)各締約國不得在距陸地或冰架12海里以內將未處理過的污水(“污水”按照MARPOL73/78附錄四的定義解釋)排入海中;

    (b)在距陸地或冰架12海里以外,不應將集污艙中儲存的污水頃刻排光,而應以適中的速度並在實際可行的情況下,當船舶以不低於4海里的航速在航行途中進行排放。

    本款不適用於已證明載運不超過10人的船舶。

    2.締約國應在適當時候要求使用污水記錄本。

    第七條

    緊急情況

    1. 本附件第三條、第四條、第五條和第六條不適用於有關船舶與船上人員安全的或救護海上生命的緊急情況。

    2. 在緊急情況下採取的活動的通知應立即分送所有締約國和委員會。

    第八條

    對依附和相關的生態系統的影響

    在執行本附件的規定時,應適當考慮避免對南極條約地區外的依附和相關的生態系統產生不利影響的必要性。

    第九條

    船舶的留存容量和接收設備

    1. 每一締約國應保證一切有資格掛其國旗的船舶和任何其他從事或支援南極活動的船舶,在進入南極條約地區之前,應在船上配備具有充分容量留存所有油泥、髒壓載水、洗艙水及其他殘油和混合物的艙櫃,在南極條約地區內運行時,在船上具有充分能力留存垃圾,並在離開該區之後對此類殘油和垃圾排入接收設施作出了安排。船舶還應在船上具備充分的能力以留存有毒液體物質。

    2. 對於在駛往或駛離南極條約地區途中到達其港口的船舶,每一締約國應保證按照使用其港口的船舶的需要,儘快提供足夠設施以接受從船舶排出所有的油泥、髒壓載水、洗艙水、其他殘油和混合物垃圾,避免造成不當的延誤。

    3.如果締約國經營的船舶經其他締約國的港口駛往或駛離南極條約地區,該締約國應同那些締約國磋商,以保證港中接收設施的設置不會使毗鄰南極條約地區的締約國承受不公平的負擔。

    第十條

    船舶的設計、建造、人員配備和裝備

    在從事或支援南極活動的船舶的設計、建造、人員配備和裝備時,各締約國應考慮到本附件的目的。

    第十一條

    主權豁免

    1. 本附件不適用於任何軍艦、海軍輔助艦或其他由國家擁有或經營且當時只用於非商業性公務服務的船舶。但是,每一締約國應採取不損害此類由國家擁有或經營的船舶的營運或營運能力的適當措施,保證此類船舶的行為在合理和可行的範圍內符合本附件。

    2. 在適用以上第1款時,各締約國應考慮到保護南極環境的重要性。

    3. 各締約國應將其執行本規定的情況通知其他締約國。

    4. 本條不適用議定書第十八條至第二十條所規定的爭端解決程序。

    第十二條

    預防措施、緊急準備與反應

    1. 為了對南極條約地區的海洋污染緊急事態或威脅作出更有效的反應,締約國應按照議定書第十五條制定應急計劃以對在南極條約地區的海洋污染作出反應,包括在南極條約地區運行的船舶(附屬於固定點或船舶活動一部分的小船除外),特別是運油的船舶,以及由岸上設施造成的進入海洋環境的油溢。為此目的,締約國應:

    (a)在制定和執行此類計劃時進行合作;並

    (b)吸收委員會、國際海事組織和其他國際組織的建議。

    2.各締約國還應確定對污染緊急事態作出合作反應的程序並應按照該程序採取適當的反應行動。

    第十三條

    審查

    締約國應不斷審查本附件的規定和其他防止、減少和應付南極海洋環境污染的措施,包括任何按照MARPOL73/78通過的修正或新規定,以實現本附件的目的。

    第十四條

    與MARPOL73/78的關係

    就那些既是本附件的締約國也是MARPOL73/78的締約國而言,本附件的任何規定不得損害其按照MARPOL73/78所承擔的具體權利和義務。

    第十五條

    修正或修改

    1.本附件可由按照南極條約第九條第1款採取的措施予以修正或修改。除非該措施另有規定,修正或修改應視為已獲通過,並應在通過修正或修改的南極條約協商會議結束1年之後生效,除非一個或一個以上南極條約協商國在此期限內通知保存國希望延長這一期限或不能同意該措施。

    2.按照上述第1款生效的本附件的任何修正或修改應在保存國收到任何其他締約國的核准通知書時對其生效。

    附件五

    區域保護及其管理

    第一條

    定義

    為本附件目的:

    (a)“主管當局”係指由締約國授權按照本附件發放許可證的任何人或機構;

    (b)“許可證”係指由主管當局發放的正式的書面許可證件;

    (c)“管理計劃”係指在南極特別保護區或南極特別管理區管理活動與保護特殊價值的計劃。

    第二條

    目標

    為本附件規定的目的,可以指定包括任何海洋區域在內的任何區域為南極特別保護區或南極特別管理區。在此類區域的活動應按照依本附件規定所通過的管理計劃予以禁止、限制或管理。

    第三條

    南極特別保護區

    1. 任何區域,包括任何海洋區域,均可被指定為南極特別保護區,以保護顯著的環境、科學、歷史、美學或荒野形態的價值,任何此類價值的結合,或正在進行的或已規劃的科學研究。

    2. 締約國應爭取在系統的環境地理框架內查明並在一系列南極特別保護區域內列入:

    (a)未受人類干擾的區域,以便將來可能與已受人類活動影響的地區進行比較;

    (b)主要陸地生態系統,包括冰和水中生態系統及海洋生態系統的代表性實例;

    (c)重要的或非同尋常的物種集中區域,包括繁衍本地鳥類或動物的主要棲息區;

    (d)任何物種典型的產地或已知的棲息地;

    (e)對正在實行的或已規劃的科學研究有特殊利益的區域;

    (f)具有突出地質學、冰川學或地貌學特徵的實例;

    (g)具有突出美學和荒野形態價值的區域;

    (h)具有公認的歷史價值的遺址或紀念物;和

    (i)其他可能適合保護以上第1款規定的價值的區域。

    3. 過去南極條約協商會議指定的特別保護區和特別科學興趣區茲被指定為南極特別保護區,並應予以重新命名和重新編號。

    4. 除非按照依第七條發放的許可證的規定,應禁止進入南極特別保護區。

    第四條

    南極特別管理區

    1. 正在從事或將來可以從事活動的任何區域,包括任何海洋區域,均可被指定為南極特別管理區以協助規劃和協調活動,避免可能的衝突,增進締約國間的合作或最大程度減輕環境影響。

    2. 南極特別管理區可包括:

    (a)活動會造成互相干擾或累積環境影響危險的區域;和

    (b)具有公認歷史價值的遺址或紀念物。

    3.進入南極特別管理區不需要許可證。

    4.儘管有以上第3款的規定,南極特別管理區可包括一個或多個南極特別保護區,應禁止進入此類保護區,除非按照依第七條發放的許可證的規定。

    第五條

    管理計劃

    1. 任何締約國、委員會、南極研究科學委員會或保護南極海洋生物資源委員會可通過向南極條約協商會議提交一項建議的管理計劃而提出一個可指定為南極特別保護區或南極特別管理區的區域。

    2. 建議指定的區域應具有足夠的面積以保護需要特別保護或特別管理的價值。

    3. 建議的管理計劃應酌情包括:

    (a)對需要特別保護或特別管理的價值的說明;

    (b)對保護或管理這類價值的管理計劃的目的或目標的陳述;

    (c)為保護需要特別保護或特別管理的價值而要求從事的管理活動;

    (d)若有的話,指定期限;

    (e)對該區域的說明,包括:

    (1)顯示該區域的地理座標、界線標記和自然地貌;

    (2)從陸地、海上、或空中進入該區域的方法包括航道和錨地、該區域內的步行和車輛路線以及飛行器路線和着陸地;

    (3)建築物的位置,包括在該區域內和靠近該區域的科學站、研究或避護設施的位置,並

    (4)位於或鄰近按照本附件指定的其他南極特別保護區或南極特別管理區或者按照南極條約體系其他組成部分通過的措施所指定的其他保護區;

    (f)對在該區域內為實現以上(b)項所指的目的和目標而要予以禁止、限制或管理的活動的地帶的標誌;

    (g)與周圍特點和該區域內主要特點有關的清楚顯示該區域界線的地圖和照片;

    (h)輔助文件;

    (i)就建議指定為南極特別保護區的區域而言,主管當局對下列事項發放許可證的條件的清楚說明:

    (1)進入該區域以及在該區域內或上空的活動;

    (2)在該區域內從事或可以從事的活動,包括對時間和地點的限制;

    (3)建築物的安置、變化或移動;

    (4)野外營地位置的確定;

    (5)對可帶入該區域的材料和生物體的限制;

    (6)獲取本地動植物或對其進行有害的干擾;

    (7)對非由持許可證者帶入該區域的任何東西的收集和移動;

    (8)廢物的處理;

    (9)能保證繼續達到管理計劃的目的的必要措施;

    (10)就訪問該區域向主管當局作匯報的要求;

    (j)就建議指定為南極特別管理區的區域而言,有關下列事項的行為準則:

    (1)進入該區域以及在該區域內或上空的活動;

    (2)在該區域內從事或可從事的活動,包括對時間和地點的限制;

    (3)建築物的安置、變化或移動;

    (4)野外營地位置的確定;

    (5)獲取本地動植物或對其進行有害的干擾;

    (6)對非由參觀者帶入該區域的任何東西的收集或轉移;

    (7)廢物的處理;及

    (8)就訪問該區域向主管當局作匯報的任何要求;並

    (k)有關締約國應在打算從事活動之前尋求交換信息的規定。

    第六條

    指定程序

    1. 建議的管理計劃應提交委員會,南極研究科學委員會,並且視情況提交保護南極海洋生物資源委員會。委員會在向南極條約協商會議提出建議時,應考慮南極研究科學委員會提供的任何評論,並酌情考慮保護南極海洋生物資源委員會提供的任何評論。此後,管理計劃可由南極條約協商國通過在南極條約協商會議上按照南極條約第九條第1款採取的措施予以批准。除非該措施另有規定,該計劃應在通過計劃的南極條約協商會議結束90天之後視為已獲批准,除非一個或一個以上協商國在此期限內通知保存國希望延長這一期限或不能同意該措施。

    2. 考慮到議定書第四條和第五條的規定,未經保護南極海洋生物資源保護委員會的事先同意,不得將任何海域指定為南極特別保護區或南極特別管理區。

    3. 對南極特別保護區或南極特別管理區的指定應是無期限的,除非管理計劃另有規定。管理計劃應至少每隔五年進行一次審查。計劃應視必要加以更新。

    4. 管理計劃可按照以上第1款的規定予以修正或廢除。

    5. 管理計劃在批准之後應由保存國立刻分送所有締約國。保存國應記錄所有現已批准的管理計劃。

    第七條

    許可證

    1. 每一締約國應指定一個主管當局發放按照關於南極特別保護區管理計劃的要求進入該區域並在該區域進行活動的許可證。許可證應附有管理計劃有關部分並說明該區域的範圍和位置,獲准的活動和何時、何地、由誰批准該活動以及管理計劃施加的任何其他條件。

    2. 對於以前由南極條約協商會議指定的沒有管理計劃的特別保護區而言,主管當局可為緊迫的科學目的發放不能在別處使用且不會損害該區域的自然生態系統的許可證。

    3. 各締約國應要求持許可證者在有關南極特別保護區期間攜帶許可證副本。

    第八條

    歷史遺址和紀念物

    1. 已被指定為南極特別保護區或南極特別管理區或者位於此類區域內的具有公認歷史價值的遺址或紀念物應列入歷史遺址或紀念物一覽表中。

    2. 任何締約國均可建議將尚未被指定為南極特別保護區或南極特別管理區,或者不是位於此類區域內但具有公認歷史價值的遺址或紀念物列入歷史遺址和紀念物一覽表中。列表的建議可由南極條約協商國通過在南極條約協商會議上按照南極條約第九條第1款採取的措施予以批准。除非該措施另有規定,該建議應在通過建議的南極條約協商會議結束90天之後視為已獲批准,除非一個或一個以上協商國在此期限內通知保存國希望延長這一期限或不能同意該措施。

    3. 已由前南極條約協商會議列入表中的現存的歷史遺址和紀念物應包括在按照本條編列的歷史遺址和紀念物一覽表中。

    4. 列入表中的歷史遺址和紀念物不得受到損害、移動或毀壞。

    5. 歷史遺址和紀念物表可按照以上第2款予以修正。保存國應保存現有的歷史遺址和紀念物一覽表。

    第九條

    信息及公佈

    1. 為保證所有正在參觀或準備參觀南極的人員了解和遵守本附件的規定,各締約國應提供特別是有關下列事項的信息:

    (a)南極特別保護區和南極特別管理區的位置;

    (b)此類區域表和地圖;

    (c)管理計劃,包括有關各區域的禁止事項;

    (d)歷史遺址和紀念物的位置以及任何有關的禁止或限制。

    2. 每一締約國應保證在其地形圖、水道測量圖和其他有關的出版物上標出南極特別保護區、南極特別管理區以及歷史遺址和紀念物的位置,並在可能的條件下標出其界限。

    3. 締約國應合作以保證酌情在南極特別保護區、南極特別管理區及歷史遺址和紀念物的所在地適當標出其界限。

    第十條

    信息的交流

    1. 各締約國應為下列事項作出安排:

    (a)收集和交換記錄,包括許可證的記錄和包括視察參觀在內的對南極特別保護區的參觀報告以及對南極特別管理區的視察參觀報告;

    (b)獲取和交換有關對南極特別管理區、南極特別保護區或者歷史遺址或紀念物造成任何重大變化或損害的信息;及

    (c)確立締約國按照以下第2款應遞交記錄和信息的共同形式。

    2. 每一締約國應在每年十一月底之前將上一年七月一日至本年六月三十日前一年度內按照本附件發放許可證的數量和性質通知其他締約國和委員會。

    3. 在南極特別保護區或南極特別管理區從事、資助或批准研究或其他活動的各締約國應保留此類活動的記錄並應在按照南極條約每年進行的信息交流中提供關於前一年度所管轄的人員在此類區域活動的概括說明。

    4. 各締約國應在每年十一月底之前通知其他締約國和委員會其為實施本附件所採取的措施,包括任何實地視察及其為糾正違反已獲批准的南極特別保護區或南極特別管理區管理計劃的規定的活動情況所採取的任何步驟。

    第十一條

    緊急情況

    1. 本附件規定和許可的限制不應適用於涉及人身安全或者船舶、飛行器或具有較高價值的設施和設備的安全或者環境保護的緊急情況。

    2. 在緊急情況下進行的活動的通知應立即分送給所有締約國和委員會。

    第十二條

    修正或修改

    1. 本附件可由按照南極條約第九條第1款採取的措施予以修正或修改,除非該措施另有規定。修正或修改應視為已獲通過,並應在通過修正或修改的南極條約協商會議結束一年之後生效,除非一個或一個以上南極條約協商國在此期限內通知保存國希望延長這一期限或不能同意該措施。

    2. 按照上述第1款生效的本附件的任何修正或修改應在保存國收到任何其他締約國的核准通知書時對其生效。

        

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