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法規:

第20/93號法令

公報編號:

34/1999

刊登日期:

1999.8.23

版數:

3113-3143

  • 通過《氣候變化框架公約》以待批准。

葡文版本

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    《公報》原始 PDF 版本

    第20/93號法令

    六月二十一日

    政府根據《憲法》第二百條第一款c項之規定,命令如下:

    獨一條——通過《氣候變化框架公約》以待批准;該公約於一九九二年五月九日由在聯合國大會內組成之政府間談判委員會議定,並於一九九二年六月四日在聯合國關於環境及發展之會議上開放簽署;該公約之英文原文及葡文譯本附於本命令。

    一九九三年四月十五日於部長會議內檢閱及通過——Aníbal António Cavaco Silva——Domingos Manuel Martins Jerónimo——Carlos Alberto Diogo Soares Borrego。

    一九九三年五月二十六日批准

    命令公布

    共和國總統 Mário Soares

    一九九三年五月二十八日副署

    總理 Aníbal António Cavaco Silva

    (一九九三年六月二十一日第143期《共和國公報》第一組-A)


    UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE

    The Parties to this Convention:

    Acknowledging that change in the Earth's climate and its adverse effects are a common concern of humankind;

    Concerned that human activities have been substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, that these increases enhance the natural greenhouse effect, and that this will result on average in an additional warming of the Earth's surface and atmosphere and may adversely affect natural ecosystems and humankind;

    Nothing that the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries, that per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low and that the share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs;

    Aware of the role and importance in terrestrial and marine ecosystems of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases,

    Nothing that there are many uncertainties in predictions of climate change, particularly with regard to the timing, magnitude and regional patterns thereof;

    Acknowleding that the global nature of climate change calls for the widest possible cooperation by all countries and their participation in an effective and appropriate international response, in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and their social and economic conditions;

    Recalling the pertinent provisions of the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972;

    Recalling also that States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereing right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do note cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction;

    Reaffirming the principle of sovereignty of States in international cooperation to address climate change;

    Recognizing that States should enact effective environmental legislation, that environmental standards, management objectives and priorities should reflect the environmental and developmental context to which they apply, and that standards applied by some countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted economic and social cost to other countries, in particular developing countries;

    Recalling the provisions of General Assembly resolution 44/228, of 22 December 1989, on the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, and resolutions 43/53 of 6 December 1988, 44/207, of 22 December 1989, 45/212, of 21 December 1990, and 46/169, of 19 December 1991, on protection of global climate for present and future generations of mankind;

    Recalling also the provisions of General Assembly Resolution 44/206, of 22 December 1989, on the possible adverse effects of sealevel rise on islands and coastal areas, particularly low-lying coastal areas and the pertinent provisions of General Assembly Resolution 44/172, of 19 December 1989, on the implementation of the Plan of Action to Combat Desertification;

    Recalling further the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 1985, and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987, as adjusted and amended on 29 June 1990;

    Noting the Ministerial Declaration of the Second World Climate Conference adopted on 7 November 1990;

    Conscious of the valuable analytical work being conducted by many States on climate change and of the important contributions of the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme and other organs, organizations and bodies of the United Nations system, as well as other international and intergovernmental bodies, to the exchange of results of scientific research and the coordination of research;

    Recognizing that steps required to understand and address climate change will be environmentally, socially and economically most effective if they are based on relevant scientific, technical and economic considerations and continually re-evaluated in the light of new findings in these areas;

    Recognizing that various actions to address climate change can be justified economically in their own right and can also help in solving other environmental problems;

    Recognizing also the need for developed countries to take immediate action in a flexible manner on the basis of clear priorities, as a first step towards comprehensive response strategies at the global, national and, where agreed, regional levels that take into account all greenhouse gases, with due consideration of their relative contributions to the enhancement of the greenhouse effect;

    Recognizing further that low-lying and other small island countries, countries with low-lying coastal, arid and semi-arid areas or areas liable to floods, drought and desertification, and developing countries with fragile mountainous ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change;

    Recognizing the special difficulties of those countries, especially developing countries, whose economies are particularly dependent on fossil fuel production, use and exportation, as a consequence of action taken on limiting greenhouse gas emissions;

    Affirming that responses to climate change should be coordinated with social and economic development in an integrated manner with a view to avoiding adverse impacts on the latter, taking into full account the legitimate priority needs of developing countries for the achievement of sustained economic growth and the eradication of poverty;

    Recognizing that all countries, especially developing countries, need access to resources required to achieve sustainable social and economic development and that, in order for developing countries to progress towards that goal, their energy consumption will need to grow taking into account the possibilities for achieving greater energy efficiency and for controlling greenhouse gas emissions in general, including through the application of new technologies on terms which make such an application economically and socially beneficial;

    Determined to protect the climate system for present and future generations;

    have agreed as follows:

    ARTICLE 1

    Definitions (*)

    (*) Titles of articles are included solely to assist the reader.

    For the purposes of this Convention:

    1) «Adverse effects of climate change» means changes in the physical environment or biota resulting from climate change which have significant deleterious effects on the composition, resilience or productivity of natural and managed ecosystems or on the operation of socio-economic systems or on human health and welfare;

    2) «Climate change» means a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods;

    3) «Climate system» means the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere and their interactions;

    4) «Emissions» means the release of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors into the atmosphere over a specified area and period of time;

    5) «Greenhouse gases» means those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation;

    6) «Regional economic integration organization» means an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region which has competence in respect of matters governed by this Convention or its protocols and has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to the instruments concerned;

    7) «Reservoir» means a component or components of the climate system where a greenhouse gas or a precursor of a grenhouse gas is stored;

    8) «Sink» means any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere;

    9) «Source» means any process or activity which releases a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.

    ARTICLE 2

    Objective

    The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.

    ARTICLE 3

    Principles

    In their actions to achieve the objective of the Convention and to implement its provisions, the Parties shall be guided, inter alia, by the following:

    1) The Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should take the lead in combating climate change and the adverse effects thereof;

    2) The specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, and of those Parties, especially developing country Parties, that would have to bear a disproportionate or abnormal burden under the Convention, should be given full consideration;

    3) The Parties should take precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate change and mitigate its adverse effects. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing such measures, taking into account that policies and measures to deal with climate change should be cost-effective so as to ensure global benefits at the lowest possible cost. To achieve this, such policies and measures should take into account different socio-economic contexts, be comprehensive, cover all relevant sources, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases and adaptation, and comprise all economic sectors. Efforts to address climate change may be carried out cooperatively by interested Parties;

    4) The Parties have a right to, and should, promote sustainable development. Policies and measures to protect the climate system against human-induced change should be appropriate for the specific conditions of each Party and should be integrated with national development programmes, taking into account that economic development is essential for adopting measures to address climate change;

    5) The Parties should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to sustainable economic growth and development in all Parties, particularly developing country Parties, thus enabling them better to address the problems of climate change. Measures taken to combat climate change, including unilateral ones, should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade.

    ARTICLE 4

    Commitments

    1— All Parties, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, shall:

    a) Develop, periodically update, publish and make available to the Conference of the Parties, in accordance with article 12, national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, using comparable methodologies to be agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties;

    b) Formulate, implement, publish and regularly update national and, where appropriate, regional programmes containing measures to mitigate climate change by addressing anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, and measures to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change;

    c) Promote and cooperate in the development, application and diffusion, including transfer, of technologies, practices and processes that control, reduce or prevent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol in all relevant sectors, including the energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management sectors;

    d) Promote sustainable management, and promote and cooperate in the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, including biomass, forests and oceans as well as other terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems;

    e) Cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change; develop and elaborate appropriate and integrated plans for coastal zone management, water resources and agriculture, and for the protection and rehabilitation of areas, particularly in Africa, affected by drought and desertification, as well as floods;

    f) Take climate change considerations into account, to the extent feasible, in their relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions, and employ appropriate methods, for example impact assessments, formulated and determined nationally, with a view to minimizing adverse effects on the economy, on public health and on the quality of the environment, of projects or measures undertaken by them to mitigate or adapt to climate change;

    g) Promote and cooperate in scientific, technological, technical, socio-economic and other research, systematic observation and development of data archives related to the climate system and intended to further the understanding and to reduce or eliminate the remaining uncertainties regarding the causes, effects, magnitude and timing of climate change and the economic and social consequences of various response strategies;

    h) Promote and cooperate in the full, open and prompt exchange of relevant scientific, technological, technical, socio-economic and legal information related to the climate system and climate change, and to the economic and social consequences of various response strategies;

    i) Promote and cooperate in education, training and public awareness related to climate change and encourage the widest participation in this process, including that of non-governmental organizations, and

    j) Communicate to the Conference of the Parties information related to implementation, in accordance with article 12.

    2 — The developed country Parties and other Parties included in annex I commit themselves specifically as provided for in the following:

    a) Each of these Parties shall adopt national (1) policies and take corresponding measures on the mitigation of climate change, by limiting its anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and protecting and enhancing its greenhouse gas sinks and reservoirs. These policies and measures will demonstrate that developed countries are taking the lead in modifying longer-term trends in anthropogenic emissions consistent with the objective of the Convention, recognizing that the return by the end of the present decade to earlier levels of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol would contribute to such modification, and taking into account the differences in these Parties, starting points and approaches, economic structures and resource bases, the need to maintain strong and sustainable economic growth, available technologies and other individual circumstances, as well as the need for equitable and appropriate contributions by each of these Parties to the global effort regarding that objective. These Parties may implement such policies and measures jointly with other Parties and may assist other Parties in contributing to the achievement of the objective of the Convention and, in particular, that of this subparagraph;

    (1) This includes policies and measures adopted by regional economic integration organizations.

    b) In order to promote progress to this end, each of these Parties shall communicate, within six months of the entry into force of the Convention for it and periodically thereafter, and in accordance with article 12, detailed information on its policies and measures referred to in subparagraph a) above, as well as on its resulting projected anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol for the period referred to in subparagraph a), with the aim of returning individually or jointly to their 1990 levels these anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This information will be reviewed by the Conference of the Parties, at its first session and periodically thereafter, in accordance with article 7;

    c) Calculations of emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases for the purposes of subparagraph b) above should take into account the best available scientific knowledge, including of the effective capacity of sinks and the respective contributions of such gases to climate change. The Conference of the Parties shall consider and agree on methodologies for theses calculations at its first session and review them regularly thereafter;

    d) The Conference of the Parties shall, at its first session, review the adequacy of subparagraphs a) and b) above. Such review shall be carried out in the light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, as well as relevant technical, social and economic information. Based on this review, the Conference of the Parties shall take appropriate action, which may include the adoption of amendments to the commitments in subparagraphs a) and b) above. The Conference of the Parties, at its first session, shall also take decisions regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in subparagraph a) above. A second review of subparagraphs a) and b) shall take place not later than 31 December 1998, and thereafter at regular intervals determined by the Conference of the Parties, until the objective of the Convention is met;

    e) Each of these Parties shall:

    i) Coordinate as appropriate with other such Parties, relevant economic and administrative instruments developed to achieve the objective of the Convention; and

    ii) Identify and periodically review its own policies and practices which encourage activities that lead to greater levels of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol than would otherwise occur;

    f) The Conference of the Parties shall review, not later than 31 December 1998, available information with a view to taking decisions regarding such amendments to the lists in annexes I and II as may be appropriate, with the approval of the Party concerned;

    g) Any Party not included in annex I may, in its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, or at any time thereafter, notify the Depositary that it intends to be bound by subparagraphs a) and b) above. The depositary shall inform the other signatories and Parties of any such notification.

    3 — The developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in annex II shall provide new and additional financial resources to meet the agreed full costs incurred by developing country Parties in complying with their obligations under article 12, paragraph 1. They shall also provide such financial resources, including for the transfer of technology, needed by the developing country Parties to meet the agreed full incremental costs of implementing measures that are covered by paragraph 1 of this article and that are agreed between a developing country Party and the international entity or entities referred to in article 11, in accordance with that article. The implementation of these commitments shall take into account the need for adequacy and predictability in the flow of funds and the importance of appropriate burden sharing among the developed country Parties.

    4 — The developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in annex II shall also assist the developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in meeting costs of adaptation to those adverse effects.

    5 — The developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in annex II shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention. In this process, the developed country Parties shall support the development and enhancement of endogenous capacities and technologies of developing country Parties. Other Parties and organizations in a position to do so may also assist in facilitating the transfer of such technologies.

    6 — In the implementation of their commitments under paragraph 2 above, a certain degree of flexibility shall be allowed by the Conference of the Parties to the Parties included in annex I undergoing the process of transition to a market economy, in order to enhance the ability of these Parties to address climate change, including with regard to the historical level of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol chosen as a reference.

    7 — The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments under the Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take full into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country Parties.

    8 — In the implementation of the commitments in this article, the Parties shall give full consideration to what actions are necessary under the Convention, including actions related to funding, insurance and the transfer of technology, to meet the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties arising from the adverse effects of climate change and/or the impact of the implementation of response measures, especially on:

    a) Small island countries;

    b) Countries with low-lying coastal areas;

    c) Countries with arid and semi-arid areas, forested areas and areas liable to forest decay;

    d) Countries with areas prone to natural disasters;

    e) Countries with areas liable to drought and desertification;

    f) Countries with areas of high urban atmospheric pollution;

    g) Countries with areas with fragile ecosystems, including mountainous ecosystems;

    h) Countries whose economies are highly dependent on income generated from the production, processing and export, and/or on consumption of fossil fuels and associated energy-intensive products; and

    i) Land-locked and transit countries.

    Further, the Conference of the Parties may take actions, as appropriate, with respect to this paragraph.

    9 — The Parties shall take full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed countries in their actions with regard to funding and transfer of technology.

    10 — The Parties shall, in accordance with article 10, take into consideration in the implementation of the commitments of the Convention the situation of Parties, particularly developing country Parties, with economies that are vulnerable to the adverse effects of the implementation of measures to respond to climate change. This applies notably to Parties with economies that are highly dependent on income generated from the production, processing and export, and/or consumption of fossil fuels and associated energy-intensive products and/or the use of fossil fuels for which such Parties have serious difficulties in switching to alternatives.

    ARTICLE 5

    Research and systematic observation

    In carrying out their commitments under article 4, paragraph 1, g), the Parties shall:

    a) Support and further develop, as appropriate, international and intergovernmental programmes and networks or organizations aimed at defining, conducting, assessing and financing research, data collection and systematic observation, taking into account the need to minimize duplication of effort;

    b) Support international and intergovernmental efforts to strengthen systematic observation and national scientific and technical research capacities and capabilities, particularly in developing countries, and to promote access to, and the exchange of, data and analyses thereof obtained from areas beyond national jurisdiction; and

    c) Take into account the particular concerns and needs of developing countries and cooperate in improving their endogenous capacities and capabilities to participate in the efforts referred to in subparagraphs a) and b) above.

    ARTICLE 6

    Education, training and public awareness

    In carrying out their commitments under article 4, paragraph 1, i), the Parties shall:

    a) Promote and facilitate at the national and, as appropriate, subregional and regional levels, and in accordance with national laws and regulations, and within their respective capacities:

    i) The development and implementation of educational and public awareness programmes on climate change and its effects;

    ii) Public access to information on climate change and its effects;

    iii) Public participation in addressing climate change and its effects and developing adequate responses; and

    iv) Training of scientific, technical and managerial personnel;

    b) Cooperate in and promote, at the international level, and, where appropriate, using existing bodies:

    i) The development and exchange of educational and public awareness material on climate change and its effects; and

    ii) The development and implementation of education and training programmes, including the strengthening of national institutions and the exchange or secondment of personnel to train experts in this field, in particular for developing countries.

    ARTICLE 7

    Conference of the Parties

    1 — A Conference of the Parties is hereby established.

    2 — The Conference of the Parties, as the supreme body of this Convention, shall keep under regular review the implementation of the Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt, and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention. To this end, it shall:

    a) Periodically examine the obligations of the Parties and the institutional arrangements under the Convention, in the light of the objective of the Convention, the experience gained in its implementation and the evolution of scientific and technological knowledge;

    b) Promote and facilitate the exchange of information on measures adopted by the Parties to address climate change and its effects, taking into account the differing circumstances, responsibilities and capabilities of the Parties and their respective commitments under the Convention;

    c) Facilitate, at the request of two or more Parties, the coordination of measures adopted by them to address climate change and its effects, taking into account the differing circumstances, responsibilities and capabilities of the Parties and their respective commitments under the Convention;

    d) Promote and guide, in accordance with the objective and provisions of the Convention, the development and periodic refinement of comparable methodologies, to be agreed on by the Conference of the Parties, inter alia, for preparing inventories of greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks, and for evaluating the effectiveness of measures to limit the emissions and enhance the removals of these gases;

    e) Assess, on the basis of all information made available to it in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, the implementation of the Convention by the Parties, the overall effects of the measures taken pursuant to the Convention, in particular environmental, economic and social effects as well as their cumulative impacts and the extent to which progress towards the objective of the Convention is being achieved;

    f) Consider and adopt regular reports on the implementation of the Convention and ensure their publication;

    g) Make recommendations on any matters necessary for the implementation of the Convention;

    h) Seek to mobilize financial resources in accordance with article 4, paragraphs 3, 4 and 5, and article 11;

    i) Establish such subsidiary bodies as are deemed necessary for the implementation of the Convention;

    j) Review reports submitted by its subsidiary bodies and provide guidance to them;

    k) Agree upon and adopt, by consensus, rules of procedure and financial rules for itself and for any subsidiary bodies;

    l) Seek and utilize, where appropriate, the services and cooperation of, and information provided by, competent international organizations and intergovernmental and non-governmental bodies; and

    m) Exercise such other functions as are required for the achievement of the objective of the Convention as well as all other functions assigned to it under the Convention.

    3 — The Conference of the Parties shall, at its first session, adopt its own rules of procedure as well as those of the subsidiary bodies established by the Convention, which shall include decision-making procedures of matters not already covered by decision-making procedures stipulated in the Convention. Such procedures may include specified majorities required for the adoption of particular decisions.

    4 — The first session of the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the interim secretariat referred to in article 21 and shall take place not later than one year after the date of entry into force of the Convention. Thereafter, ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties shall be held every year unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties.

    5 — Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference, or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least one-third of the Parties.

    6 — The United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State member thereof or observers thereto not Party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties as observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by the Convention, and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the Conference of the Parties as an observer, may be so admitted unless at least one-third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the Parties.

    ARTICLE 8

    Secretariat

    1 — A secretariat is hereby established.

    2 — The functions of the secretariat shall be:

    a) To make arrangements for sessions of the Conference of the Parties and its subsidiary bodies established under the Convention and to provide them with services as required;

    b) To compile and transmit reports submitted to it;

    c) To facilitate assistance to the Parties, particularly developing country Parties, on request, in the compilation and communication of information required in accordance with the provisions of the Convention;

    d) To prepare reports on its activities and present them to the Conference of the Parties;

    e) To ensure the necessary coordination with the secretariats of other relevant international bodies;

    f) To enter, under the overall guidance of the Conference of the Parties, into such administrative and contractual arrangements as may be required for the effective discharge of its functions; and

    g) To perform the other secretariat functions specified in the Convention and in any of its protocols and such other functions as may be determined by the Conference of the Parties.

    3 — The Conference of the Parties, at its first session, shall designate a permanent secretariat and make arrangements for its functioning.

    ARTICLE 9

    Subsidiary body for scientific and technological advice

    1 — A subsidiary body for scientific and technological advice is hereby established to provide the Conference of the Parties and, as appropriate, its other subsidiary bodies with timely information and advice on scientific and technological matters relating to the Convention. This body shall be open to participation by all Parties and shall be multidisciplinary. It shall comprise government representatives competent in the relevant field of expertise. It shall report regularly to the Conference of the Parties on all aspects of its work.

    2 — Under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties, and drawing upon existing competent international bodies, this body shall:

    a) Provide assessments of the state of scientific knowledge relating to climate change and its effects;

    b) Prepare scientific assessments on the effects of measures taken in the implementation of the Convention;

    c) Identify innovative, efficient and state-of-the-art technologies and know-how and advise on the ways and means of promoting development and/or transferring such technologies;

    d) Provide advice on scientific programmes, international cooperation in research and development related to climate change, as well as on ways and means of suporting endogenous capacity-building in developing countries; and

    e) Respond to scientific, technological and methodological questions that the Conference of the Parties and its subsidiary bodies may put to the body.

    3 — The functions and terms of reference of this body may be further elaborated by the Conference of the Parties.

    ARTICLE 10

    Subsidiary body for implementation

    1 — A subsidiary body for implementation is hereby established to assist the Conference of the Parties in the assessment and review of the effective implementation of the Convention. This body shall be opent to participation by all Parties and comprise government representatives who are experts on matters related to climate change. It shall report regularly to the Conference of the Parties on all aspects of its work.

    2 — Under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties, this body shall:

    a) Consider the information communicated in accordance with article 12, paragraph 1, to assess the overall aggregated effect of the steps taken by the Parties in the light of the latest scientific assessments concerning climate change;

    b) Consider the information communicated in accordance with article 12, paragraph 2, in order to assist the Conference of the Parties in carrying out the reviews required by article 4, paragraph 2, d); and

    c) Assist the Conference of the Parties, as appropriate, in the preparation and implementation of its decisions.

    ARTICLE 11

    Financial mecshanism

    1 — A mechanism for the provision of financial resources on a grant or concessional basis, including for the transfer of technology, is hereby defined. It shall function under the guidance of and be accountable to the Conference of the Parties, which shall decide on its policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria related to this Convention. Its operation shall be entrusted to one or more existing international entities.

    2 — The financial mechanism shall have an equitable and balanced representation of all Parties within a transparent system of governance.

    3 — The Conference of the Parties and the entity or entities entrusted with the operation of the financial mechanism shall agree upon arrangements to give effect to the above paragraphs, which shall include the following:

    a) Modalities to ensure that the funded projects to addess climate change are in conformity with the policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria established by the Conference of the Parties;

    b) Modalities by which a particular funding decision may be reconsidered in light of these policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria;

    c) Provision by the entity or entities of regular reports to the Conference of the Parties on its funding operations, which is consistent with the requirement for accountability set out in paragraph 1 above; and

    d) Determination in a predictable and identifiable manner of the amount of funding necessary and available for the implementation of this Convention and the conditions under which that amount shall be periodically reviewed.

    4 — The Conference of the Parties shall make arrangements to implement the above mentioned provisions at its first session, reviewing and taking into account the interim arrangements referred to in article 21, paragraph 3, and shall decide whether these interim arrangements shall be maintained. Within four years thereafter, the Conference of the Parties shall review the financial mechanism and take appropriate measures.

    5 — The developed country Parties may also provide and developing country Parties avail themselves of, financial resources related to the implementation of the Convention through bilateral, regional and other multilateral channels.

    ARTICLE 12

    Communication of information related to implementation

    1 — In accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, each Party shall communicate to the Conference of the Parties, through the secretariat, the following elements of information:

    a) A national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, to the extent its capacities permit, using comparable methodologies to be promoted and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties;

    b) A general description of steps taken or envisaged by the Party to implement the Convention; and

    c) Any other information that the Party considers relevant to the achievement of the objective of the Convention and suitable for inclusion in its communication, including, if feasible, material relevant for calculations of global emission trends.

    2 — Each developed country Party and each other Party included in annex I shall incorporate in its communication the following elements of information:

    a) A detailed description of the policies and measures that it has adopted to implement its commitment under article 4, paragraphs 2, a) and 2, b); and

    b) A specific estimate of the effects that the policies and measures referred to in subparagraph a) immediately above will have on anthropogenic emissions by its sources and removals by its sinks of greenhouse gases during the period referred to in article 4, paragraph 2, a).

    3 — In addition, each developed country Party and each other developed Party included in annex II shall incorporate details of measures taken in accordance with article 4, paragraphs 3, 4 and 5.

    4 — Developing country Parties may, on a voluntary basis, propose projects for financing, including specific technologies, materials, equipment, techniques or practices that would be needed to implement such projects, along with, if possible, an estimate of all incremental costs, of the reductions of emissions and increments of removals of greenhouse gases, as well as an estimate of the consequent benefits.

    5 — Each developed country Party and each other Party included in annex I shall make its initial communication within six months of the entry into force of the Convention for that Party. Each Party not so listed shall make its initial communication within three years of the entry into force of the Convention for that Party, or of the availability of financial resources in accordance with article 4, paragraph 3. Parties that are least developed countries may make their initial communication at their discretion. The frequency of subsequent communications by all Parties shall be determined by the Conference of the Parties, taking into account the differentiated timetable set by this paragraph.

    6 — Information communicated by Parties under this article shall be transmitted by the secretariat as soon as possible to the Conference of the Parties and to any subsidiary bodies concerned. If necessary, the procedures for the communication of information may be further considered by the Conference of the Parties.

    7 — From its first session, the Conference of the Parties shall arrange for the provision to developing country Parties of technical and financial support, on request, in compiling and communicating information under this article, as well as in indentifying the technical and financial needs associated with proposed projects and response measures under article 4. Such support may be provided by other Parties, by competent international organizations and by the secretariat, as appropriate.

    8 — Any group of Parties may, subject to guidelines adopted by the Conference of the Parties, and to prior notification to the Conference of the Parties, make a joint communication in fulfilment of their obligations under this article, provided that such a communication includes information on the fulfilment by each of these Parties of its individual obligations under the Convention.

    9 — Information received by the secretariat that is designated by a Party as confidential, in accordance with criteria to be established by the Conference of the Parties, shall be aggregated by the secretariat to protect its confidentiality before being made available to any of the bodies involved in the communication and review of information.

    10 — Subject to paragraph 9 above, and without prejudice to the ability of any Party to make public its communication at any time, the secretariat shall make communications by Parties under this Article publicly available at the time they are submitted to the Conference of the Parties.

    ARTICLE 13

    Resolution of questions regarding implementation

    The Conference of the Parties shall, at its first session, consider the establishment of a multilateral consultative process, available to Parties on their request, for the resolution of questions regarding the implementation of the Convention.

    ARTICLE 14

    Settlement of disputes

    1 — In the event of a dispute between any two or more Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, the Parties concerned shall seek a settlement of the dispute through negotiation or any other peaceful means of their own choice.

    2 — When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to the Convention, or at any time thereafter, a Party which is not a regional economic integration organization may declare in a written instrument submitted to the depositary that, in respect of any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, it recognizes as compulsory ipso facto and without special agreement, in relation to any Party accepting the same obligation:

    a) Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice; and/or

    b) Arbitration in accordance with procedures to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties as soon as practicable, in an annex on arbitration.

    A Party which is a regional economic integration organization may make a declaration with like effect in relation to arbitration in accordance with the procedures referred to in subparagraph b) above.

    3 — A declaration made under paragraph 2 above shall remain in force until it expires in accordance with its terms or until three months after written notice of its revocation has been deposited with the depositary.

    4 — A new declaration, a notice of revocation or the expiry of a declaration shall not in any way affect proceedings pending before the International Court of Justice or the arbitral tribunal, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree.

    5 — Subject to the operation of paragraph 2 above, if after twelve months following notification by one Party to another that a dispute exists between them, the Parties concerned have not been able to settle their dispute through the means mentioned in paragraph 1 above, the dispute shall be submitted, at the request of any of the parties to the dispute, to conciliation.

    6 — A conciliation commission shall be created upon the request of one of the parties to the dispute. The commission shall be composed of anequal number of members appointed by each party concerned and a chairman chosen jointly by the members appointed by each party. The commission shall render a recommendatory award, which the parties shall consider in good faith.

    7 — Additional procedures relating to conciliation shall be adopted by the Conference of the Parties, as soon as practicable, in an annex on conciliation.

    8 — The provisions of this article shall apply to any related legal instrument which the Conference of the Parties may adopt, unless the instrument provides otherwise.

    ARTICLE 15

    Amendments to the Convention

    1 — Any Party may propose amendments to the Convention.

    2 — Amendments to the Convention shall be adopted at an ordinary session of the Conference of the Parties. The text of any proposed amendment to the Convention shall be communicated to the Parties by the secretariat at least six months before the meeting at which it is proposed for adoption. The secretariat shall also communicate proposed amendments to the signatories to the Convention and, for information, to the depositary.

    3 — The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any proposed amendment to the Convention by consensus. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted, and no agreement reached, the amendment shall as a last resort be adopted by a three-fourths majority vote of the Parties present and voting at the meeting. The adopted amendment shall be communicated by the secretariat to the depositary, who shall circulate it to all Parties for their acceptance.

    4 — Instruments of acceptance in respect of an amendment shall be deposited with the depositary. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 3 above shall enter into force for those Parties having accepted it on the ninetieth day after the date of receipt by the depositary of an instrument of acceptance by at least three-fourths of the Parties to the Convention.

    5 — The amendment shall enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after the date on which that Party deposits with the depositary its instrument of acceptance of the said amendment.

    6 — For the purposes of this article, «Parties present and voting» means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.

    ARTICLE 16

    Adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention

    1 — Annexes to the Convention shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise expressly provided, a reference to the Convention constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Without prejudice to the provisions of article 14, paragraphs 2, b), and 7, such annexes shall be restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific, technical, procedural or administrative character.

    2 — Annexes to the Convention shall be proposed and adopted in accordance with the procedure set forth in article 15, paragraphs 2, 3 and 4.

    3 — An annex that has been adopted in accordance with paragraph 2 above shall enter into force for all Parties to the Convention six months after the date of the communication by the depositary to such Parties of the adoption of the annex, except for those Parties that have notified the depositary, in writing, within that period of their non-acceptance of the annex. The annex shall enter into force for Parties which withdraw their notification of non-acceptance on the ninetieth day after the date on which withdrawal of such notification has been received by the depositary.

    4 — The proposal, adoption and entry into force of amendments to annexes to the Convention shall be subject to the same procedure as that for the proposal, adoption and entry into force of annexes to the Convention in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3 above.

    5 — If the adoption of an annex or an amendment to an annex involves an amendment to the Convention, that annex or amendment to an annex shall not enter into force until such time as the amendment to the Convention enters into force.

    ARTICLE 17

    Protocols

    1 — The Conference of the Parties may, at any ordinary session, adopt protocols to the Convention.

    2 — The text of any proposed protocol shall be communicated to the Parties by the secretariat at least six months before such a session.

    3 — The requirements for the entry into force of any protocol shall be established by that instrument.

    4 — Only Parties to the Convention may be Parties to a protocol.

    5 — Decisions under any protocol shall be taken only by the Parties to the protocol concerned.

    ARTICLE 18

    Right to vote

    1 — Each Party to the Convention shall have one vote, except as provided for in paragraph 2 below.

    2 — Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to the Convention. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.

    ARTICLE 19

    Depositary

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the depositary of the Convention and of protocols adopted in accordance with article 17.

    ARTICLE 20

    Signature

    This Convention shall be open for signature by States members of the United Nations or of any of its specialized agencies or that are Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice and by regional economic integration organizations at Rio de Janeiro, during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, and thereafter at United Nations headquarters in New York from 20 June 1992 to 19 June 1993.

    ARTICLE 21

    Interim arrangements

    1 — The secretariat functions referred to in article 8 will be carried out on an interim basis by the secretariat established by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its Resolution 45/212, of 21 December 1990, until the completion of the first session of the Conference of the Parties.

    2 — The head of the interim secretariat referred to in paragraph 1 above will cooperate closely with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to ensure that the Panel can respond to the need for objective scientific and technical advice. Other relevant scientific bodies could also be consulted.

    3 — The Global Environment Facility of the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development shall be the international entity entrusted with the operation of the financial mechanism referred to in article 11 on a interim basis. In this connection, the Global Environment Facility should be appropriately restructured and its membership made universal to enable it to fulfil the requirements of article 11.

    ARTICLE 22

    Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

    1 — The Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by States and by regional economic integration organizations. It shall be open for accession from the day after the date of which the Convention is closed for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the depositary.

    2 — Any regional economic integration organization which becomes a Party to the Convention without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under the Convention. In the case of such organizations, one or more of whose member States is a Party to the Convention, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under the Convention. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under the Convention concurrently.

    3 — In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by the Convention. These organizations shall also inform the depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.

    ARTICLE 23

    Entry into force

    1 — The Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

    2 — For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves the Convention or accedes thereto after the deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

    3 — For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2 above, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by States members of the organization.

    ARTICLE 24

    Reservations

    No reservations may be made to the Convention.

    ARTICLE 25

    Withdrawal

    1 — At any time after three years from the date on which the Convention has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Convention by giving written notification to the depositary.

    2 — Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.

    3 — Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from any protocol to which it is a Party.

    ARTICLE 26

    Authentic texts

    The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

    In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.

    Done at New York this 9th day of May 1992.

    ———

    ANNEX I

    Australia.
    Austria.
    Belarus (a).
    Belgium.
    Bulgaria (a).
    Canada.
    Czechoslovakia (a).
    Denmark.
    European Community.
    Estonia (a).
    Finland.
    France.
    Germany .
    Greece.
    Hungary (a).
    Iceland.
    Ireland.
    Italy.
    Japan.
    Latvia (a).
    Lithuania (a).
    Luxembourg.
    Netherlands.
    New Zealand.
    Norway.
    Poland (a).
    Portugal.
    Romania (a).
    Russian Federation (a).
    Spain.
    Sweden.
    Switzerland.
    Turkey.
    Ukraine (a).
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    United States of America.

    a) Countries that are undergoing the process of transition to a market economy.

    ANNEX II

    Australia.
    Austria.
    Belgium.
    Canada.
    Denmark.
    European Community.
    Finland.
    France.
    Germany.
    Greece.
    Iceland.
    Ireland.
    Italy.
    Japan.
    Luxembourg.
    Netherlands.
    New Zealand.
    Norway.
    Portugal.
    Spain.
    Sweden.
    Switzerland.
    Turkey.
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    United States of America.

    聯合國氣候變化框架公約

    本公約各締約方,

    承認地球氣候的變化及其不利影響是人類共同關心的問題,感到憂慮的是,人類活動已大幅增加大氣中溫室氣體的濃度,這種增加增強了自然溫室效應,平均而言將引起地球表面和大氣進一步增溫,並可能對自然生態系統和人類產生不利影響,

    注意到歷史上和目前全球溫室氣體排放的最大部分源自發達國家;發展中國家的人均排放仍相對較低;發展中國家在全球排放中所占的份額將會增加,以滿足其社會和發展需要,

    意識到陸地和海洋生態系統中溫室氣體匯和庫的作用和重要性,

    注意列在氣候變化的預測中,特別是在其時間,幅度和區域格局方面,有許多不確定性,

    承認氣候變化的全球性,要求所有國家根據其共同但有區別的責任和各自的能力及其社會和經濟條件,儘可能開展最廣泛的合作,並參與有效和適當的國際應對行動,

    回顧1972年6月16日於斯德哥爾摩通過的《聯合國人類環境會議宣言》約有關規定,

    又回顧各國根據《聯合國憲章》和國際法原則,擁有主權權利按自己的環境和發展政策開發自己的資源,也有責任確保在其管轄或控制範圍內的活動不對其他國家的環境或國家管轄範圍以外地區的環境造成損害,

    重申在應付氣候變化的國際合作中的國家主權原則,

    認識到各國應當制定有效的立法;各種環境方面的標準、管理目標和優先順序應當反映其所適用的環境和發展方面情況:並且有些國家所實行的標準對其他國家特別是發展中國家可能是不恰當的,並可能會使之承擔不應有的經濟和社會代價,

    回顧聯合國大會關於聯合國環境與發展會議的1989年12月22日第44/228號決議的決定,以及關於為人類當代和後代保護全球氣候的1988年12月6日第43/53號、1989年12月22日第44/207號、1990年12月21日第45/212號和1991年12月19日第46/169號決議,

    又回顧聯合國大會關於海平面上升對島嶼和沿海地區特別是低洼沿海地區可能產生的不利影響的1989年12月22日第44/206號決議各項規定,以及聯合國大會關於防治沙漠化行動計劃實施情況的1989年12月19日第44/172號決議的有關規定,

    並回顧1985年《保護臭氧層維也納公約》和於1990年6月29日調整和修正的1987年(關於消耗臭氧層物質的蒙特利爾議定書》,

    注意到1990年11月7日通過的第二次世界氣候大會部長宣言,

    意識到許多國家就氣候變化所進行的有價值的分析工作,以及世界氣候組織、聯合國環境規劃署和聯合國系統的其他機關、組織和機構及其他國際和政府間機構對交換科學研究成果和協調研究工作所作的重要貢獻,

    認識到了解和應付氣候變化所需的步驟只有基於有關的科學、技術和經濟方面的考慮,並根據這些領域的新發現不斷加以重新評價,才能在環境、社會和經濟方面最為有效,

    認識到應付氣候變化的各種行動本身在經濟上就能夠是合理的,而且還能有助於解決其他環境問題,

    又認識到發達國家有必要根據明確的優先順序,立即靈活地採取行動,以作為形成考慮到所有溫室氣體並適當考慮它們對增強溫室效應的相對作用的全球、國家和可能議定的區域性綜合應對戰略的第一步,

    並認識到地勢低注國家和其他小島嶼國家、擁有低洼沿海地區、乾旱和半乾旱地區或易受水災、旱災和沙漠化影響地區的國家以及具有脆弱的山區生態系統的發展中國家特別容易受到氣候變化的不利影響,

    認識到其經濟特別依賴於礦物燃料的生產、使用和出口的國家特別是發展中國家由於為了限制溫室氣體排放而採取的行動所面臨的特殊困難,

    申明應當以統籌兼顧的方式把應付氣候變化的行動與社會和經濟發展協調起來,以免後者受到不利影響,同時充分考慮到發展中國家實現持續經濟增長和消除貧困的正當的優先需要,

    認識到所有國家特別是發展中國家需要得到買現可持續的社會和經濟發展所需的資源;發展中國家為了邁向這一目標,其能源消耗將需要增加,雖然考慮到有可能包括通過在具有經濟和社會效益的條件下應用新技術來提高能源效率和一般地控制溫室氣體排放,

    決心為當代和後代保護氣候系統,

    茲協議如下:

    第一條

    定義

    為本公約的目的:

    1. “氣候變化的不利影響”指氣候變化所造成的自然環境或生物區系的變化,這些變化對自然的和管理下的生態系統的組成、復原力或生產力、或對社會經濟系統的運作、或對人類的健康和福利產生重大約有害影響。

    2. “氣候變化”指除在類似時期內所觀測的氣候的自然變異之外,由於直接或間接的人類活動改變了地球大氣的組成而造成的氣候變化。

    3. “氣候系統”指大氣圈、水圈、生物圈和地圈的整體及其相互作用。

    4. “排放”指溫室氣候和/或其前體在一個特定地區和時期內向大氣的釋放。

    5. “溫室氣體”指大氣中那些吸收和重新放出紅外輻射的自然的和人為的氣態成分。

    6. “區域經濟一體化組織”指一個特定區域的主權國家組成的組織,有權處理本公約或其議定書所規定的事項,並經按其內部程序獲得正式授權簽署、批准、接受、核准或加入有關文書。

    7. “庫”指氣候系統內存儲溫室氣體或其前體的一個或多個組成部分。

    8. “匯”指從大氣中清除溫室氣體、氣溶膠或溫室氣

    體前體的任何過程、活動或機制。

    9. “源”指向大氣排放溫室氣體、氣溶膠或溫室氣體前體的任何過程或活動。

    第二條

    目標

    本公約以及締約方會議可能通過的任何相關法律文書的最終目標是:根據本公約的各項有關規定,將大氣中溫室氣體的濃度穩定在防止氣候系統受到危險的人為干擾的水平上。這一水平應當在足以使生態系統能夠自然地適應氣候變化、確保糧食生產免受威脅並使經濟發展能夠可持續地進行的時間範圍內實現。

    第三條

    原則

    各締約方在為實現本公約的目標和履行其各項規定而採取行動時,除其他外,應以下列作為指導:

    1. 各締約方應當在公平的基礎上,並根據它們共同但有區別的責任和各自的能力,為人類當代和後代的利益保護氣候系統。因此,發達國家締約方應當率先對付氣候變化及其不利影響。

    2. 應當充分考慮到發展中國家締約方尤其是特別易受氣候變化不利影響的那些發展中國家締約力的具體需要和特殊情況,也應當充分考慮到那些按本公約必須承擔不成比例或不正常負擔的締約方特別是發展中國家締約力的具體需要和特殊情況。

    3. 各締約方應當採取預防措施,預測、防止或盡量減少引起氣候變化的原因並緩解其不利影響。當存在造成嚴重或不可逆轉的損害的威脅時,不應當以科學上沒有完全的確定性為理由推遲採取這類措施,同時考慮到應付氣候變化的政策和措施應當講求成本效益,確保以儘可能最低的費用獲得全球效益。為此,這種政策和措施應當考慮到不同的社會經濟情況。並且應當具有全面性,包括所有有關的溫室氣體源、匯和庫及適應措施,並涵蓋所有經濟部門。應付氣候變化的努力可由有關的締約方合作進行。

    4. 各締約方有權並且應當促進可持續的發展。保護氣候系統免遭人為變化的政策和措施應當適合每個締約力的具體情況,並應當結合到國家的發展計劃中去,同時考慮到經濟發展對於採取措施應付氣候變化是至關重要的。

    5. 各締約尤應當合作促進有利的和開放的國際經濟體系,這種體系將促成所有締約方特別是發展中國家締約力的可持續經濟增長和發展,從而使它們有能力更好地應付氣候變化的問題。為對付氣候變化而採取的措施,包括單方面措施,不應當成為國際貿易上的任意或無理的歧視手段或者隱蔽的限制。

    第四條

    承諾

    1. 所有締約方,考慮到它們共同但有區別的責任,以及各自具體的國家和區域發展優先順序,目標和情況,應:

    (a) 用待由締約方會議議定的可比方法編製、定期更新、公布並按照第十二條向締約方會議提供關於《蒙特利爾議定書》未予管制的所有溫室氣候的各種源的人為排放和各種匯的清除的國家清單:

    (b) 制訂、執行、公布和經常地更新國家的以及在適當情況下區域的計劃,其中包含從《蒙特利爾議定書》未予管制的所有溫室氣體的源的人為排放和匯的清除來着手減緩氣候變化的措施,以及便利充分地適應氣候變化的措施;

    (c) 在所有有關部門,包括能源,運輸,工業、農業、林業和廢物管理部門,促進和合作發展、應用和傳播(包括轉讓)各種用來控制、減少或防止《蒙特利爾議定書》未予管制的溫室氣體的人為排放的技術,做法和過程;

    (d) 促進可持續地管理,並促進和合作酌情維護和加強《蒙特利爾議定書》未予管制的所有溫室氣體的匯和庫,包括生物質、森林和海洋以及其他陸地、沿海和海洋生態系統;

    (e)合作為適應氣候變化的影響做好準備:擬訂和詳細制定關於沿海地區的管理、水資源和農業以及關於受到旱災和沙漠化及洪水影響的地區特別是非洲的這種地區的保護和恢復的適當的綜合性計劃;

    (f) 在它們有關的社會、經濟和環境政策及行動中, 在可行的範圍內將氣候變化考慮進去,並採用由本國擬訂和確定的適當辦法,例如進行影響評估,以期盡量減少它們為了減緩或適應氣候變化而進行的項目或採取的措施對經濟、公共健康和環境質量產生的不利影響:

    (g) 促進和合作進行關於氣候系統的科學、技術、工藝、社會經濟和其他研究、系統觀測及開發數據檔案,目的是增進對氣候變化的起因、影響、規模和發生時間以及各種應對戰略所帶來的經濟和社會後果的認識,和減少或消除在這些方面尚存的不確定性:

    (h)促進和合作進行關於氣候系統和氣候變化以及關於各種應對戰略所帶來的經濟和社會後果的科學、技術、工藝、社會經濟和法律方面約有關信息的充分、公開和迅速的交流;

    (i)促進和合作進行與氣候變化有關的教育、培訓和提高公眾意識的工作,並鼓勵人們對這個過程最廣泛參與,包括鼓勵各種非政府組織的參與;

    (j)依照第十二條向締約方會議提供有關履行的信息。

    2. 附件一所列的發達國家締約方和其他締約方具體承諾如下所規定:

    (a) 每一個此類締約力應制定國家政策和採取相應的措施,通過限制其人為的溫室氣體排放以及保護和增強其溫室氣體庫和匯,減緩氣候變化。這些政策和措施將表明,發達國家是在帶頭依循本公約的目標,改變人為排放的長期趨勢,同時認識到至本十年末使二氧化碳和《蒙特利爾議定書》未予管制的其他溫室氣體的人為排放回復到較早的水平,將會有助於這種改變,並考慮到這些締約方的起點和做法、經濟結構和資源基礎方面的差別、維持強有力和可持續經濟增長的需要、可以採用的技術以及其他各別情況,又考慮到每一個此類締約方都有必要對為了實現該目標而作的全球努力作出公平和適當的貢獻。這些締約方可以同其他締約方共同執行這些政策和措施,也可以協助其他締約方為實現本公約的目標特別是本項的目標作出貢獻:

    (b) 為了推動朝這一目標取得進展,每一個此類締約方應依照第十二條,在本公約對其生後六個月內,並在其後定期地就其上述(a)項所述的政策和措施,以及就其由此預測在(a)項所述期間內《蒙特利爾議定書》未予管制的溫室氣體的源的人為排放和匯的清除,提供詳細信息,目的在各別地或共同地使二氧化碳和(蒙特利爾議定書)未予管制的其他溫室氣體的人為排放回復到1990年的水平。按照第七條,這些信息將由締約方會議在其第一屆會議上以及在其後定期地加以審評;

    (c)為了上述(b)項的目的而計算各種溫室氣體源的排放和匯的清除時,應該參考可以得到的最佳科學知識,包括關於各種匯的有效容量和每一種溫室氣體在引起氣候變化方面的作用的知識。締約方會議應在其第一屆會議上考慮和議定進行這些計算的方法,並在其後經常地加以審評:

    (d)締約方會議應在其第一屆會議上審評上述(a)項和(b)項是否充足。進行審評時應參照可以得到的關於氣候變化及其影響的最佳科學信息和評估,以及有關的工藝、社會和經濟信息。在審評的基礎上,締約方會議應採取適當的行動,其中可以包括通過對上述(a)項和(b)項承諾的修正。締約方會議第一屆會議還應就上述(a)項所述共同執行的標準作出決定。對(a)項和(b)項的第二次審評應不遲於1998年12月31日進行,其後按由締約方會議確定的定期間隔進行,直至本公約的目標達到為止;

    (e) 每一個此類締約力應:

    (一)酌情同其他此類締約方協調為了實現本公約的目標而開發的有關經濟和行政手段;和

    (二)確定並定期審評其本身有哪些政策和做法鼓勵了導致《蒙特利爾議定書》未予管制的溫室氣候的人為排放水平因而更高的活動。

    (f)締約方會議應至遲在1998年12月31日之前審評可以得到的信息,以便經有關締約方同意,作出適當修正附件一和二內名單的決定;

    (g)不在附件一之列的任何締約方,可以在其批准、接受、核准或加入的文書中,或在其後任何時間,通知保存人其有意接受上述(a)項和(b)項的約束。保存人應將任何此類通知通報其他簽署方和締約方。

    3. 附件二所別的發達國家締約方和其他發達締約方應提供新的和額外的資金,以支付經議定的發展中國家締約方為履行第十二條第1款規定的義務而招致的全部費用。它們還應提供發展中國家締的方所需要的資金。包括用於技術轉讓的資金,以支付經議定的為執行本條第1款所述並經發展中國家締約方同第十一條所述那個或那些國際實體依該條議定的措施的全部增加費用。這些承諾的履行應考慮到資金流量應充足和可以預測的必要性,以及發達國家締約方間適當分攤負擔的重要性。

    4. 附件二所別的發達國家締約方和其他發達締約方還應幫助特別易受氣候變化不利影響的發展中國家締約方支付適應這些不利影響的費用。

    5. 附件二所別的發達國家締約方和其他發達締約方應採取一切實際可行的步驟,酌情促進、便利和資助向其他締約方特別是發展中國家締約方轉讓或使它們有機會得到無害環境的技術和專有技術,以使它們能夠履行本公約的各項規定。在此過程中,發達國家締約方應支持開發和增強發展中國家締約方的自生能力和技術。有能力這樣做的其他締約方和組織也可協助便利這類技術的轉讓。

    6. 對於附件一所列正在朝市場經濟過渡的締約方,在履行其在上述第2款下的承諾時,包括在《蒙特利爾議定書》未予管制的溫室氣體人為排放的可資參照的歷史水平方面,應由締約方會議允許它們有一定程度的靈活性,以增強這些締約方應付氣候變化的能力。

    7. 發展中國家締約方能在多大程度上有效履行其在本公約下的承諾,將取決於發達國家締約方對其在本公約下所承擔的有關資金和技術轉讓的承諾的有效履行,並將充分考慮到經濟和社會發展及消除貧困是發展中國家締約方的首要和壓倒一切的優先事項。

    8. 在履行本條各項承諾時,各締約方應充分考慮按照本公約需要採取哪些行動,包括與提供資金、保險和技術轉讓有關的行動,以滿足發展中國家締約方由於氣候變化的不利影響和/或執行應對措施所造成的影響,特別是對下列各類國家的影響,而產生的具體需要和關注:

    (a)小島嶼國家;

    (b)有低洼沿海地區的國家:

    (c)有乾旱和半乾旱地區、森林地區和容易發生森林退化的地區的國家;

    (d) 有易遭自然災害地區的國家;

    (e) 有容易發生旱災和沙漠化的地區的國家;

    (f) 有城市大氣嚴重污染的地區的國家;

    (g) 有脆弱生態系統包括山區生態系統的國家;

    (h) 其經濟高度依賴於礦物燃料和相關的能源密集產品的生產、加工和出口所帶來的收入,和/或高度依賴於這種燃料和產品的消費的國家;和

    (i) 內陸國和過境國。

    此外,締約方會議可酌情就本款採取行動。

    9. 各締約方在採取有關提供資金和技術轉讓的行動時,應充分考慮到最不發達國家的具體需要和特殊情況。

    10. 各締約方應按照第十條,在履行本公約各項承諾時,考慮到其經濟容易受到執行應付氣候變化的措施所造成的不利影響之害的締約方、特別是發展中國家締約方的情況。這尤其適用於其經濟高度依賴於礦物燃料和相關的能源密集產品的生產、加工和出口所帶來的收入,和/或高度依賴於這種燃料和產品的消費,和/或高度依賴於礦物燃料的使用,而改用其他燃料又非常困難的那些締約方。

    第五條

    研究和系統觀測

    在履行第四條第1款(g)項下的承諾時,各締約方應:

    (a) 支持並酌情進一步制訂旨在確定、進行、評估和資助研究、數據收集和系統觀測的國際和政府間計劃和站網或組織,同時考慮到有必要盡量減少工作重複:

    (b) 支持旨在加強尤其是發展中國家的系統觀測及國家科學和技術研究能力的國際和政府間努力,並促進獲取和交換從國家管轄範圍以外地區取得的數據及其分析;和

    (c) 考慮發展中國家的特殊關注和需要,並開展合作提高它們參與上述(a)項和(b)項中所述努力的自生能力。

    第六條

    教育、培訓和公眾意識

    在履行第四條第1款(i)項下的承諾時,各締約方應:

    (a) 在國家一級並酌情在次區域和區域一級,根據國 家法律和規定,並在各自的能力範圍內,促進和便利:

    (一) 擬訂和實施有關氣候變化及其影響的教育及提高公眾意識的計劃;

    (二) 公眾獲取有關氣候變化及其影響的信息;

    (三) 公眾參與應付氣候變化及其影響和擬訂適當的對策;和

    (四) 培訓科學、技術和管理人員。

    (b) 在國際一級,酌情利用現有的機構,在下列領域進行合作並促進:

    (一) 編寫和交換有關氣候變化及其影響的教育及提高公眾意識的材料;和

    (二) 擬訂和實施教育和培訓計劃,包括加強國內機構和交流或借調人員來特別是為發展中國家培訓這方面的專家。

    第七條

    締約方會議

    1. 茲設立締約方會議。

    2. 締約方會議作為本公約的最高機構,應定期審評本公約和締約方會議可能通過的任何相關法律文書的履行情況,並應在其職權範圍內作出為促進本公約約有效履行所必要的決定。為此目的,締約方會議應:

    (a) 根據本公約的目標、在履行本公約過程中取得的經驗和科學與技術知識的發展,定期審評本公約規定的締約方義務和機構安排;

    (b) 促進和便利就各締約方為應付氣候變化及其影響而採取的措施進行信息交流,同時考慮到各締約方不同的情況、責任和能力以及各自在本公約下的承諾:

    (c) 應兩個或更多的締約方的要求,便利將這些締約方為應付氣候變化及其影響而採取的措施加以協調,同時考慮到各締約方不同的情況、責任和能力以及各自在本公約下的承諾;

    (d)依照本公約的目標和規定,促進和指導發展和定期改進由締約方會議議定的,除其他外,用來編製各種溫室氣體源的排放和各種匯的清除的清單,和評估為限制這些氣體的排放及增進其清除而採取的各種措施約有效性的可比方法;

    (e) 根據依本公約規定獲得的所有信息,評估各締約方履行公約的情況和依照公約所採取措施的總體影響,特別是環境、經濟和社會影響及其累計影響,以及當前在實現本公約的目標方面取得的進展;

    (f) 審議並通過關於本公約履行情況的定期報告,並確保予以發表;

    (g)就任何事項作出為履行本公約所必需的建議;

    (h)按照第四條第3、第4和第5款及第十一條,設法動員資金;

    (i)設立其認為履行公約所必需的附屬機構;

    (j)審評其附屬機構提出的報告,並向它們提供指導;

    (k)以協商一致方式議定並通過締約方會議和任何附屬機構的議事規則和財務規則;

    (1) 酌情尋求和利用各主管國際組織和政府間及非政府機構提供的服務、合作和信息;和

    (m) 行使實現本公約目標所需的其他職能以及依本公約所賦與的所有其他職能。

    3. 締約方會議應在其第一屆會議上通過其本身的議事規則以及本公約所設立的附屬機構的議事規則。其中應包括關於本公約所述各種決策程序未予規定的事項的決策程序。這類程序可包括通過具體決定所需的特定多數。

    4. 締約方會議第一屆會議應由第二十一條所述的臨時秘書處召集,並應不遲於本公約生效日期後一年舉行。其後,除締約方會議另有決定外,締約方會議的常會應年年舉行。

    5. 締約方會議特別會議應在締約方會議認為必要的其他時間舉行,或應任何締約方的書面要求而舉行,但須在秘書處將該要求轉達給各締約方後六個月內得到至少1/3締約方的支持。

    6. 聯合國及其專門機構和國際原子能機構,以及它們的非為本公約締約方的會員國或觀察員,均可作為觀察員出席締約方會議的各屆會議。任何在本公約所涉事項上具備資格的團體或機構,不管其為國家或國際的,政府或非政府的,經通知秘書處其願意作為觀察員出席締約方會議的某屆會議,均可予以接納,除非出席的締約方至少1/3反對。觀察員的接納和參加應遵循締約方會議通過的議事規則。

    第八條

    秘書處

    1. 茲設立秘書處。

    2. 秘書處的職能應為:

    (a) 安排締約方會議及依本公約設立的附屬機構的各屆會議,並向它們提供所需的服務;

    (b)匯編和轉遞向其提交的報告;

    (c)便利應要求時協助各締約方特別是發展中國家締約方匯編和轉遞依本公約規定所需的信息;

    (d)編製關於其活動的報告,並提交給締約方會議;

    (e)確保與其他有關國際機構的秘書處的必要協調;

    (f)在締約方會議的全面指導下訂立為有效履行其職能而可 能需要的行政和合同安排:和

    (g)行使本公約及其任何議定書所規定的其他秘書處職能和 締約方會議可能決定的其他職能。

    3. 締約方會議應在其第一屆會議上指定一個常設秘書處,並為其行使職能作出安排。

    第九條

    附屬科技諮詢機構

    1. 茲設立附屬科學和技術諮詢機構,就與公約有關的科學和技術事項,同締約方會議並酌情向締約方會議的其他附屬機構及時提供信息和諮詢。該機構應開放供所有締約方參加,並應具有多學科性。該機構應由在有關專門領域勝任的政府代表組成。該機構應定期就其工作的一切方面向締約方會議報告。

    2. 在締約方會議指導下和依靠現有主管國際機構,該機構應:

    (a) 就有關氣候變化及其影響的最新科學知識提出評估;

    (b)就履行公約所採取措施的影響進行科學評估;

    (c)確定創新的、有效率的和最新的技術與專有技術,並就促進這類技術的發展和/或轉讓的途徑與方法提供諮詢;

    (d)就有關氣候變化的科學計劃和研究與發展的國際合作,以及就支持發展中國家建立自生能力的途徑與方法提供諮詢;和

    (e) 答覆締約方會議及其附屬機構可能向其提出的科學、技術和方法問題。

    3. 該機構的職能和職權範圍可由締約方會議進一步制定。

    第十條

    附屬履行機構

    1. 茲設立附屬履行機構,以協助締約方會議評估和審評本公約的有效履行。該機構應開放供所有締約方參加,並由為氣候變化問題專家的政府代表組成。該機構應定期就其工作的一切方面向締約方會議報告。

    2. 在締約方會議的指導下,該機構應:

    (a) 考慮依第十二條第1款提供的信息,參照有關氣候變化的最新科學評估,對各締約方所採取步驟的總體合計影響作出評估;

    (b) 考慮依第十二條第2款提供的信息,以協助締約方會議進行第四條第2款(d)項所要求的審評:和

    (c) 酌情協助締約方會議擬訂和執行其決定。

    第十一條

    資金機制

    1. 茲確定一個在贈與或轉讓基礎上提供資金、包括用於技術轉讓的資金的機制。該機制應在締約方會議的指導下行使職能並向其負責,並應由締約方會議決定該機制與本公約有關的政策、計劃優先順序和資格標準。該機制的經營應委託一個或多個現有的國際實體負責。

    2. 該資金機制應在一個透明的管理制度下公平和均衡地代表所有締約方。

    3. 締約方會議和受託管資金機制的那個或那些實體應議定實施上述各款的安排,其中應包括:

    (a) 確保所資助的應付氣候變化的項目符合締約方會議所制定的政策、計劃優先順序和資格標準的辦法;

    (b)根據這些政策、計劃優先順序和資格標準重新考慮某項供資決定的辦法;

    (c) 依循上述第1款所述的負責要求,由那個或那些實體定期向締約方會議提供關於其供資業務的報告。

    (d) 以可預測和可認定的方式確定履行本公約所必需的和可以得到的資金數額,以及定期審評此一數額所應依據的條件。

    4. 締約方會議應在其第一屆會議上作出履行上述規定的安排,同時審評並考慮到第二十一條第3款所述的臨時安排,並應決定這些臨時安排是否應予維持。在其後四年內,締約方會議應對資金機制進行審評,並採取適當的措施。

    5. 發達國家締約方還可通過雙邊、區域性和其他多邊渠道提供並由發展中國家締約方獲取與履行本公約有關的資金。

    第十二條

    提供有關履行的信息

    1. 按照第四條第1款,第一締約方應通過秘書處向締約方會議提供含有下列內容的信息:

    (a) 在其能力允許的範圍內,用締約方會議所將推行和議定的可比方法編成的關於(蒙特利爾議定書)未予管制的所有溫室氣體的各種源的人為排放和各種匯的清除的國家清單;

    (b) 關於該締約方為履行公約而採取或設想的步驟的一般性描述:和

    (c) 該締約方認為與實現本公約的目標有關並且適合列入其所提供信息的任何其他信息,在可行情況下,包括興計算全球排放趨勢有關的資料。

    2. 附件一所列每一發達國家締約方和每一其他締約方應在其所提供的信息中列入下列各類信息:

    (a) 關於該締約方為履行其第四條第2款(a)項和(b)項下承諾所採取政策和措施的詳細描述:和

    (b) 關於本款(a)項所述政策和措施在第四條第2款(a)項所述期間對溫室氣體各種源的排放和各種匯的清除所產生影響的具體估計。

    3. 此外,附件二所列每一發達國家締約方和每一其他發達締約方應列入按照第四條第3、第4和第5款所採取措施的詳情。

    4. 發展中國家締約方可在自願基礎上提出需要資助的項目,包括為執行這些項目所需要的具體技術、材料、設備、工藝或做法,在可能情況下並附上對所有增加的費用、溫室氣體排放的減少量及其清除的增加量的估計,以及對其所帶來效益的估計。

    5. 附件一所列每一發達國家締約方和每一其他締約方應在公約對該締約方生效後六個月內第一次提供信息。未列入該附件的每一締約方應在公約對該締約方生效後或按照第四條第3款獲得資金後三年內第一次提供信息。最不發達國家締約方可自行決定何時第一次提供信息。其後所有締約方提供信息的頻度應由締約方會議考慮到本款所規定的差別時間表予以確定。

    6. 各締約方按照本條提供的信息應由秘書處盡速轉交給締約方會議和任何有關的附屬機構。如有必要,提供信息的程序可由締約方會議進一步考慮。

    7. 締約方會議從第一屆會議起,應安排向有此要求的發展中國家締約方提供技術和資金支持,以匯編和提供本條所規定的信息,和確定與第四條規定的所擬議的項目和應對措施相聯繫的技術和資金需要。這些支持可酌情由其他締約方、主管國際組織和秘書處提供。

    8. 任何一組締約方遵照締約方會議制定的指導方針並經事先通知締約方會議,可以聯合提供信息來履行其在本條下的義務,但這樣提供的信息須包括關於其中每一締約方履行其在本公約下的各自義務的信息。

    9. 秘書處收到的經締約方按照締約方會議制定的標準指明為機密的信息,在提供給任何參與信息的提供和審評的機構之前,應由秘書處加以匯總,以保護其機密性。

    10. 在不違反上述第9款,並且不妨礙任何締約方在任何時候公開其所提供信息的能力的情況下,秘書處應將締約方按照本條提供的信息在其提交給締約方會議的同時予以公開。

    第十三條

    解決與履行有關的問題

    締約方會議應在其第一屆會議上考慮設立一個解決與公約履行有關的問題的多邊協商程序,供締約方有此要求時予以利用。

    第十四條

    爭端的解決

    1. 任何兩個或兩個以上締約方之間就本公約的解釋或適用發生爭端時,有關的締約方應尋求通過談判或它們自己選擇的任何其他和平方式解決該爭端。

    2. 非為區域經濟一體化組織的締約方在批准、接受、核准或加入本公約時,或在其後任何時候,可在交給保存人的一份文書中聲明,關於本公約的解釋或適用方面的任何爭端,承認對於接受同樣義務的任何締約方,下列義務為當然而具有強制性的,無須另訂特別協議:

    (a) 將爭端提交國際法院,和/或

    (b) 按照將由締約方會議盡早通過的,載於仲裁附件中的程序進行仲裁。作為區域經濟一體化組織的締約方可就依上述(b)項中所述程序進行仲裁發表類似聲明。

    3. 根據上述第2款所作的聲明,在其所載有效期期滿前,或在書面撤回通知交存於保存人後的三個月內,應一直有效。

    4. 除非爭端各當事方另有協議,所作聲明、作出撤回通知或聲明有效期滿絲毫不得影響國際法院或仲裁庭正在進行的審理。

    5. 在不影響上述第2款運作的情況下,如果一締約方通知另一締約方它們之間存在爭端,過了十二個月後,有關的締約方尚未能通過上述第1款所述方法解決爭端,經爭端的任何當事方要求,應將爭端提交調解。

    6. 經爭端一當事方要求,應設立調解委員會。調解委員會應由每一當事方委派的數目相同的成員組成.主席由每一當事方委派的成員共同推選。調解委員會應作出建議性裁決。各當事方應善意考慮之。

    7. 有關調解的補充程序應由締約方會議盡早以調解附件的形式予以通過。

    8. 本條各項規定應適用於締約方會議可能通過的任何相關法律文書,除非該文書另有規定。

    第十五條

    公約的修正

    1. 任何締約方均可對本公約提出修正。

    2. 對本公約的修正應在締約方會議的一屆常會上通過。對本公約提出的任何修正案文應由秘書處在擬議通過該修正的會議之前至少六個月送交各締約方。秘書處還應將提出的修正送交本公約各簽署方,並送交保存人以供參考。

    3. 各締約方應盡一切努力以協商一致方式就對本公約提出的任何修正達成協議。如為謀求協商一致已盡了一切努力,仍未達成協議,作為最後的方式,該修正應以出席會議並參加表決的締約方3/4多數票通過。通過的修正應由秘書處送交保存人,再由保存人轉送所有締約方供其接受。

    4. 對修正的接受文書應交存於保存人。按照上述第3款通過的修正,應於保存人收到本公約至少3/4締約方的接受文書之日後第九十天起對接受該修正的締約方生效。

    5. 對於任何其他締約方,修正應在該締約方向保存人交存接受該修正的文書之日後第九十天起對其生效。

    6. 為本條的目的,“出席並參加表決的締約方”是指出席並投贊成票或反對票的締約方。

    第十六條

    公約附件的通過和修正

    1. 本公約的附件應構成本公約的組成部分,除另有明文規定外,凡提到本公約時即同時提到其任何附件。在不妨害第十四條第2款(b)項和第7款規定的情況下,這些附件應限於清單、表格和任何其他屬於科學、技術、程序或行政性質的說明性資料。

    2. 本公約的附件應按照第十五條第2、第3和第4款中規定的程序提出和通過。

    3. 按照上述第2款通過的附件,應於保存人向公約的所有締約方發出關於通過該附件的通知之日起六個月後對所有締約方生效,但在此期間以書面形式通知保存人不接受該附件的締約方除外。對於撤回其不接受的通知的締約方。該附件應自保存人收到撤回通知之日後第九十天起對其生效。

    4. 對公約附件的修正的提出、通過和生效,應依照上述第2和第3款對公約附件的提出、通過和生效規定的同一程序進行。

    5. 如果附件或對附件的修正的通過涉及對本公約的修正,則該附件或對附件的修正應待對公約的修正生效之後方可生效。

    第十七條

    議定書

    1. 締約方會議可在任何一屆常會上通過本公約的議定書。

    2. 任何擬議的決定書案文應由秘書處在舉行該屆會議至少六個月之前送交各締約方。

    3. 任何議定書的生效條件應由該文書加以規定。

    4. 只有本公約的締約方才可成為議定書的締約方。

    5. 任何議定書下的決定只應由該議定書的締約方作出。

    第十八條

    表決權

    1. 除下述第2款所規定外,本公約每一締約方應有一票表決權。

    2. 區域經濟一體化組織在其權限內的事項上應行使票數與其作為本公約締約方的成員國數目相同的表決權。如果一個此類組織的任一成員國行使自己的表決權,則該組織不得行使表決權,反之亦然。

    第十九條

    保存人

    聯合國秘書長應為本公約及按照第十七條通過的議定書的保存人。

    第二十條

    簽署

    本公約應於聯合國環境與發展會議期間在里約熱內盧,其後自1992年6月20日至1993年6月19日在紐約聯合國總部,開放供聯合國會員國或任何聯合國專門機構的成員國或(國際法院規約)的當事國和各區域經濟一體化組織簽署。

    第二十一條

    臨時安排

    1. 在締約方會議第一屆會議結束前,第八條所述的秘書處職能將在臨時基礎上由聯合國大會1990年12月21日第45/212號決議所設立的秘書處行使。

    2. 上述第1款所述的臨時秘書處首長將與政府間氣候變化專門委員會密切合作,以確保該委員會能夠對提供客觀科學和技術諮詢的要求作出反應。也可以諮詢其他有關的科學機構。

    3. 在臨時基礎上,聯合國開發計劃署、聯合國環境規劃署和國際復興開發銀行的“全球環境融資”應為受託經營第十一條所述資金機制的國際實體。在這方面,“全球環境融資”應予適當改革,並使其成員具有普遍性,以使其能滿足第十一條的要求。

    第二十二條

    批准、接受、核准或加入

    1. 本公約須經各國和各區域經濟一體化組織批准、接受、核准或加入。公約應自簽署截止日之次日起開放供加入。批准、接受、核准或加入的文書應交存於保存人。

    2. 任何成為本公約締約方而其成員國均非締約方的區域經濟一體化組織應受本公約一切義務的約束。如果此類組織的一個或多個成員國為本公約的締約方,該組織及其成員國應決定各自在履行公約義務方面的責任。在此種情況下,該組織及其成員國無權同時行使本公約規定的權利。

    3. 區域經濟一體化組織應在其批准、接受、核准或加入的文書中聲明其在本公約所規定事項上的權限。此類組織還應將其權限範圍的任何重大變更通知保存人,再由保存人通知各締約方。

    第二十三條

    生效

    1. 本公約應自第五十份批准、接受、核准或加入的文書交存之日後第九十天起生效。

    2. 對於在第五十份批准、接受、核准或加入的文書交存之後批准、接受、核准或加入本公約的每一國家或區域經濟一體化組織,本公約應自該國或該區域經濟一體化組織交存其批准、接受、.核准或加入的文書之日後第九十天起生效。

    3. 為上述第1和第2款的目的,區域經濟一體化組織所交存的任何文書不應被視為該組織成員國所交存文書之外的額外文書。

    第二十四條

    保留

    對本公約不得作任何保留。

    第二十五條

    退約

    1. 自本公約對一締約方生效之日起三年後,該締約方可隨時向保存人發出書面通知退出本公約。

    2. 任何退出應自保存人收到退出通知之日起一年期滿時生效,或在退出通知中所述明的更後日期生效。

    3. 退出本公約的任何締約方,應被視為亦退出其作為締約方的任何議定書。

    第二十六條

    作準文本

    本公約正本應交存於聯合國秘書長,其阿拉伯文、中文、英文、法文、俄文和西班牙文文本同為作準。

    下列簽署人,經正式授權,在本公約上簽字,以昭信守。

    附件一

    澳大利亞 歐洲共同體
    奧地利 愛沙尼亞 a
    白俄羅斯 a 芬蘭
    比利時 法國
    保加利亞 a 德國
    加拿大 希臘
    捷克斯洛伐克 a 匈牙利 a
    丹麥 冰島
    愛爾蘭 羅馬尼亞a
    意大利 俄羅斯聯邦 a
    日本 西班牙
    拉脫維亞 a 瑞典
    立陶宛 瑞士
    盧森堡 土耳其
    荷蘭 烏克蘭 a
    新西蘭 大不列顛及北愛爾蘭聯合王國
    挪威 美利堅合眾國
    波蘭 a  
    葡萄牙  

    a 正在朝市場經濟過渡的國家。

    附件二

    澳大利亞 日本
    奧地利 盧森堡
    比利時 荷蘭
    加拿大 新西蘭
    丹麥 挪威
    歐洲共同體 葡萄牙
    芬蘭 西班牙
    法國 瑞典
    德國 瑞士
    希臘 土耳其
    冰島 大不列顛及北愛爾蘭聯合王國
    愛爾蘭 美利堅合眾國
    意大利  

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