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法規:

第21/93號命令

公報編號:

32/1999

刊登日期:

1999.8.9

版數:

2756-2790

  • 通過《生物多樣性公約》以待批准。

葡文版本

相關法規 :
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  • 第104/99號通告 - 茲按命令公布:已通知作為《生物多樣性公約》保管人之聯合國秘書長,上述公約適用於澳門地區。
  • 第34/2002號行政長官公告 - 命令公佈關於中華人民共和國就一九九二年五月二十二日於內羅畢通過的《生物多樣性公約》繼續適用於澳門特別行政區承擔當事國責任的通知書。
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  • 《LegisMac》的法例註釋

    《公報》原始 PDF 版本

    第21/93號命令

    六月二十一日

    政府根據《憲法》第二百條第一款c項之規定,命令如下:

    獨一條——通過《生物多樣性公約》以待批准;該公約於一九九二年五月二十日由在聯合國大會內組成之政府間談判委員會議定,並於一九九二年六月五日在聯合國關於環境及發展之會議上開放簽署;該公約之英文原文及葡文譯本附於本命令。

    一九九三年四月十五日於部長會議內檢閱及通過 ——Aníbal António Cavaco Silva —— Domingos Manuel Martins Jerónimo —— Carlos Alberto Diogo Soares Borrego.

    一九九三年五月二十六日頒布。

    命令公布。

    共和國總統 Mário Soares

    一九九三年五月二十八日副署。

    總理 Aníbal António Cavaco Silva


    CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

    Preamble

    The Contracting Parties:

    Conscious of the intrinsic value of biological diversity and of the ecological, genetic, social, economic, scientific, educational, cultural, recreational and aesthetic values of biological diversity and its components;

    Conscious also of the importance of biological diversity for evolution and for maintaining life sustaining systems of the biosphere;

    Affirming that the conservation of biological diversity is a common concern of humankind;

    Reaffirming that States have sovereign rights over their own biological resources;

    Reaffirming also that States are responsible for conserving their biological diversity and for using their biological resources in a sustainable manner;

    Concerned that biological diversity is being significantly reduced by certain human activities;

    Aware of the general lack of information and knowledge regarding biological diversity and of the urgent need to develop scientific, technical and institutional capacities to provide the basic understanding upon which to plan and implement appropriate measures;

    Noting that it is vital to anticipate, prevent and attack the causes of significant reduction or loss of biological diversity at source;

    Noting also that where there is a threat of significant reduction or loss of biological diversity, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to avoid or minimize such a threat;

    Noting further that the fundamental requirement for the conservation of biological diversity is the in situ conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings;

    Noting further that ex situ measures, preferably in the country of origin, also have an important role to play;

    Recognizing the close and traditional dependence of many indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles on biological resources, and the desirability of sharing equitably benefits arising from the use of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices relevant to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components;

    Recognizing also the vital role that women play in the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and affirming the need for the full participation of women at all levels of policy-making and implementation for biological diversity conservation;

    Stressing the importance of, and the need to promote, international, regional and global cooperation among States and intergovernmental organizations and the non-governmental sector for the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components;

    Acknowledging that the provision of new and additional financial resources and appropriate access to relevant technologies can be expected to make a substantial difference in the world’s ability to address the loss of biological diversity;

    Acknowledging further that special provision is required to meet the needs of developing countries, including the provision of new and additional financial resources and appropriate access to relevant technologies;

    Noting in this regard the special conditions of the least developed countries and small island States;

    Acknowledging that substantial investments are required to conserve biological diversity and that there is the expectation of a broad range of environmental, economic and social benefits from those investments;

    Recognizing that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of developing countries;

    Aware that conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity is of critical importance for meeting the food, health and other needs of the growing world population, for which purpose access to and sharing of both genetic resources and technologies are essential;

    Noting that, ultimately, the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity will strengthen friendly relations among States and contribute to peace for humankind;

    Desiring to enhance and complement existing international arrangements for the conservation of biological diversity and sustainable use of its components; and

    Determined to conserve and sustainably use biological diversity for the benefit of present and future generations;

    have agreed as follows:

    Article 1

    Objectives

    The objectives of this Convention, to be pursued in accordance with its relevant provisions, are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding.

    Article 2

    Use of terms

    For the purposes of this Convention:

    «Biological diversity» means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems;

    «Biological resources» includes genetic resources, organisms or parts thereof, populations, or any other biotic component of ecosystems with actual or potential use or value for humanity;

    «Biotechnology» means any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use;

    «Country of origin of genetic resources» means the country which possesses those genetic resources in in situ conditions;

    «Country providing genetic resources» means the country supplying genetic resources collected from in situ sources, including populations of both wild and domesticated species, or taken from ex situ sources, which may or may not have originated in that country;

    «Domesticated or cultivated species» means species in which the evolutionary process has been influenced by humans to meet their needs;

    «Ecosystem» means a dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit;

    «Ex situ conservation» means the conservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats;

    «Genetic material» means any material of plant, animal, microbial or other origin containing functional units of heredity;

    «Genetic resources» means genetic material of actual or potential value;

    «Habitat» means the place or type of site where an organism or population naturally occurs;

    «In situ conditions» means conditions where genetic resources exist within ecosystems and natural habitats, and, in the case of domesticated or cultivated species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties;

    «In situ conservation» means the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticated or cultivated species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties;

    «Protected area» means a geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives;

    «Regional economic integration organization» means an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region, to which its member States have transferred competence in respect of matters governed by this Convention and which has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to it;

    «Sustainable use» means the use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations;

    «Technology» includes biotechnology.

    Article 3

    Principle

    States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

    Article 4

    Jurisdictional scope

    Subject to the rights of other States, and except as otherwise expressly provided in this Convention, the provisions of this Convention apply, in relation to each Contracting Party:

    a) In the case of components of biological diversity, in areas within the limits of its national jurisdiction; and

    b) In the case of processes and activities, regardless of where their effects occur, carried out under its jurisdiction or control, within the area of its national jurisdiction or beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

    Article 5

    Cooperation

    Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate, cooperate with other Contracting Parties, directly or, where appropriate, through competent international organizations, in respect of areas beyond national jurisdiction and on other matters of mutual interest, for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

    Article 6

    General measures for conservation and sustainable use

    Each Contracting Party shall, in accordance with its particular conditions and capabilities:

    a) Develop national strategies, plans or programmes for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity or adapt for this purpose existing strategies, plans or programmes which shall reflect, inter alia, the measures set out in this Convention relevant to the Contracting Party concerned; and

    b) Integrate, as far as possible and as appropriate, the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans, programmes and policies.

    Article 7

    Identification and monitoring

    Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate, in particular for the purposes of articles 8 to 10:

    a) Identify components of biological diversity important for its conservation and sustainable use having regard to the indicative list of categories set down in annex I;

    b) Monitor, through sampling and other techniques, the components of biological diversity identified pursuant to subparagraph a) above, paying particular attention to those requiring urgent conservation measures and those which offer the greatest potential for sustainable use;

    c) Identify processes and categories of activities which have or are likely to have significant adverse impacts on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and monitor their effects through sampling and other techniques; and

    d) Maintain and organize, by any mechanism data, derived from identification and monitoring activities pursuant to subparagraphs a), b) and c) above.

    Article 8

    In situ conservation

    Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate:

    a) Establish a system of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity;

    b) Develop, where necessary, guidelines for the selection, establishment and management of protected areas or areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity;

    c) Regulate or manage biological resources important for the conservation of biological diversity whether within or outside protected areas, with a view to ensuring their conservation and sustainable use;

    d) Promote the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and the maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings;

    e) Promote environmentally sound and sustainable development in areas adjacent to protected areas with a view to furthering protection of these areas;

    f) Rehabilitate and restore degraded ecosystems and promote the recovery of threatened species, inter alia, through the development and implementation of plans or other management strategies;

    g) Establish or maintain means to regulate, manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology which are likely to have adverse environmental impacts that could affect the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account the risks to human health;

    h) Prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species;

    i) Endeavour to provide the conditions needed for compatibility between present uses and the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components;

    j) Subject to its national legislation, respect, preserve and maintain knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the holders of such knowledge, innovations and practices and encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovations and practices;

    k) Develop or maintain necessary legislation and or other regulatory provisions for the protection of threatened species and populations;

    l) Where a significant adverse effect on biological diversity has been determined pursuant to article 7, regulate or manage the relevant processes and categories of activities; and

    m) Cooperate in providing financial and other support for in situ conservation outlined in subparagraphs a) to l) above, particularly to developing countries.

    Article 9

    Ex situ conservation

    Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate, and predominantly for the purpose of complementing in situ measures:

    a) Adopt measures for the ex situ conservation of components of biological diversity, preferably in the country of origin of such components;

    b) Establish and maintain facilities for ex situ conservation of and research on plants, animals and micro-organisms, preferably in the country of origin of genetic resources;

    c) Adopt measures for the recovery and rehabilitation of threatened species and for their reintroduction into their natural habitats under appropriate conditions;

    d) Regulate and manage collection of biological resources from natural habitats for ex situ conservation purposes so as not to threaten ecosystems and in situ populations of species, except where special temporary ex situ measures are required under subparagraph c) above; and

    e) Cooperate in providing financial and other support for ex situ conservation outlined in subparagraphs a) to d) above and in the establishment and maintenance of ex situ conservation facilities in developing countries.

    Article 10

    Sustainable use of components of biological diversity

    Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate:

    a) Integrate consideration of the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources into national decision-making;

    b) Adopt measures relating to the use of biological resources to avoid or minimize adverse impacts on biological diversity;

    c) Protect and encourage customary use of biological resources in accordance with traditional cultural practices that are compatible with conservation or sustainable use requirements;

    d) Support local populations to develop and implement remedial action in degraded areas where biological diversity has been reduced; and

    e) Encourage cooperation between its governmental authorities and its private sector in developing methods for sustainable use of biological resources.

    Article 11

    Incentive measures

    Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate, adopt economically and socially sound measures that act as incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of components of biological diversity.

    Article 12

    Research and training

    The Contracting Parties, taking into account the special needs of developing countries, shall:

    a) Establish and maintain programmes for scientific and technical education and training in measures for the identification, conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and its components and provide support for such education and training for the specific needs of developing countries;

    b) Promote and encourage research which contributes to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, particularly in developing countries, inter alia, in accordance with decisions of the Conference of the Parties taken in consequence of recommendations of the subsidiary body on scientific, technical and technological advice; and

    c) In keeping with the provisions of articles 16, 18 and 20, promote and cooperate in the use of scientific advances in biological diversity research in developing methods for conservation and sustainable use of biological resources.

    Article 13

    Public education and awareness

    The Contracting Parties shall:

    a) Promote and encourage understanding of the importance of, and the measures required for, the conservation of biological diversity, as well as its propagation through media, and the inclusion of these topics in educational programmes; and

    b) Cooperate, as appropriate, with other States and international organizations in developing educational and public awareness programmes, with respect to conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

    Article 14

    Impact assessment and minimizing adverse impacts

    1 — Each Contracting Party, as far as possible and as appropriate, shall:

    a) Introduce appropriate procedures requiring environmental impact assessment of its proposed projects that are likely to have significant adverse effects on biological diversity with a view to avoiding or minimizing such effects and, where appropriate, allow for public participation in such procedures;

    b) Introduce appropriate arrangements to ensure that the environmental consequences of its programmes and policies that are likely to have significant adverse impacts on biological diversity are duly taken into account;

    c) Promote, on the basis of reciprocity, notification, exchange of information and consultation on activities under their jurisdiction or control which are likely to significantly affect adversely the biological diversity of other States or areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, by encouraging the conclusion of bilateral, regional or multilateral arrangements, as appropriate;

    d) In the case of imminent or grave danger or damage, originating under its jurisdiction or control, to biological diversity within the area under jurisdiction of other States or in areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, notify immediately the potentially affected States of such danger or damage, as well as initiate action to prevent or minimize such danger or damage; and

    e) Promote national arrangements for emergency responses to activities or events, whether caused naturally or otherwise, which present a grave and imminent danger to biological diversity and encourage international cooperation to supplement such national efforts and, where appropriate and agreed by the States or regional economic integration organizations concerned, to establish joint contingency plans.

    2 — The Conference of the Parties shall examine, on the basis of studies to be carried out, the issue of liability and redress, including restoration and compensation, for damage to biological diversity, except where such liability is a purely internal matter.

    Article 15

    Access to genetic resources

    1 — Recognizing the sovereign rights of States over their natural resources, the authority to determine access to genetic resources rests with the national governments and is subject to national legislation.

    2 — Each Contracting Party shall endeavour to create conditions to facilitate access to genetic resources for environmentally sound uses by other Contracting Parties and not to impose restrictions that run counter to the objectives of this Convention.

    3 — For the purpose of this Convention, the genetic resources being provided by a Contracting Party, as referred to in this article and articles 16 and 19, are only those that are provided by Contracting Parties that are countries of origin of such resources or by the Parties that have acquired the genetic resources in accordance with this Convention.

    4 — Access, where granted, shall be on mutually agreed terms and subject to the provisions of this article.

    5 — Access to genetic resources shall be subject to prior informed consent of the Contracting Party providing such resources, unless otherwise determined by that Party.

    6 — Each Contracting Party shall endeavour to develop and carry out scientific research based on genetic resources provided by other Contracting Parties with the full participation of, and where possible in, such Contracting Parties.

    7 — Each Contracting Party shall take legislative, administrative, or policy measures, as appropriate, and in accordance with articles 16 and 19 and, where necessary, through the financial mechanism established by articles 20 and 21 with the aim of sharing in a fair and equitable way the results of research and development and the benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources with the Contracting Party providing such resources. Such sharing shall be upon mutually agreed terms.

    Article 16

    Access to and transfer of technology

    1 — Each Contracting Party, recognizing that technology includes biotechnology and that both access to and transfer of technology among Contracting Parties are essential elements for the attainment of the objectives of this Convention, undertakes subject to the provisions of this article to provide and or facilitate access for and transfer to other Contracting Parties of technologies that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity or make use of genetic resources and do not cause significant damage to the environment.

    2 — Access to and transfer of technology referred to in paragraph 1 above to developing countries shall be provided and or facilitated under fair and most favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms where mutually agreed, and, where necessary, in accordance with the financial mechanism established by articles 20 and 21. In the case of technology subject to patents and other intellectual property rights, such access and transfer shall be provided on terms which recognize and are consistent with the adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights. The application of this paragraph shall be consistent with paragraphs 3, 4 and 5 below.

    3 — Each Contracting Party shall take legislative, administrative or policy measures, as appropriate, with the aim that Contracting Parties, in particular those that are developing countries, which provide genetic resources are provided access to and transfer of technology which makes use of those resources, on mutually agreed terms, including technology protected by patents and other intellectual property rights, where necessary, through the provisions of articles 20 and 21 and in accordance with international law and consistent with paragraphs 4 and 5 below.

    4 — Each Contracting Party shall take legislative, administrative or policy measures, as appropriate, with the aim that the private sector facilitates access to, joint development and transfer of technology referred to in paragraph 1 above for the benefit of both governmental institutions and the private sector of developing countries and in this regard shall abide by the obligations included in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 above.

    5 — The Contracting Parties, recognizing that patents and other intellectual property rights may have an influence on the implementation of this Convention, shall cooperate in this regard subject to national legislation and international law in order to ensure that such rights are supportive of and do not run counter to its objectives.

    Article 17

    Exchange of information

    1 — The Contracting Parties shall facilitate the exchange of information, from all publicly available sources, relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking into account the special needs of developing countries.

    2 — Such exchange of information shall include exchange of results of technical, scientific and socio-economic research, as well as information on training and surveying programmes, specialized knowledge, indigenous and traditional knowledge as such and in combination with the technologies referred to in article 16, paragraph 1. It shall also, where feasible, include repatriation of information.

    Article 18

    Technical and scientific cooperation

    1 — The Contracting Parties shall promote international technical and scientific cooperation in the field of conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, where necessary, through the appropriate international and national institutions.

    2 — Each Contracting Party shall promote technical and scientific cooperation with other Contracting Parties, in particular developing countries, in implementing this Convention, inter alia, through the development and implementation of national policies. In promoting such cooperation, special attention should be given to the development and strengthening of national capabilities, by means of human resources development and institution building.

    3 — The Conference of the Parties, at its first meeting, shall determine now to establish a clearing-house mechanism to promote and facilitate technical and scientific cooperation.

    4 — The Contracting Parties shall, in accordance with national legislation and policies, encourage and develop methods of cooperation for the development and use of technologies, including indigenous and traditional technologies, in pursuance of the objectives of this Convention. For this purpose, the Contracting Parties shall also promote cooperation in the training of personnel and exchange of experts.

    5 — The Contracting Parties shall, subject to mutual agreement, promote the establishment of joint research programmes and joint ventures for the development of technologies relevant to the objectives of this Convention.

    Article 19

    Handling of biotechnology and distribution of its benefits

    1 — Each Contracting Party shall take legislative, administrative or policy measures, as appropriate, to provide for the effective participation in biotechnological research activities by those Contracting Parties, especially developing countries, which provide the genetic resources for such research, and where feasible in such Contracting Parties.

    2 — Each Contracting Party shall take all practicable measures to promote and advance priority access on a fair and equitable basis by Contracting Parties, especially developing countries, to the results and benefits arising from biotechnologies based upon genetic resources provided by those Contracting Parties. Such access shall be on mutually agreed terms.

    3 — The Parties shall consider the need for and modalities of a protocol setting out appropriate procedures, including, in particular, advance informed agreement, in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of any living modified organism resulting from biotechnology that may have adverse effect on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

    4 — Each Contracting Party shall, directly or by requiring any natural or legal person under its jurisdiction providing the organisms referred to in paragraph 3 above, provide any available information about the use and safety regulations required by that Contracting Party in handling such organisms, as well as any available information on the potential adverse impact of the specific organisms concerned to the Contracting Party into which those organisms are to be introduced.

    Article 20

    Financial resources

    1 — Each Contracting Party undertakes to provide, in accordance with its capabilities, financial support and incentives in respect of those national activities wich are intended to achieve the objectives of this Convention, in accordance with its national plans, priorities and programmes.

    2 — The developed country Parties shall provide new and additional financial resources to enable developing country Parties to meet the agreed full incremental costs to them of implementing measures which fulfil the obligations of this Convention and to benefit from its provisions and which costs are agreed between a developing country Party and the institutional structure referred to in article 21, in accordance with policy, strategy, programme priorities and eligibility criteria and an indicative list of incremental costs established by the Conference of the Parties. Other Parties, including countries undergoing the process of transition to a market economy, may voluntarily assume the obligations of the developed country Parties. For the purpose of this article, the Conference of the Parties, shall at its first meeting establish a list of developed country Parties and other Parties wich voluntarily assume the obligations of the developed country Parties. The Conference of the Parties shall periodically review and if necessary amend the list. Contributions from other countries and sources on a voluntary basis would also be encouraged. The implementation of these commitments shall take into account the need for adequacy, predictability and timely flow of funds and the importance of burden-sharing among the contributing Parties included in the list.

    3 — The developed country Parties may also provide, and developing country Parties avail themselves of, financial resources related to the implementation of this Convention through bilateral, regional and other multilateral channels.

    4 — The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments under this Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under this Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take fully into account the fact that economic and social development and eradication of poverty are the first and overriding of the developing country Parties.

    5 — The Parties shall take full account of the specific needs and special situation of least developed countries in their actions with regard to funding and transfer of technology.

    6 — The Contracting Parties shall also take into consideration the special conditions resulting from the dependence on, distribution and location of, biological diversity within developing country Parties, in particular small island States.

    7 — Consideration shall also be given to the special situation of developing countries, including those that are most environmentally vulnerable, such as those with arid and semi-arid zones, coastal and mountainous areas.

    Article 21

    Financial mechanism

    1 — There shall be a mechanism for the provision of financial resources to developing country Parties for purposes of this Convention on a grant or concessional basis the essential elements of which are described in this article. The mechanism shall function under the authority and guidance of, and be accountable to, the Conference of the Parties for purposes of this Convention. The operations of the mechanism shall be carried out by such institutional structure as may be decided upon by the Conference of the Parties at its first meeting. For purposes of this Convention, the Conference of the Parties shall determine the policy, strategy, programme priorities and eligibility criteria relating to the access to and utilization of such resources. The contributions shall be such as to take into account the need for predictability, adequacy and timely flow of funds referred to in article 20 in accordance with the amount of resources needed to be decided periodically by the Conference of the Parties, and the importance of burden-sharing among the contributing Parties included in the list referred to in article 20, paragraph 2. Voluntary contributions may also be made by the developed country Parties and by other countries and sources. The mechanism shall operate within a democratic and transparent system of governance.

    2 — Pursuant to the objectives of this Convention, the Conference of the Parties shall at its first meeting determine the policy, strategy and programme priorities, as well as detailed criteria and guidelines for eligibility for access to and utilization of the financial resources including monitoring and evaluation on a regular basis of such utilization. The Conference of the Parties shall decide on the arrangements to give effect to paragraph 1 above after consultation with the institutional structure entrusted with the operation of the financial mechanism.

    3 — The Conference of the Parties shall review the effectiveness of the mechanism established under this article, including the criteria and guidelines referred to in paragraph 2 above, not less than two years after the entry into force of this Convention and thereafter on a regular basis. Based on such review, it shall take appropriate action to improve the effectiveness of the mechanism if necessary.

    4 — The Contracting Parties shall consider strengthening existing financial institutions to provide financial resources for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

    Article 22

    Relationship with other international conventions

    1 — The provisions of this Convention shall not affect the rights and obligations of any Contracting Party, deriving from any existing international agreement, except where the exercise of those rights and obligations would cause a serious damage or threat to biological diversity.

    2 — Contracting Parties shall implement this Convention with respect to the marine environment consistently with the rights and obligations of States under the law of the sea.

    Article 23

    Conference of the Parties

    1 — A Conference of the Parties is hereby established. The first meeting of the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme not later than one year after the entry into force of this Convention. Thereafter, ordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at regular intervals to be determined by the Conference at its first meeting.

    2 — Extraordinary meetings of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference, or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to them by the secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.

    3 — The Conference of the Parties shall by consensus agree upon and adopt rules of procedure for itself and for any subsidiary body it may establish, as well as financial rules governing the funding of the Secretariat. At each ordinary meeting, it shall adopt a budget for the financial period until the next ordinary meeting.

    4 — The Conference of the Parties shall keep under review the implementation of this Convention and, for this purpose, shall:

    a) Establish the form and the intervals for transmitting the information to be submitted in accordance with article 26 and consider such information as well as reports submitted by any subsidiary body;

    b) Review scientific, technical and technological advice on biological diversity provided in accordance with article 25;

    c) Consider and adopt, as required, protocols in accordance with article 28;

    d) Consider and adopt, as required, in accordance with articles 29 and 30, amendments to this Convention and its annexes;

    e) Consider amendments to any protocol, as well as to any annexes thereto and, if so decided, recommend their adoption to the parties to the protocol concerned;

    f) Consider and adopt, as required, in accordance with article 30, additional annexes to this Convention;

    g) Establish such subsidiary bodies, particularly to provide scientific and technical advice, as are deemed necessary for the implementation of this Convention;

    h) Contact, through the Secretariat, the executive bodies of conventions dealing with matters covered by this Convention with a view to establishing appropriate forms of cooperation with them; and

    i) Consider an undertake any additional action that may be required for the achievement of the purposes of this Convention in the light of experience gained in its operation.

    5 — The United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State not Party to this Convention, may be represented as observers at meetings of the Conference of the Parties. Any other body or agency, whether governmental or non-governmental, qualified in fields relating to conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, wich has informed the Secretariat of its wish to be represented as an observer at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties, may be admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the Parties.

    Article 24

    Secretariat

    1 — A secretariat is hereby established. Its functions shall be:

    a) To arrange for and service meetings of the Conference of the Parties provided for in article 23;

    b) To perform the functions assigned to it by any protocol;

    c) To prepare reports on the execution of its functions under this Convention and present them to the Conference of the Parties;

    d) To coordinate with other relevant international bodies and, in particular, to enter into such administrative and contractual arrangements as may be required for the effective discharge of this functions; and

    e) To perform such other functions as may be determined by the Conference of the Parties.

    2 — At this first ordinary meeting, the Conference of the Parties shall designate the secretariat from amongst those existing competent international organizations which have signified their willingness to carry out the secretariat functions under this Convention.

    Article 25

    Subsidiary body on scientific, technical and technological advice

    1 — A subsidiary body for the provision of scientific, technical and technological advice is hereby established to provide the Conference of the Parties and, as appropriate, its other subsidiary bodies with timely advice relating to the implementation of this Convention. This body shall be open to participation by all Parties and shall be multidisciplinary. It shall comprise government representatives competent in the relevant field of expertise. It shall report regularly to the Conference of the Parties on all aspects of its work.

    2 — Under the authority of and in accordance with guidelines laid down by the Conference of the Parties, and upon its request, this body shall:

    a) Provide scientific and technical assessments of the status of biological diversity;

    b) Prepare scientific and technical assessments of the effects of types of measures taken in accordance with the provisions of this Convention;

    c) Identify innovative, efficient and state-of-the-art technologies and know-how relating to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and advise on the ways and means of promoting development and or transferring such technologies;

    d) Provide advice on scientific programmes and international cooperation in research and development related to conservation and sustainable use for biological diversity; and

    e) Respond to scientific, technical, technological and methodological questions that the Conference of the Parties and its subsidiary bodies may put to the body.

    3 — The functions, terms of reference, organization and operation of this body may be further elaborated by the Conference of the Parties.

    Article 26

    Reports

    Each Contracting Party shall, at intervals to be determined by the Conference of the Parties, present to the Conference of the Parties reports on measures which it has taken for the implementation of the provisions of this Convention and their effectiveness in meeting the objectives of this Convention.

    Article 27

    Settlement of disputes

    1 — In the event of a dispute between Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention, the Parties concerned shall seek solution by negotiation.

    2 — If the Parties concerned cannot reach agreement by negotiation, they may jointly seek the good offices of, or request mediation by, a third party.

    3 — When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention, or at any time thereafter, a State or regional economic integration organization may declare in writing to the Depositary that for a dispute not resolved in accordance with paragraph 1 or paragraph 2 above, it accepts one or both of the following means of dispute settlement as compulsory:

    a) Arbitration in accordance with the procedure laid down in part 1 of annex II;

    b) Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.

    4 — If the Parties to the dispute have not, in accordance with paragraph 3 above, accepted the same or any procedure, the dispute shall be submitted to conciliation in accordance with part 2 of annex II unless the Parties otherwise agree.

    5 — The provisions of this article shall apply with respect to any protocol except as otherwise provided in the protocol concerned.

    Article 28

    Adoption of protocols

    1 — The Contracting Parties shall cooperate in the formulation and adoption of protocols to this Convention.

    2 — Protocols shall be adopted at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties.

    3 — The text of any proposed protocol shall be communicated to the Contracting Parties by the Secretariat at least six months before such a meeting.

    Article 29

    Amendment of the Convention or protocols

    1 — Amendments to this Convention may be proposed by any Contracting Party. Amendments to any protocol may be proposed by any Party to that protocol.

    2 — Amendments to this Convention shall be adopted at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties. Amendments to any protocol shall be adopted at a meeting of the Parties to the protocol in question. The text of any proposed amendment to this Convention or to any protocol, except as may otherwise be provided in such protocol, shall be communicated to the Parties to the instrument in question by the secretariat at least six months before the meeting at wich it is proposed for adoption. The secretariat shall also communicate proposed amendments to the signatories to this Convention for information.

    3 — The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any proposed amendment to this Convention or to any protocol by consensus. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted, and no agreement reached, the amendment shall as a last resort be adopted by a two-third majority vote of the Parties to the instrument in question present and voting at the meeting, and shall be submitted by the depositary to all Parties for ratification, acceptance or approval.

    4 — Ratification, acceptance or approval of amendments shall be notified to the depositary in writing. Amendments adopted in accordance with paragraph 3 above shall enter into force among Parties having accepted them on the ninetieth day after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval by at least two thirds of the Contracting Parties to this Convention or of the Parties to the protocol concerned, except as may otherwise be provided in such protocol. Thereafter the amendments shall enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after that Party deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of the amendments.

    5 — For the purposes of this article, «Parties present and voting» means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.

    Article 30

    Adoption and amendment of annexes

    1 — The annexes to this Convention or to any protocol shall form an integral part of the Convention or of such protocol, as the case may be, and, unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to this Convention or its protocols constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall be restricted to procedural, scientific, technical and administrative matters.

    2 — Except as may be otherwise provided in any protocol with respect to its annexes, the following procedure shall apply to the proposal, adoption and entry into force of additional annexes to this Convention or of annexes to any protocol:

    a) Annexes to this Convention or to any protocol shall be proposed and adopted according to the procedure laid down in article 29;

    b) Any Party that is unable to approve an additional annex to this Convention or an annex to any protocol to which it is Party shall so notify the depositary, in writing, within one year from the date of the communication of the adoption by the depositary. The Depositary shall without delay notify all Parties of any such notification received. A Party may at any time withdraw a previous declaration of objection and the annexes shall thereupon enter into force for that Party subject to subparagraph c) below;

    c) On the expiry of one year from the date of the communication of the adoption by the depositary, the annex shall enter into force for all Parties to this Convention or to any protocol concerned which have not submitted a notification in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph b) above.

    3 — The proposal, adoption and entry into force of amendments to annexes to this Convention or to any protocol shall be subject to the same procedure as for the proposal, adoption and entry into force of annexes to the Convention or annexes to any protocol.

    4 — If an additional annex or an amendment to an annex is related to an amendment to this Convention or to any protocol, the additional annex or amendment shall not enter into force until such time as the amendment to the Convention or to the protocol concerned enters into force.

    Article 31

    Right to vote

    1 — Except as provided for in paragraph 2 below, each Contracting Party to this Convention or to any protocol shall have one vote.

    2 — Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States which are Contracting Parties to this Convention or the relevant protocol. Such organizations shall not exercise their right to vote if their member States exercise theirs, and vice versa.

    Article 32

    Relationship between this Convention and its protocols

    1 — A State or a regional economic integration organization may not become a Party to a protocol unless it is, or becomes at the same time, a Contracting Party to this Convention.

    2 — Decisions under any protocol shall be taken only by the Parties to the protocol concerned. Any Contracting Party that has not ratified, accepted or approved a protocol may participate as an observer in any meeting of the parties to that protocol.

    Article 33

    Signature

    This Convention shall be open for signature at Rio de Janeiro by all States and any regional economic integration organization from 5 June 1992 until 14 June 1992, and at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 15 June 1992 to 4 June 1993.

    Article 34

    Ratification, acceptance or approval

    1 — This Convention and any protocol shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and by regional economic integration organizations. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the depositary.

    2 — Any organization referred to in paragraph 1 above which becomes a Contracting Party to this Convention or any protocol without any of its member States being a Contracting Party shall be bound by all the obligations under the Convention or the protocol, as the case may be. In the case of such organizations, one or more of whose member States is a Contracting Party to this Convention or relevant protocol, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under the Convention or protocol, as the case may be. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under the Convention or relevant protocol concurrently.

    3 — In their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval, the organizations referred to in paragraph 1 above shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by the Convention or the relevant protocol. These organizations shall also inform the depositary of any relevant modification in the extent of their competence.

    Article 35

    Accession

    1 — This Convention and any protocol shall be open for accession by States and by regional economic integration organizations from the date on which the Convention or the protocol concerned is closed for signature. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the depositary.

    2 — In their instruments of accession, the organizations referred to in paragraph 1 above shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by the Convention or the relevant protocol. These organizations shall also inform the depositary of any relevant modification in the extent of their competence.

    3 — The provisions of article 34, paragraph 2, shall apply to regional economic integration organizations which accede to this Convention or any protocol.

    Article 36

    Entry into force

    1 — This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the thirtieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

    2 — Any protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the number of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, specified in that protocol, has been deposited.

    3 — For each Contracting Party which ratifies, accepts or approves this Convention or accedes thereto after the deposit of the thirtieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, it shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit by such Contracting Party of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

    4 — Any protocol, except as otherwise provided in such protocol, shall enter into force for a Contracting Party that ratifies, accepts or approves that protocol or accedes thereto after its entry into force pursuant to paragraph 2 above, on the ninetieth day after the date on which that Contracting Party deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, or on the date on which this Convention enters into force for that Contracting Party, whichever shall be the later.

    5 — For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2 above, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of such organization.

    Article 37

    Reservations

    No reservations may be made to this Convention.

    Article 38

    Withdrawals

    1 — At any time after two years from the date on which this Convention has entered into force for a Contracting Party, that Contracting Party may withdraw from the Convention by giving written notification to the depositary.

    2 — Any such withdrawal shall take place upon expiry of one year after the date of its receipt by the depositary, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of the withdrawal.

    3 — Any Contracting Party which withdraws from this Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from any protocol to which it is party.

    Article 39

    Financial interim arrangements

    Provided that it has been fully restructured in accordance with the requirements of article 21, the Global Environment Facility of the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development shall be the institutional structure referred to in article 21 on an interim basis, for the period between the entry into force of this Convention and the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties or until the Conference of the Parties decides which institutional structure will be designated in accordance with article 21.

    Article 40

    Secretariat interim arrangements

    The secretariat to be provided by the executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme shall be the secretariat referred to in article 24, paragraph 2, on an interim basis for the period between the entry into force of this Convention and the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties.

    Article 41

    Depositary

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall assume the functions of depositary of this Convention and any protocols.

    Article 42

    Authentic texts

    The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

    In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.

    Done at Rio de Janeiro on this fifth day of June, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-two.

    ———

    ANNEX I

    Identification and monitoring

    1 — Ecosystems and habitats: containing high diversity, large numbers of endemic or threatened species, or wilderness; required by migratory species; of social, economic, cultural or scientific importance; or which are representative, unique or associated with key evolutionary or other biological processes.

    2 — Species and communities which are: threatened; wild relatives of domesticated or cultivated species; of medicinal, agricultural or other economic value; or social, scientific or cultural importance; or importance for research into the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, such as indicator species.

    3 — Described genomes and genes of social, scientific or economic importance.

    ANNEX II

    PART 1

    Arbitration

    Article 1

    The claimant Party shall notify the secretariat that the Parties are referring a dispute to arbitration pursuant to article 27. The notification shall state the subject-matter of arbitration and include, in particular, the articles of the Convention or the protocol, the interpretation or application of which are at issue. If the Parties do not agree on the subject-matter of the dispute before the president of the tribunal is designated, the arbitral tribunal shall determine the subject-matter. The secretariat shall forward the information thus received to all Contracting Parties to this Convention or to the protocol concerned.

    Article 2

    1 — In disputes between two Parties, the arbitral tribunal shall consist of three members. Each of the Parties to the dispute shall appoint an arbitrator and the two arbitrators so appointed shall designate by common agreement the third arbitrator who shall be the president of the tribunal. The latter shall not be a national of one of the Parties to the dispute, nor have his or her usual place of residence in the territory of one of these Parties, nor be employed by any of them, nor have dealt with the case in any other capacity.

    2 — In disputes between more than two Parties, parties in the same interest shall appoint one arbitrator jointly by agreement.

    3 — Any vacancy shall be filled in the manner prescribed for the initial appointment.

    Article 3

    1 — If the president of the arbitral tribunal has not been designated within two months of the appointment of the second arbitrator, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, at the request of a party, designate the president within a further two-month period.

    2 — If one of the Parties to the dispute does not appoint an arbitrator within two months of receipt of the request, the other party may inform the Secretary-General, who shall make the designation within a further two-month period.

    Article 4

    The arbitral tribunal shall render its decisions in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, any protocols concerned and international law.

    Article 5

    Unless the Parties to the dispute otherwise agree, the arbitral tribunal shall determine its own rules of procedure.

    Article 6

    The arbitral tribunal may, at the request of one of the Parties, recommend essential interim measures of protection.

    Article 7

    The Parties to the dispute shall facilitate the work of the arbitral tribunal and, in particular, using all means at their disposal, shall:

    a) Provide it with all relevant documents, information and facilities; and

    b) Enable it, when necessary, to call witnesses or experts and receive their evidence.

    Article 8

    The Parties and the arbitrators are under an obligation to protect the confidentiality of any information they receive in confidence during the proceedings of the arbitral tribunal.

    Article 9

    Unless the arbitral tribunal determines otherwise because of the particular circumstances of the case, the costs of the tribunal shall be borne by the Parties to the dispute in equal shares. The tribunal shall keep a record of all its costs, and shall furnish a final statement thereof to the Parties.

    Article 10

    Any Contracting Party that has an interest of a legal nature in the subject-matter of the dispute which may be affected by the decision in the case, may intervene in the proceedings with the consent of the tribunal.

    Article 11

    The tribunal may hear and determine counterclaims arising directly out of the subject-matter of the dispute.

    Article 12

    Decisions both on procedure and substance of the arbitral tribunal shall be taken by a majority vote of its members.

    Article 13

    If one of the Parties to the dispute does not appear before the arbitral tribunal or fails to defend its case, the other Party may request the tribunal to continue the proceedings and to make its award. Absence of a Party or a failure of a Party to defend its case shall not constitute a bar to the proceedings. Before rendering its final decision, the arbitral tribunal must satisfy itself that the claim is well founded in fact and law.

    Article 14

    The tribunal shall render its final decision within five months of the date on which it is fully constituted unless it finds it necessary to extend the time-limit for a period which should not exceed five more months.

    Article 15

    The final decision of the arbitral tribunal shall be confined to the subject-matter of the dispute and shall state the reasons on which it is based. It shall contain the names of the members who have participated and the date of the final decision. Any member of the tribunal may attach a separate or dissenting opinion to the final decision.

    Article 16

    The award shall be binding on the Parties to the dispute. It shall be without appeal unless the Parties to the dispute have agreed in advance to an appellate procedure.

    Article 17

    Any controversy which may arise between the Parties to the dispute as regards the interpretation or manner of implementation of the final decision may be submitted by either Party for decision to the arbitral tribunal which rendered it.

    PART 2

    Conciliation

    Article 1

    A conciliation commission shall be created upon the request of one of the Parties to the dispute. The commission shall, unless the Parties otherwise agree, be composed of five members, two appointed by each Party concerned and a president chosen jointly by those members.

    Article 2

    In disputes between more than two Parties, Parties in the same interest shall appoint their members of the commission jointly by agreement. Where two or more Parties have separate interests or there is a disagreement as to whether they are of the same interest, they shall appoint their members separately.

    Article 3

    If any appointments by the Parties are not made within two months of the date of the request to create a conciliation commission, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, if asked to do so by the Party that made the request, make those appointments within a further two-month period.

    Article 4

    If a president of the conciliation commission has not been chosen within two months of the last of the members of the commission being appointed, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, if asked to do so by a Party, designate a president within a further two-month period.

    Article 5

    The conciliation commission shall take its decisions by majority vote of its members. It shall, unless the Parties to the dispute otherwise agree, determine its own procedure. It shall render a proposal for resolution of the dispute, which the Parties shall consider in good faith.

    Article 6

    A disagreement as to whether the conciliation commission has competence shall be decided by the commission.


    生物多樣性公約

    (1992年6月5日訂於里約熱內盧)

    序 言

    締約國,

    意識到生物多樣性的內在價值,和生物多樣性及其組成部分的生態、遺傳、社會、經濟、科學、教育、文化、娛樂和美學價值,

    還意識到生物多樣性對進化和保持生物圈的生命維持系統的重要性,

    確認生物多樣性的保護是全人類的共同關切事項,

    重申各國對它自己的生物資源擁有主權權利,

    也重申各國有責任保護它自己的生物多樣性並以可持久的方式使用它自己的生物資源,

    關切一些人類活動正在導致生物多樣性的嚴重減少,

    意識到普遍缺乏關於生物多樣性的資料和知識,亟需開發科學、技術和機構能力,從而提供基本理解,據以策劃與執行適當措施,

    注意到預測、預防和從根源上消除導致生物多樣性嚴重減少或喪失的原因,至為重要,

    並注意到生物多樣性遭受嚴重減少或損失的威脅時,不應以缺乏充分的科學定論為理由,而推遲採取旨在避免或盡量減輕此種威脅的措施,

    注意到保護生物多樣性的基本要求,是就地保護生態系統和自然環境,維持恢復物種在其自然環境中有生存力的群體,

    並注意到移地措施,最好在原產國內實行,也可發揮重要作用;

    認識到許多體現傳統生活方式的土著和地方社區同生物資源有着密切和傳統的依存關係,應公平分享從利用與保護生物資源及持久使用其組成部分有關的傳統知識、創新和作法而產生的惠益,

    並認識到婦女在保護和持久使用生物多樣性中發揮的極其重要作用,並確認婦女必須充分參與保護生物多樣性的各級政策的制訂和執行,

    強調為了生物多樣性的保護及其組成部分的持久使用,促進國家、政府間組織和非政府部門之間的國際、區域和全球性合作的重要性和必要性,

    承認提供新的和額外的資金和適當取得有關的技術,可對全世界處理生物多樣性喪失問題的能力產生重大影響,

    進一步承認有必要訂立特別規定,以滿足發展中國家的需要,包括提供新的和額外的資金和適當取得有關的技術,

    注意到最不發達國家和小島嶼國家這方面的特殊情況,

    承認有必要大量投資以保護生物多樣性,而且這些投資可望產生廣泛的環境、經濟和社會惠益,

    認識到經濟和社會發展以及根除貧困是發展中國家第一和壓倒一切的優先事務,

    意識到保護和持久使用生物多樣性對滿足世界日益增加的人口的糧食、健康和其他需求至為重要,而為此目的取得和分享遺傳資源和遺傳技術是必不可少的,

    注意到保護和持久使用生物多樣性終必增強國家間的友好關係,並有助於實現人類和平;

    期望加強和補充現有保護生物多樣性和持久使用其組成部分的各項國際安排;並

    決心為今世後代的利益,保護和持久使用生物多樣性,

    茲協議如下:

    第一條

    目標

    本公約的目標是按照本公約有關條款從事保護生物多樣性、持久使用其組成部分以及公平合理分享由利用遺傳資源而產生的惠益;實現手段包括遺傳資源的適當取得及有關技術的適當轉讓,但需顧及對這些資源和技術的一切權利,以及提供適當資金。

    第二條

    用語

    為本公約的目的:

    “生物多樣性”是指所有來源的形形色色生物體,這些來源除其他外包括陸地、海洋和其他水生生態系統及其所構成的生態綜合體;這包括物種內部、物種之間和生態系統的多樣性。

    “生物資源”是指對人類具有實際或潛在用途或價值的遺傳資源、生物體或其部分、生物群體、或生態系統中任何其他生物組成部分。

    “生物技術”是指使用生物系統、生物體或其衍生物的任何技術應用,以製作或改變產品或過程以供特定用途。

    “遺傳資源的原產國”是指擁有處於原產境地的遺傳資源的國家。

    “提供遺傳資源的國家”是指供應遺傳資源的國家,此種遺傳資源可能是取自原地來源;包括野生物種和馴化物種的群體,或取自移地保護來源,不論是否原產於該國。

    “馴化或培殖物種”是指人類為滿足自身需要而影響了其演化進程的物種。

    “生態系統”是指植物、動物和微生物群落和它們的無生命環境作為一個生態單位交互作用形成的一個動態複合體。

    “移地保護”是指將生物多樣性的組成部分移到它們的自然環境之外進行保護。

    “遺傳材料”是指來自植物、動物、微生物或其他來源的任何含有遺傳功能單位的材料。

    “遺傳資源”是指具有實際或潛在價值的遺傳材料。

    “生境”是指生物體或生物群體自然分布的地方或地點。

    “原地條件”是指遺傳資源生存於生態系統和自然生境之內的條件;對於馴化或培殖的物種而言,其環境是指它們在其中發展出其明顯特性的環境。

    “就地保護”是指保護生態系統和自然生境以及維持和恢復物種在其自然環境中有生存力的群體;對於馴化和培殖物種而言,其環境是指它們在其中發展出其明顯特性的環境。

    “保護區”是指一個劃定地理界限、為達到特定保護目標而指定或實行管制和管理的地區。

    “區域經濟一體化組織”是指由某一區域的一些主權國家組成的組織,其成員國已將處理本公約範圍內的事務的權力付託它並已按照其內部程序獲得正式授權,可以簽署、批准、接受、核准或加入本公約。

    “持久使用”是指使用生物多樣性組成部分的方式和速度不會導致生物多樣性的長期衰落,從而保持其滿足今世後代的需要和期望的潛力。

    “技術”包括生物技術。

    第三條

    原則

    依照聯合國憲章和國際法原則,各國具有按照其環境政策開發其資源的主權權利,同時亦負有責任,確保在它管轄或控制範圍內的活動,不致對其他國家的環境或國家管範圍以外地區的環境造成損害。

    第四條

    管轄範圍

    以不妨礙其他國家權利為限,除非本公約另有明文規定,本公約規定應按下列情形對每一締約國適用:

    (a)生物多樣性組成部分位於該國管轄範圍的地區內;

    (b)在該國管轄或控制下開展的過程和活動。不論其影響發生在何處,此種過程和活動可位於該國管轄區內也可在國家管轄區外。

    第五條

    合作

    每一締約國應儘可能並酌情直接與其他締約國或酌情通過有關國際組織為保護和持久使用生物多樣性在國家管轄範圍以外地區並就共同關心的其他事項進行合作。

    第六條

    保護和持久使用方面的一般措施

    每一締約國應按照其特殊情況和能力:

    (a)為保護和持久使用生物多樣性制定國家戰略、計劃或方案,或為此目的變通其現有戰略、計劃或方案;這些戰略、計劃或方案除其他外應體現本公約內載明與該締約國有關的措施;

    (b)儘可能並酌情將生物多樣性的保護和持久使用訂入有關的部門或跨部門計劃、方案和政策內。

    第七條

    查明與監測

    每一締約國應儘可能並酌情,特別是為了第八條至第十條的目的:

    (a)查明對保護和持久使用生物多樣性至關重要的生物多樣性組成部分,要顧及附件一所載指示性種類清單;

    (b)通過抽樣調查和其他技術,監測依照以上(a)項查明的生物多樣性組成部分,要特別注意那些需要採取緊急保護措施以及那些具有最大持久使用潛力的組成部分;

    (c)查明對保護和持久使用生物多樣性產生或可能產生重大不利影響的過程和活動種類,並通過抽樣調查和其他技術,監測其影響;

    (d)以各種方式維持並整理依照以上(a)、(b)及(c)項從事查明和監測活動所獲得的數據。

    第八條

    就地保護

    每一締約國應儘可能並酌情:

    (a)建立保護區系統或需要採取特殊措施以保護生物多樣性的地區;

    (b)於必要時,制定準則據以選定、建立和管理保護區或需要採取特殊措施以保護生物多樣性的地區;

    (c)管制或管理保護區內外對保護生物多樣性至關重要的生物資源,以確保這些資源得到保護和持久使用;

    (d)促進保護生態系統、自然生境和維護自然環境中有生存力的物種群體;

    (e)在保護區域的鄰接地區促進無害環境的持久發展以謀增進這些地區的保護;

    (f)除其他外,通過制定和實施各項計劃或其他管理戰略,重建和恢復已退化的生態系統,促進受威脅物種的復原;

    (g)制定或採取辦法以酌情管制、管理或控制由生物技術改變的活生物體在使用和釋放時可能產生的危險,即可能對環境產生不利影響,從而影響到生物多樣性的保護和持久使用,也要考慮到對人類健康的危險;

    (h)防止引進、控制或消除那些威脅到生態系統、生境或物種的外來物種;

    (i)設法提供現時的使用與生物多樣性的保護及其組成部分的持久使用彼此相輔相成所需的條件;

    (j) 依照國家立法,尊重、保存和維持土著和地方社區體現傳統生活方式而與生物多樣性的保護和持久使用相關的知識、創新和做法並促進其廣泛應用,由此等知識、創新和做法的擁有者認可和參與其事並鼓勵公平地分享因利用此等知識、創新和做法而獲得的惠益;

    (k) 制定或維持必要立法和/或其他規範性規章,以保護受威脅物種和群體;

    (l)在依照第七條確定某些過程或活動類別已對生物多樣性造成重大不利影響時,對有關過程和活動類別進行管制或管理;

    (m)進行合作,就以上(a)至(1)項所概括的就地保護措施特別向發展中國家提供財務和其他支助。

    第九條

    移地保護

    每一締約國應儘可能並酌情,主要為輔助就地保護措施起見:

    (a)最好在生物多樣性組成部分的原產國採取措施移地保護這些組成部分;

    (b)最好在遺傳資源原產國建立和維持移地保護及研究植物、動物和微生物的設施;

    (c)採取措施以恢復和復興受威脅物種並在適當情況下將這些物種重新引進其自然生境中;

    (d)對於為移地保護目的在自然生境中收集生物資源實施管制和管理,以免威脅到生態系統和當地的物種群體,除非根據以上(c)項必須採取臨時性特別移地措施;

    (e)進行合作,為以上(a)至(d)項所概括的移地保護措施以及在發展中國家建立和維持移地保護設施提供財務和其他援助。

    第十條

    生物多樣性組成部分的持久使用

    每一締約國應儘可能並酌情:

    (a)在國家決策過程中考慮到生物資源的保護和持久使用;

    (b)採取關於使用生物資源的措施,以避免或盡量減少對生物多樣性的不利影響;

    (c)保障及鼓勵那些按照傳統文化慣例而且符合保護或持久使用要求的生物資源習慣使用方式;

    (d)在生物多樣性已減少的退化地區支助地方居民規劃和實施補救行動;

    (e)鼓勵其政府當局和私營部門合作制定生物資源持久使用的方法。

    第十一條

    鼓勵措施

    每一締約國應儘可能並酌情採取對保護和持久使用生物多樣性組成部分起鼓勵作用的經濟和社會措施。

    第十二條

    研究和培訓

    締約國考慮到發展中國家的特殊需要,應:

    (a)在查明、保護和持久使用生物多樣性及其組成部分的措施方面建立和維持科技教育和培訓方案,並為此種教育和培訓提供支助以滿足發展中國家的特殊需要;

    (b)特別在發展中國家,除其他外,按照締約國會議根據科學、技術和工藝諮詢事務附屬機構的建議作出的決定,促進和鼓勵有助於保護和持久使用生物多樣性的研究;

    (c)按照第十六、十八和二十條的規定,提倡利用生物多樣性科研進展,制定生物資源的保護和持久使用方法,並在這方面進行合作。

    第十三條

    公眾教育和認識

    締約國應:

    (a)促進和鼓勵對保護生物多樣性的重要性及所需要的措施的理解,並通過大眾傳播工具進行宣傳和將這些題目列入教育課程;

    (b)酌情與其他國家和國際組織合作制定關於保護和持久使用生物多樣性的教育和公眾認識方案。

    第十四條

    影響評估盡量減少不利影響

    1. 每一締約國應儘可能並酌情:

    (a)採取適當程序,要求就其可能對生物多樣性產生嚴重不利影響的擬議項目進行環境影響評估,以期避免或盡量減輕這種影響,並酌情允許公眾參加此種程序:

    (b)採取適當安排,以確保其可能對生物多樣性產生嚴重不利影響的方案和政策的環境後果得到適當考慮;

    (c)在互惠基礎上,就其管轄或控制範圍內對其他國家或國家管轄範圍以外地區生物多樣性可能產生嚴重不利影響的活動促進通報、信息交流和磋商,其辦法是為此鼓勵酌情訂立雙邊、區域或多邊安排;

    (d)如遇其管轄或控制下起源的危險即將或嚴重危及或損害其他國家管轄的地區內或國家管轄地區範圍以外的生物多樣性的情況,應立即將此種危險或損害通知可能受影響的國家,並採取行動預防或盡量減輕這種危險或損害;

    (e)促進做出國家緊急應變安排,以處理大自然或其他原因引起即將嚴重危及生物多樣性的活動或事件,鼓勵旨在補充這種國家努力的國際合作,並酌情在有關國家或區域經濟一體化組織同意的情況下制訂聯合應急計劃。

    2. 締約國會議應根據所作的研究,審查生物多樣性所受損害的責任和補救問題,包括恢復和賠償,除非這種責任純屬內部事務。

    第十五條

    遺傳資源的取得

    1. 確認各國對其自然資源擁有的主權權利,因而可否取得遺傳資源的決定權屬於國家政府,並依照國家法律行使。

    2. 每一締約國應致力創造條件,便利其他締約國取得遺傳資源用於無害環境的用途,不對這種取得施加違背本公約目標的限制。

    3. 為本公約的目的,本條以及第十六和第十九條所指締約國提供的遺傳資源僅限於這種資源原產國的締約國或按照本公約取得該資源的締約國所提供的遺傳資源。

    4. 取得經批准後,應按照共同商定的條件並遵照本條的規定進行。

    5. 遺傳資源的取得須經提供這種資源的締約國事先知情同意,除非該締約國另有決定。

    6. 每一締約國使用其他締約國提供的遺傳資源從事開發和進行科學研究時,應力求這些締約國充分參與,並於可能時在這些締約國境內進行。

    7. 每一締約國應按照第十六和十九條,並於必要時利用第二十和二十一條設立的財務機制,酌情採取立法、行政或政策性措施,以期與提供遺傳資源的締約國公平分享研究和開發此種資源的成果以及商業和其他方面利用此種資源所獲的利益。這種分享應按照共同商定的條件。

    第十六條

    技術的取得和轉讓

    1. 每一締約國認識到技術包括生物技術,且締約國之間技術的取得和轉讓均為實現本公約目標必不可少的要素,因此承諾遵照本條規定向其他締約國提供和/或便利其取得並向其轉讓有關生物多樣性保護和持久使用的技術或利用遺傳資源而不對環境造成重大損害的技術。

    2. 以上第1款所指技術的取得和向發展中國家轉讓,應按公平和最有利條件提供或給予便利,包括共同商定時,按減讓和優惠條件提供或給予便利,並於必要時按照第二十和二十一條設立的財務機制。此種技術屬於專利和其他知識產權的範圍時,這種取得和轉讓所根據的條件應承認且符合知識產權的充分有效保護。本款的應用應符合以下第3、4和5款的規定。

    3. 每一締約國應酌情採取立法、行政或政策措施,以期根據共同商定的條件向提供遺傳資源的締約國,特別是其中的發展中國家,提供利用這些遺傳資源的技術和轉讓此種技術,其中包括受到專利和其他知識產權保護的技術,必要時通過第二十條和第二十一條的規定,遵照國際法,以符合以下第4和5款規定的方式進行。

    4. 每一締約國應酌情採取立法、行政或政策措施,以期私營部門為第1款所指技術的取得、共同開發和轉讓提供便利,以惠益於發展中國家的政府機構和私營部門,並在這方面遵守以上第1、2和3款規定的義務。

    5. 締約國認識到專利和其他知識產權可能影響到本公約的實施,因而應在這方面遵照國家立法和國際法進行合作,以確保此種權利有助於而不違反本公約的目標。

    第十七條

    信息交流

    1. 締約國應便利有關生物多樣性保護和持久使用的一切公眾可得信息的交流,要顧到發展中國家的特殊需要。

    2. 此種信息交流應包括交流技術、科學和社會經濟研究成果,以及培訓和調查方案的信息、專門知識、當地和傳統知識本身及連同第十六條第1款中所指的技術。可行時也應包括信息的歸還。

    第十八條

    技術和科學合作

    1. 締約國應促進生物多樣性保護和持久使用領域的國際科技合作,必要時可通過適當的國際機構和國家機構來開展這種合作。

    2. 每一締約國應促進與其他締約國尤其是發展中國家的科技合作,以執行本公約,辦法之中包括制定和執行國家政策。促進此種合作時應特別注意通過人力資源開發和機構建設以發展和加強國家能力。

    3. 締約國會議應在第一次會議上確定如何設立交換所機制以促進並便利科技合作。

    4. 締約國為實現本公約的目標,應按照國家立法和政策,鼓勵並制定各種合作方法以開發和使用各種技術,包括當地技術和傳統技術在內。為此目的,締約國還應促進關於人員培訓和專家交流的合作。

    5. 締約國應經共同協議促進設立聯合研究方案和聯合企業,以開發與本公約目標有關的技術。

    第十九條

    生物技術的處理及其惠益的分配

    1. 每一締約國應酌情採取立法、行政和政策措施,讓提供遺傳資源用於生物技術研究的締約國,特別是其中的發展中國家,切實參與此種研究活動;可行時,研究活動宜在這些締約國中進行。

    2. 每一締約國應採取一切可行措施,以贊助和促進那些提供遺傳資源的締約國,特別是其中的發展中國家,在公平的基礎上優先取得基於其提供資源的生物技術所產生成果和惠益。此種取得應按共同商定的條件進行。

    3. 締約國應考慮是否需要一項議定書,規定適當程序,特別包括事先知情協議,適用於可能對生物多樣性的保護和持久使用產生不利影響的由生物技術改變的任何活生物體的安全轉讓、處理和使用,並考慮該議定書的形式。

    4. 每一個締約國應直接或要求其管轄下提供以上第3款所指生物體的任何自然人和法人,將該締約國在處理這種生物體方面規定的使用和安全條例的任何現有資料以及有關該生物體可能產生的不利影響的任何現有資料,提供給將要引進這些生物體的締約國。

    第二十條

    資金

    1. 每一締約國承諾依其能力為那些旨在根據其國家計劃、優先事項和方案實現本公約目標的活動提供財政支助和鼓勵。

    2. 發達國家締約國應提供新的額外的資金,以使發展中國家締約國能支付它們因執行那些履行本公約義務的措施而承負的議定的全部增加費用,並使它們能享到本公約條款產生的惠益;上項費用將由個別發展中國家同第二十一條所指的體制機構商定,但須遵循締約國會議所制訂的政策、戰略、方案重點、合格標準和增加費用指示性清單。其他締約國,包括那些處於向市場經濟過渡進程的國家,得自願承負發達國家締約國的義務。為本條的目的,締約國會議應在其第一次會議上確定一份發達國家締約國和其他自願承負發達國家締約國義務的締約國名單。締約國會議應定期審查這份名單並於必要時加以修改。另將鼓勵其他國家和來源以自願方式作出捐款。履行這些承諾時,應考慮到資金提供必須充分、可預測和及時,且名單內繳款締約國之間共同承擔義務也極為重要。

    3. 發達國家締約國也可通過雙邊、區域和其他多邊渠道提供與執行本公約有關的資金,而發展中國家締約國則可利用該資金。

    4. 發展中國家締約國有效地履行其根據公約作出的承諾的程度將取決於發達國家締約國有效地履行其根據公約就財政資源和技術轉讓作出的承諾,並將充分顧及經濟和社會發展以及消除貧困是發展中國家締約國的首要優先事項這一事實。

    5. 各締約國在其就籌資和技術轉讓採取行動時應充分考慮到最不發達國家的具體需要和特殊情況。

    6. 締約國還應考慮到發展中國家締約國、特別是小島嶼國家中由於對生物多樣性的依賴、生物多樣性的分布和地點而產生的特殊情況。

    7. 發展中國家——包括環境方面最脆弱、例如境內有乾旱和半乾旱地帶、沿海和山嶽地區的國家——的特殊情況也應予以考慮。

    第二十一條

    財務機制

    1. 為本公約的目的,應有一機制在贈與或減讓條件的基礎上向發展中國家締約國提供資金,本條中說明其主要內容。該機制應為本公約目的而在締約國會議權力下履行職責,遵循會議的指導並向其負責。該機制的業務應由締約國會議第一次會議或將決定採用的一個體制機構開展。為本公約的目的,締約國會議應確定有關此項資源獲取和利用的政策、戰略、方案重點和資格標準。捐款額應按照締約國會議定期決定所需的資金數額,考慮到第二十條所指資金流動量充分、及時且可以預計的需要和列入第二十條第2款所指名單的繳款締約國分擔負擔的重要性。發達國家締約國和其他國家及來源也可提供自願捐款。該機制應在民主和透明的管理體制內開展業務。

    2. 依據本公約目標,締約國會議應在其第一次會議上確定政策、戰略和方案重點,以及詳細的資格標準和準則,用於資金的獲取和利用,包括對此種利用的定期監測和評價。締約國會議應在同受託負責財務機制運行的體制機構協商後,就實行以上第1款的安排作出決定。

    3. 締約國會議應在本公約生效後不遲於兩年內,其後在定期基礎上,審查依照本條規定設立的財務機制的功效,包括以上第2款所指的標準和準則。根據這種審查,會議應於必要時採取適當行動,以增進該機制的功效。

    4. 締約國應審議如何加強現有的金融機構,以便為生物多樣性的保護和持久使用提供資金。

    第二十二條

    與其他國際公約的關係

    1. 本公約的規定不得影響任何締約國在任何現在國際協定下的權利和義務,除非行使這些權利和義務將嚴重破壞或威脅生物多樣性。

    2. 締約國在海洋環境方面實施本公約不得抵觸各國在海洋法下的權利和義務。

    第二十三條

    締約國會議

    1. 特此設立締約國會議。締約國會議第一次會議應由聯合國環境規劃署執行主任於本公約生效後一年內召開。其後,締約國會議的常會應依照第一次會議所規定的時間定期舉行。

    2. 締約國會議可於其認為必要的其他時間舉行非常會議;如經任何締約國書面請求,由秘書處將該項請求轉致各締約國後六個月內至少有1/3締約國表示支持時,亦可舉行非常會議。

    3. 締約國會議應以協商一致方式商定和通過它本身的和它可能設立的任何附屬機構的議事規則和關於秘書處經費的財務細則。締約國會議應在每次常會通過到下屆常會為止的財政期間的預算。

    4. 締約國會議應不斷審查本公約的實施情形,為此應:

    (a)就按照第二十六條規定遞送的資料規定遞送格式及間隔時間,並審議此種資料以及任何附屬機構提交的報告;

    (b)審查按照第二十五條提供的關於生物多樣性的科學、技術和工藝諮詢意見;

    (c)視需要按照第二十八條審議並通過議定書;

    (d)視需要按照第二十九和第三十條審議並通過對本公約及其附件的修正;

    (e)審議對任何議定書及其任何附件的修正,如做出修正決定,則建議有關議定書締約國予以通過;

    (f)視需要按照第三十條審議並通過本公約的增補附件;

    (g)視實施本公約的需要,設立附屬機構,特別是提供科技諮詢意見的機構;

    (h)通過秘書處,與處理本公約所涉事項的各公約的執行機構進行接觸,以期與它們建立適當的合作形式;

    (i)參酌實施本公約取得的經驗,審議並採取為實現本公約的目的可能需要的任何其他行動。

    5. 聯合國、其各專門機構和國際原子能機構以及任何非本公約締約國的國家,均可派觀察員出席締約國會議。任何其他組織或機構,無論是政府性質或非政府性質,只要在與保護和持久使用生物多樣性有關領域具有資格,並通知秘書處願意以觀察員身分出席締約國會議,都可被接納參加會議,除非有至少1/3的出席締約國表示反對。觀察員的接納與參加應遵照締約國會議通過的議事規則處理。

    第二十四條

    秘書處

    1. 特此設立秘書處,其職責如下:

    (a)為第二十三條規定的締約國會議作出安排並提供服務;

    (b)執行任何議定書可能指派給它的職責;

    (c)編製關於它根據本公約執行職責情況的報告,並提交締約國會議;

    (d)與其他有關國際機構取得協調,特別是訂出各種必要的行政和合同安排,以便有效地執行其職責;

    (e)執行締約國會議可能規定的其他職責。

    2. 締約國會議應在其第一次常會上從那些已經表示願意執行本公約規定的秘書處職責的現有合格國際組織之中指定某一組織為秘書處。

    第二十五條

    科學、技術和工藝諮詢事務附屬機構

    1. 特此設立一個提供科學、技術和工藝諮詢意見的附屬機構,以向締約國會議、並酌情向它的其他附屬機構及時提供有關執行本公約的諮詢意見。該機構應開放供所有締約國參加,並應為多學科性。它應由有關專門知識領域內卓有專長的政府代表組成。它應定期向締約國會議報告其各個方面的工作。

    2. 這個機構應在締約國會議的權力下、按照會議所訂的準則並應其要求:

    (a)提供關於生物多樣性狀況的科學和技術評估意見;

    (b)編製有關按照本公約條款所採取各類措施的功效的科學和技術評估報告;

    (c)查明有關保護和持久使用生物多樣性的創新的、有效的和當代最先進的技術和專門技能,並就促進此類技術的開發和/或轉讓的途徑和方法提供諮詢意見;

    (d)就有關保護和持久使用生物多樣性的科學方案以及研究和開發方面的國際合作提供諮詢意見;

    (e)回答締約國會議及其附屬機構可能向其提出的有關科學、技術、工藝和方法的問題。

    3. 這個機構的職責、權限、組織和業務可由締約國會議進一步訂立。

    第二十六條

    報告

    每一締約國應按締約國會議決定的間隔時間,向締約國會議提交關於該國為執行本公約條款已採取的措施以及這些措施在實現本公約目標方面的功效的報告。

    第二十七條

    爭端的解決

    1. 締約國之間在就公約的解釋或適用方面發生爭端時,有關的締約國應通過談判方式尋求解決。

    2. 如果有關締約國無法以談判方式達成協議,它們可以聯合要求第三方進行斡旋或要求第三方出面調停。

    3. 在批准、接受、核准或加入本公約時或其後的任何時候,一個國家或區域經濟一體化組織可書面向保管者聲明,對按照以上第1或第2款未能解決的爭端,它接受下列一種或兩種爭端解決辦法作為強制性辦法:

    (a)按照附件二第一部分規定的程度進行仲裁;

    (b)將爭端提交國際法院。

    4. 如果爭端各方尚未按照以上第3款規定接受同一或任何程序,則這項爭端應按照附件二第二部分規定提交調解,除非締約國另有協議。

    5. 本條規定應適用於任何議定書,除非該議定書另有規定。

    第二十八條

    議定書的通過

    1. 締約國應合作擬訂並通過本公約的議定書。

    2. 議定書應由本公約締約國會議舉行會議通過。

    3. 任何擬議議定書的案文應由秘書處至少在舉行上述會議以前六個月遞交各締約國。

    第二十九條

    公約或議定書的修正

    1. 任何締約國均可就本公約提出修正案。議定書的任何締約國可就該議定書提出修正案。

    2. 本公約的修正案應由締約國會議舉行會議通過。對任何議定書的修正案應在該議定書締約國的會議上通過。就本公約或任何議定書提出的修正案,除非該議定書另有規定,應由秘書處至少在舉行擬議通過該修正案的會議以前六個月遞交公約或有關議定書締約國。秘書處也應將擬議的修正案遞交本公約的簽署國供其參考。

    3. 締約國應盡力以協商一致方式就本公約或任何議定書的任何擬議修正案達成協議,如果盡了一切努力仍無法以協商一致方式達成協議,則作為最後辦法,應以出席並參加表決的有關文書的締約國2/3多數票通過修正案;通過的修正應由保管者送交所有締約國批准、接受或核准。

    4. 對修正案的批准、接受或核准,應以書面通知保管者。依照以上第3款通過的修正案,應於至少2/3公約締約國或2/3有關議定書締約國交存批准、接受或核准書之後第九十天在接受修正案的各締約國之間生效,除非議定書內另有規定。其後,任何其他締約國交存其對修正的批准、接受或核准書第九十天之後,修正即對它生效。

    5. 為本條的目的,“出席並參加表決的締約國”是指在場投贊成票或反對票的締約國。

    第三十條

    附件的通過和修正

    1. 本公約或任何議定書的附件應成為本公約或該議定書的一個構成部分;除非另有明確規定,凡提及本公約或其議定書時,亦包括其任何附件在內。這種附件應以程序、科學、技術和行政事項為限。

    2. 任何議定書就其附件可能另有規定者除外,本公約的增補附件或任何議定書的附件的提出、通過和生效,應適用下列程序:

    (a)本公約或任何議定書的附件應依照第二十九條規定的程序提出和通過;

    (b)任何締約國如果不能接受本公約的某一增補附件或它作為締約國的任何議定書的某一附件,應於保管者就其通過發出通知之日起一年內將此情況書面通知保管者。保管者應於接到任何此種通知後立即通知所有締約國。一締約國可於任何時間撤銷以前的反對聲明,有關附件即按以下(c)項規定對它生效;

    (c)在保管者就附件通過發出通知之日起滿一年後,該附件應對未曾依照以上(b)項發出通知的本公約或任何有關議定書的所有締約國生效。

    3. 本公約附件或任何議定書附件的修正案的提出、通過和生效,應遵照本公約附件或議定書附件的提出、通過和生效所適用的同一程序。

    4. 如一個增補附件或對某一附件的修正案涉及對本公約或對任何議定書的修正,則該增補附件或修正案須於本公約或有關議定書的修正生效以後方能生效。

    第三十一條

    表決權

    1. 除以下第2款之規定外,本公約或任何議定書的每一締約國應有一票表決權。

    2. 區域經濟一體化組織對屬於其權限的事項行使表決權時,其票數相當於其作為本公約或有關議定書締約國的成員國數目。如果這些組織的成員國行使其表決權,則該組織就不應行使其表決權,反之亦然。

    第三十二條

    本公約與其議定書之間的關係

    1. 一國或一區域經濟一體化組織不得成為議定書締約國,除非已是或同時成為本公約締約國。

    2. 任何議定書下的決定,只應由該議定書締約國作出。尚未批准、接受、或核准一項議定書的公約締約國,得以觀察員身分參加該議定書締約國的任何會議。

    第三十三條

    簽署

    本公約應從1992年6月5日至14日在里約熱內盧並從1992年6月15日至1993年6月4日在紐約聯合國總部開放供各國和各區域經濟一體化組織簽署。

    第三十四條

    批准、接受或核准

    1. 本公約和任何議定書須由各國和各區域經濟一體化組織批准、接受或核准。批准、接受或核准書應交存保管者。

    2. 以上第1款所指的任何組織如成為本公約或任何議定書的締約組織而該組織沒有任何成員國是締約國,則該締約組織應受公約或議定書規定的一切義務的約束。如這種組織的一個或多個成員國是本公約或有關議定書的締約國,則該組織及其成員國應就履行其公約或議定書義務的各自責任作出決定。在這種情況下,該組織和成員國不應同時有權行使本公約或有關議定書規定的權利。

    3. 以上第1款所指組織應在其批准、接受或核准書中聲明其對本公約或有關議定書所涉事項的權限。這些組織也應將其權限的任何有關變化通知保管者。

    第三十五條

    加入

    1. 本公約及任何議定書應自公約或有關議定書簽署截至日期起開放供各國和各區域經濟一體化組織加入。加入書應交存保管者。

    2. 以上第1款所指組織應在其加入書中聲明其對本公約或有關議定書所涉事項的權限。這些組織也應將其權限的任何有關變化通知保管者。

    3. 第三十四條第2款的規定應適用於加入本公約或任何議定書的區域經濟一體化組織。

    第三十六條

    生效

    1. 本公約應於第三十份批准、接受、核准或加入書交存之日以後九十天生效。

    2. 任何議定書應於該議定書訂明份數的批准、接受、核准或加入書交存之日以後第九十天生效。

    3. 對於在第三十份批准、接受、核准或加入書交存後批准、接受、核准本公約或加入本公約的每一締約國,本公約應於該締約國的批准、接受,核准或加入書交存之日以後第九十天生效。

    4. 任何議定書,除非其中另有規定,對於在該議定書依照以上第2款規定生效後批准、接受、核准該議定書或加入該議定書的締約國,應於該締約國的批准、接受、核准或加入書交存之日以後第九十天生效,或於本公約對該締約國生效之日生效,以兩者中較後日期為準。

    5. 為以上第1和第2款的目的,區域經濟一體化組織交存的任何文書不得在該組織成員國所交存文書以外另行計算。

    第三十七條

    保留

    不得對本公約作出任何保留。

    第三十八條

    退出

    1. 任何締約國於本公約對其生效之日起兩年之後的任何時間向保管者提出書面通知,可退出本公約。

    2. 這種退出應在保管者接到退出通知之日起一年後生效,或在退出通知中指明的一個較後日期生效。

    3. 任何締約國一旦退出本公約,即應被視為也巳退出它加入的任何議定書。

    第三十九條

    臨時財務安排

    在本公約生效之後至締約國會議第一次會議期間,或至締約國會議決定根據第二十一條指定某一體制機構為止,聯合國開發計劃署、聯合國環境規劃署和國際復興開發銀行合辦的全球環境貸款設施若已按照第二十一條的要求充分改組,則應暫時為第二十一條所指的體制機構。

    第四十條

    秘書處臨時安排

    在本公約生效之後至締約國會議第一次會議期間,聯合國環境規劃署執行主任提供的秘書處應暫時為第二十四條第2款所指的秘書處。

    第四十一條

    保管者

    聯合國秘書長應負起本公約及任何議定書的保管者的職責。

    第四十二條

    作準文本

    本公約原本應交存於聯合國秘書長,其阿拉伯文、中文、英文、法文、俄文和西班牙文本均為作準文本。

    為此,下列簽名代表,經正式授權,在本公約上簽字,以昭信守。

    俴俴?附件一

    查明和監測

    1. 生態系統和生境:內有高度多樣性,大量地方特有物種或受威脅物種或原野:為移棲物種所需;具有社會、經濟、文化或科學重要性,或具有代表性、獨特性或涉及關鍵進化過程或其他生物進程;

    2. 以下物種和群體:受到威脅;馴化或培植物種的野生親系;具有醫藥、農業或其他經濟價值;具有社會、科學或文化重要性;或對生物多樣性保護和持久使用的研究具有重要性,如指標物種;

    3. 經述明的具有社會 、科學或經濟重要性的基因組和基因。

    附件二

    第一部分

    仲裁

    第一條

    提出要求一方應通知秘書處,當事各方正依照本公約第二十七條將爭端提交仲裁。通知應說明仲裁的主題事項,並特別列入在解釋或適用上發生爭端的本公約或議定書條款。如果當事各方在法庭庭長指定之前沒有就爭端的主題事項達成一致意見,則仲裁法庭應裁定主題事項。秘書處應將收到的上述資料遞送本公約或有關議定書的所有締約國。

    第二條

    1. 對於涉及兩個當事方的爭端,仲裁法庭應由仲裁員三人組成。爭端每一方應指派仲裁員一人,被指派的兩位仲裁員應共同協議指定第三位仲裁員,並由他擔任法庭庭長。後者不應是爭端任何一方的國民,且不得為爭端任何一方境內的通常居民,也不得為爭端任何一方所僱用,亦不曾以任何其他身分涉及該案件。

    2. 對於涉及兩個以上當事方的爭端,利害關係相同的當事方應通過協議共同指派一位仲裁員。

    3. 任何空缺都應按早先指派時規定的方式填補。

    第三條

    1. 如在指派第二位仲裁員後兩個月內仍未指定仲裁法庭庭長,聯合國秘書長經任何一方請求,應在其後的兩個月內指定法庭庭長。

    2. 如爭端一方在接到要求後兩個月內沒有指派一位仲裁員,另一方可通知聯合國秘書長,後者應在其後的兩個月內指定一位仲裁員。

    第四條

    仲裁法庭應按照本公約、任何有關議定書和國際法的規定作出裁決。

    第五條

    除非爭端各方另有協議,仲裁法庭應制定自己的議事規則。

    第六條

    仲裁法庭可應當事一方的請求建議必要的臨時保護措施。

    第七條

    爭端各方應便利仲裁法庭的工作,尤其以一切可用的方法:

    (a)向法庭提供一切有關文件,資料和便利;

    (b)在必要時使法庭得以傳喚證人或專家作證並接受其證據。

    第八條

    當事各方和仲裁員都有義務保護其在仲裁法庭訴訟期間秘密接受的資料的機密性。

    第九條

    除非仲裁法庭因案情特殊而另有決定,法庭的開支應由爭端各方平均分擔。法庭應保存一份所有開支的記錄,並向爭端各方提送一份開支決算表。

    第十條

    任何締約國在爭端的主題事項方面有法律性質的利害關係,可能因該案件的裁決受到影響,經法庭同意得參加仲裁程序。

    第十一條

    法庭得就爭端的主題事項直接引起的反訴聽取陳述並作出裁決。

    第十二條

    仲裁法庭關於程序問題和實質問題的裁決都應以其成員的多數票作出。

    第十三條

    爭端一方不到案或不辯護其主張時,他方可請求仲裁法庭繼續進行仲裁程序並作出裁決。一方缺席或不辯護其主張不應妨礙仲裁程序的進行。仲裁法庭在作出裁決之前,必須查明該要求在事實上和法律上都確有根據。

    第十四條

    除非法庭認為必須延長期限,法庭應在組成後五個月內作出裁決,延長的期限不得超過五個月。

    第十五條

    仲裁法庭的裁決應以對爭端的主題事項為限,並應敘明所根據的理由。裁決書應載明參與裁決的仲裁員姓名以及作出裁決的日期。任何仲裁員都可以在裁決書上附加個別意見或異議。

    第十六條

    裁決對於爭端各方具有拘束力。裁決不得上訴,除非爭端各方事前議定某種上訴程序。

    第十七條

    爭端各方如對裁決的解釋或執行方式有任何爭執,任何一方都可以提請作出該裁決的仲裁法庭作出決定。

    第二部分

    調解

    第一條

    應爭端一方的請求,應設立調解委員會。除非當事方另有協議,委員會應由五位成員組成,每一方指定二位成員,主席則由這些成員共同選定。

    第二條

    對於涉及兩個以上當事方的爭端,利害關係相同的當事方應通過協議共同指派其調解委員會成員。如果兩個或兩個以上當事方持有個別的利害關係或對它們是否利害關係相同持有分歧意見,則應分別指派其成員。

    第三條

    如果在請求設立調解委員會後兩個月內當事方未指派任何成員,聯合國秘書長按照提出請求的當事方的請求,應在其後兩個月內指定這些成員。

    第四條

    如在調解委員會最後一位成員指派以後兩個月內尚未選定委員會主席,聯合國秘書長經一方請求,應在其後兩個月內指定一位主席。

    第五條

    調解委員會應按其成員多數票作出決定。除非爭端各方另有協議,它應制定其程序。它應提出解決爭端的建議,而當事方應予認真考慮。

    第六條

    對於調解委員會是否擁有權限的意見分歧,應由委員會作出決定。


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