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法規:

共和國總統批示

公報編號:

52/1994

刊登日期:

1994.12.27

版數:

1274

  • 批准設立世界貿易組織之協定以及在馬拉喀什簽署之體現烏拉圭回合多邊貿易談判結果的最後決議書。

葡文版本

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  • 相關類別 :
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  • 《LegisMac》的法例註釋

    共 和 國 總 統 府

    批 示

    根據經五月十日第13/90號法律修改之二月十七日第1/76號法律第三條第二款之規定,本人批准關於設立世界貿易組織之協定以及於一九九四年四月十五日在馬拉喀什簽署之體現“烏拉圭回合”多邊貿易談判結果之“最後決議書”,該“最後決議書”已由澳門總督於一九九四年十一月三日根據公佈於一九九三年一月十一日之《共和國公報》第二組之一九九三年一月六日本人所作之批示予以核准。

    一九九四年十二月二十三日於共和國總統府

    共和國總統 蘇亞雷斯


    URUGUAY ROUND

    Final Act

    Marrakesh, 15 April 1994

    ———

    MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS

    THE URUGUAI ROUND

    Trade Negotiations Commitee

    Final Act embodying the results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations

    Marrakesh, 15 April 1994

    List of Abbreviations

    AMS Aggregate Measurement of Support (in Agreement on Agriculture)
    BISD Basic Instruments and Selected Documents (published by GATT)
    CCC Customs Co-operation Council
    CCC Secretariat Secretariat of the Customs Co-operation Council
    Dispute Settlement Understanding/ DSU Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes
    DSB Dispute Settlement Body
    FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services
    GATT 1994 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994
    HS Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System
    IMF International Monetary Fund
    ISO International Organization for Standardization
    IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
    MFA Arrangement Regarding International Trade in Textiles
    PGE Permanent Group of Experts (in Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures)
    SCM Subsidies and Countervailing Measures
    Secretariat Secretariat of the World Trade Organization
    SSG Special Safeguard (in Agreement on Agriculture)
    ST Special Treatment (in Annex 5, Agreement on Agriculture)
    TMB Textiles Monitoring Body
    TPRB Trade Policy Review Body
    TPRM Trade Policy Review Mechanism
    TRIMs Trade-Related Investment Measures
    TRIPS Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
    TSB Textiles Surveillance Body
    World Bank International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
    WTO World Trade Organization
    WTO Agreement Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization

    Final Act embodying the results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations

    Marrakesh, 15 April 1994

    ———

    FINAL ACT EMBODYING THE RESULTS OF THE URUGUAY ROUND OF MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS

    1.         Having met in order to conclude the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, representatives of the governments and of the European Communities, members of the Trade Negotiations Committee, agree that the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (referred to in this Final Act as the "WTO Agreement"), the Ministerial Declarations and Decisions, and the Understanding on Commitments in Financial Services, as annexed hereto, embody the results of their negotiations and form an integral part of this Final Act.

    2.         By signing the present Final Act, the representatives agree

                (a)        to submit, as appropriate, the WTO Agreement for the consideration of their respective competent authorities with a view to seeking approval of the Agreement in accordance with their procedures;  and

                (b)        to adopt the Ministerial Declarations and Decisions.

    3.         The representatives agree on the desirability of acceptance of the WTO Agreement by all participants in the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (hereinafter referred to as "participants") with a view to its entry into force by 1 January 1995, or as early as possible thereafter.  Not later than late 1994, Ministers will meet, in accordance with the final paragraph of the Punta del Este Ministerial Declaration, to decide on the international implementation of the results, including the timing of their entry into force.

    4.         The representatives agree that the WTO Agreement shall be open for acceptance as a whole, by signature or otherwise, by all participants pursuant to Article XIV thereof.  The acceptance and entry into force of a Plurilateral Trade Agreement included in Annex 4 of the WTO Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Plurilateral Trade Agreement.

    5.         Before accepting the WTO Agreement, participants which are not contracting parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade must first have concluded negotiations for their accession to the General Agreement and become contracting parties thereto.  For participants which are not contracting parties to the General Agreement as of the date of the Final Act, the Schedules are not definitive and shall be subsequently completed for the purpose of their accession to the General Agreement and acceptance of the WTO Agreement.

    6.         This Final Act and the texts annexed hereto shall be deposited with the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade who shall promptly furnish to each participant a certified copy thereof.

                DONE at Marrakesh this fifteenth day of April one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four, in a single copy, in the English, French and Spanish languages, each text being authentic.

    [List of signatures to be included in the treaty copy of the Final Act for signature]

    AGREEMENT ESTABLISHING THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

                The Parties to this Agreement,

                Recognizing that their relations in the field of trade and economic endeavour should be conducted with a view to raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and a large and steadily growing volume of real income and effective demand, and expanding the production of and trade in goods and services, while allowing for the optimal use of the world's resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development, seeking both to protect and preserve the environment and to enhance the means for doing so in a manner consistent with their respective needs and concerns at different levels of economic development,

                Recognizing further that there is need for positive efforts designed to ensure that developing countries, and especially the least developed among them, secure a share in the growth in international trade commensurate with the needs of their economic development,

                Being desirous of contributing to these objectives by entering into reciprocal and mutually advantageous arrangements directed to the substantial reduction of tariffs and other barriers to trade and to the elimination of discriminatory treatment in international trade relations,

                Resolved, therefore, to develop an integrated, more viable and durable multilateral trading system encompassing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the results of past trade liberalization efforts,  and all of the results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations,

                Determined to preserve the basic principles and to further the objectives underlying this multilateral trading system,

                Agree as follows:

    Article I

    Establishment of the Organization

                The World Trade Organization (hereinafter referred to as "the WTO") is hereby established.

    Article II

    Scope of the WTO

    1.         The WTO shall provide the common institutional framework for the conduct of trade relations among its Members in matters related to the agreements and associated legal instruments included in the Annexes to this Agreement.

    2.         The agreements and associated legal instruments included in Annexes 1, 2 and 3 (hereinafter referred to as "Multilateral Trade Agreements") are integral parts of this Agreement, binding on all Members.

    3.         The agreements and associated legal instruments included in Annex 4 (hereinafter referred to as "Plurilateral Trade Agreements") are also part of this Agreement for those Members that have accepted them, and are binding  on  those Members.  The Plurilateral Trade Agreements do not create either obligations or rights for Members that have not accepted them.

    4.         The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 as specified in Annex 1A (hereinafter referred to as "GATT 1994") is legally distinct from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, dated 30 October 1947, annexed to the Final Act Adopted at the Conclusion of the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment, as subsequently rectified, amended or modified (hereinafter referred to as "GATT 1947").

    Article III

    Functions of the WTO

    1.         The WTO shall facilitate the implementation, administration and operation, and further the objectives, of this Agreement and of the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and shall also provide the framework for the implementation, administration and operation of the Plurilateral Trade Agreements.

    2.         The WTO shall provide the forum for negotiations among its Members concerning their multilateral trade relations in matters dealt with under the agreements in the Annexes to this Agreement.  The WTO may also provide a forum for further negotiations among its Members concerning their multilateral trade relations, and a framework for the implementation of the results of such negotiations, as may be decided by the Ministerial Conference.

    3.         The WTO shall administer the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (hereinafter referred to as the "Dispute Settlement Understanding" or "DSU") in Annex 2 to this Agreement. 

    4.         The WTO shall administer the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (hereinafter referred to as the "TPRM") provided for in Annex 3 to this Agreement.

    5.         With a view to achieving greater coherence in global economic policy-making, the WTO shall cooperate, as appropriate, with the International Monetary Fund and with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and its affiliated agencies.

    Article IV

    Structure of the WTO

    1.         There shall be a Ministerial Conference composed of representatives of all the Members, which shall meet at least once every two years.  The Ministerial Conference shall carry out the functions of the WTO and take actions necessary to this effect.  The Ministerial Conference shall have the authority to take decisions on all matters under any of the Multilateral Trade Agreements, if so requested by a Member, in accordance with the specific requirements for decision-making in this Agreement and in the relevant Multilateral Trade Agreement.

    2.         There shall be a General Council composed of representatives of all the Members, which shall meet as appropriate.  In the intervals between meetings of the Ministerial Conference, its functions shall be conducted by the General Council.  The General Council shall also carry out the functions assigned to it by this Agreement.  The General Council shall establish its rules of procedure and approve the rules of procedure for the Committees provided for in paragraph 7.

    3.         The General Council shall convene as appropriate to discharge the responsibilities of the Dispute Settlement Body provided for in the Dispute Settlement Understanding.  The Dispute Settlement Body may have its own chairman and shall establish such rules of procedure as it deems necessary for the fulfilment of those responsibilities.

    4.         The General Council shall convene as appropriate to discharge the responsibilities of the Trade Policy Review Body provided for in the TPRM.  The Trade Policy Review Body may have its own chairman and shall establish such rules of procedure as it deems necessary for the fulfilment of those responsibilities.

    5.         There shall be a Council for Trade in Goods, a Council for Trade in Services and a Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (hereinafter referred to as the "Council for TRIPS"), which shall operate under the general guidance of the General Council.  The Council for Trade in Goods shall oversee the functioning of the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1A.  The Council for Trade in Services shall oversee the functioning of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (hereinafter referred to as "GATS").   The Council for TRIPS shall oversee the functioning of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (hereinafter referred to as the "Agreement on TRIPS").  These Councils shall carry out the functions assigned to them by their respective agreements and by the General Council.  They shall establish their respective rules of procedure subject to the approval of the General Council.  Membership in these Councils shall be open to representatives of all Members.  These Councils shall meet as necessary to carry out their functions.

    6.         The Council for Trade in Goods, the Council for Trade in Services and the Council for TRIPS shall establish subsidiary bodies as required.  These subsidiary bodies shall establish their respective rules of procedure subject to the approval of their respective Councils.

    7.         The Ministerial Conference shall establish a Committee on Trade and Development, a Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions and a Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration, which shall carry out the functions assigned to them by this Agreement and by the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and any additional functions assigned to them by the General Council, and may establish such additional Committees with such functions as it may deem appropriate.  As part of its functions, the Committee on Trade and Development shall periodically review the special provisions in the Multilateral Trade Agreements in favour of the least-developed country Members and report to the General Council for appropriate action.  Membership in these Committees shall be open to representatives of all Members.

    8.         The bodies provided for under the Plurilateral Trade Agreements shall carry out the functions assigned to them under those Agreements and shall operate within the institutional framework of the WTO.  These bodies shall keep the General Council informed of their activities on a regular basis.

    Article V

    Relations with Other Organizations

    1.         The General Council shall make appropriate arrangements for effective cooperation with other intergovernmental organizations that have responsibilities related to those of the WTO.

    2.         The General Council may make appropriate arrangements for consultation and cooperation with non-governmental organizations concerned with matters related to those of the WTO.

    Article VI

    The Secretariat

    1.         There shall be a Secretariat of the WTO (hereinafter referred to as “the Secretariat”) headed by a Director-General.

    2.         The Ministerial Conference shall appoint the Director-General and adopt regulations setting out the powers, duties, conditions of service and term of office of the Director-General.

    3.         The Director-General shall appoint the members of the staff of the Secretariat and determine their duties and conditions of service in accordance with regulations adopted by the Ministerial Conference.

    4.         The responsibilities of the Director-General and of the staff of the Secretariat shall be exclusively international in character.  In the discharge of their duties, the Director-General and the staff of the Secretariat shall not seek or accept instructions from any government or any other authority external to the WTO.  They shall refrain from any action which might adversely reflect on their position as international officials.  The Members of the WTO shall respect the international character of the responsibilities of the Director-General and of the staff of the Secretariat and shall not seek to influence them in the discharge of their duties.

    Article VII

    Budget and Contributions

    1.         The Director-General shall present to the Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration the annual budget estimate and financial statement of the WTO.  The Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration shall review the annual budget estimate and the financial statement presented by the Director-General and make recommendations thereon to the General Council.  The annual budget estimate shall be subject to approval by the General Council.

    2.         The Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration shall propose to the General Council financial regulations which shall include provisions setting out:

                (a)        the scale of contributions apportioning the expenses of the WTO among its Members;  and

                (b)        the measures to be taken in respect of Members in arrears.

    The financial regulations shall be based, as far as practicable, on the regulations and practices of GATT 1947.

    3.         The General Council shall adopt the financial regulations and the annual budget estimate by a two-thirds majority comprising more than half of the Members of the WTO.

    4.         Each Member shall promptly contribute to the WTO its share in the expenses of the WTO in accordance with the financial regulations adopted by the General Council.

    Article VIII

    Status of the WTO

    1.         The WTO shall have legal personality, and shall be accorded by each of its Members such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions.

    2.         The WTO shall be accorded by each of its Members such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the exercise of its functions.

    3.         The officials of the WTO and the representatives of the Members shall similarly be accorded by each of its Members such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the independent exercise of their functions in connection with the WTO.

    4.         The privileges and immunities to be accorded by a Member to the WTO, its officials, and the representatives of its Members shall be similar to the privileges and immunities stipulated in the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies, approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 21 November 1947.

    5.         The WTO may conclude a headquarters agreement.

    Article IX

    Decision-Making

    1.         The WTO shall continue the practice of decision-making by consensus followed under GATT 1947.[1]  Except as otherwise provided, where a decision cannot be arrived at by consensus, the matter at issue shall be decided by voting.  At meetings of the Ministerial Conference and the General Council, each Member of the WTO shall have one vote.  Where the European Communities exercise their right to vote, they shall have a number of votes equal to the number of their member States[2] which are Members of the WTO.  Decisions of the Ministerial Conference and the General Council shall be taken by a majority of the votes cast, unless otherwise provided in this Agreement or in the relevant Multilateral Trade Agreement.[3]

    2.         The Ministerial Conference and the General Council shall have the exclusive authority to adopt interpretations of this Agreement and of the Multilateral Trade Agreements.  In the case of an interpretation of a Multilateral Trade Agreement in Annex 1, they shall exercise their authority on the basis of a recommendation by the Council overseeing the functioning of that Agreement.  The decision to adopt an interpretation shall be taken by a three-fourths majority of the Members.  This paragraph shall not be used in a manner that would undermine the amendment provisions in Article X.

    3.         In exceptional circumstances, the Ministerial Conference may decide to waive an obligation imposed on a Member by this Agreement or any of the Multilateral Trade Agreements, provided that any such decision shall be taken by three fourths[4] of the Members unless otherwise provided for in this paragraph.

                (a)        A request for a waiver concerning this Agreement shall be submitted to the Ministerial Conference for consideration pursuant to the practice of decision-making by consensus.  The Ministerial Conference shall establish a time-period, which shall not exceed 90 days, to consider the request.  If consensus is not reached during the time-period, any decision to grant a waiver shall be taken by three fourths4 of the Members.

                (b)        A request for a waiver concerning the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annexes 1A or 1B or 1C and their annexes shall be submitted initially to the Council for Trade in Goods, the Council for Trade in Services or the Council for TRIPS, respectively, for consideration during a time-period which shall not exceed 90 days.  At the end of the time-period, the relevant Council shall submit a report to the Ministerial Conference.

    4.         A decision by the Ministerial Conference granting a waiver shall state the exceptional circumstances justifying the decision, the terms and conditions governing the application of the waiver, and the date on which the waiver shall terminate.  Any waiver granted for a period of more than one year shall be reviewed by the Ministerial Conference not later than one year after it is granted, and thereafter annually until the waiver terminates.  In each review, the Ministerial Conference shall examine whether the exceptional circumstances justifying the waiver still exist and whether the terms and conditions attached to the waiver have been met.  The Ministerial Conference, on the basis of the annual review, may extend, modify or terminate the waiver. 

    5.         Decisions under a Plurilateral Trade Agreement, including any decisions on interpretations and waivers, shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

    Article X

    Amendments

    1.         Any Member of the WTO may initiate a proposal to amend the provisions of this Agreement or the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1 by submitting such proposal to the Ministerial Conference.  The Councils listed in paragraph 5 of Article IV may also submit to the Ministerial Conference proposals to amend the provisions of the corresponding Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1 the functioning of which they oversee.  Unless the Ministerial Conference decides on a longer period, for a period of 90 days after the proposal has been tabled formally at the Ministerial Conference any decision by the Ministerial Conference to submit the proposed amendment to the Members for acceptance shall be taken by consensus.  Unless the provisions of paragraphs 2, 5 or 6 apply, that decision shall specify whether the provisions of paragraphs 3 or 4 shall apply.  If consensus is reached, the Ministerial Conference shall forthwith submit the proposed amendment to the Members for acceptance.  If consensus is not reached at a meeting of the Ministerial Conference within the established period, the Ministerial Conference shall decide by a two-thirds majority of the Members whether to submit the proposed amendment to the Members for acceptance.  Except as provided in paragraphs 2, 5 and 6, the provisions of paragraph 3 shall apply to the proposed amendment, unless the Ministerial Conference decides by a three-fourths majority of the Members that the provisions of paragraph 4 shall apply.

    2.         Amendments to the provisions of this Article and to the provisions of the following Articles shall take effect only upon acceptance by all Members:

                Article IX of this Agreement;
                Articles I and II of GATT 1994;
                Article II:1 of GATS;
                Article 4 of the Agreement on TRIPS.

    3.         Amendments to provisions of this Agreement, or of the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annexes 1A and 1C, other than those listed in paragraphs 2 and 6, of a nature that would alter the rights and obligations of the Members, shall take effect for the Members that have accepted them upon acceptance by two thirds of the Members and thereafter for each other Member upon acceptance by it.  The Ministerial Conference may decide by a three-fourths majority of the Members that any amendment made effective under this paragraph is of such a nature that any Member which has not accepted it within a period specified by the Ministerial Conference in each case shall be free to withdraw from the WTO or to remain a Member with the consent of the Ministerial Conference.

    4.         Amendments to provisions of this Agreement or of the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annexes 1A and 1C, other than those listed in paragraphs 2 and 6, of a nature that would not alter the rights and obligations of the Members, shall take effect for all Members upon acceptance by two thirds of the Members.

    5.         Except as provided in paragraph 2 above, amendments to Parts I, II and III of GATS and the respective annexes shall take effect for the Members that have accepted them upon acceptance by two thirds of the Members and thereafter for each Member upon acceptance by it.  The Ministerial Conference may decide by a three-fourths majority of the Members that any amendment made effective under the preceding provision is of such a nature that any Member which has not accepted it within a period specified by the Ministerial Conference in each case shall be free to withdraw from the WTO or to remain a Member with the consent of the Ministerial Conference.  Amendments to Parts IV, V and VI of GATS and the respective annexes shall take effect for all Members upon acceptance by two thirds of the Members.

    6.         Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Article, amendments to the Agreement on TRIPS meeting the requirements of paragraph 2 of Article 71 thereof may be adopted by the Ministerial Conference without further formal acceptance process.

    7.         Any Member accepting an amendment to this Agreement or to a Multilateral Trade Agreement in Annex 1 shall deposit an instrument of acceptance with the Director-General of the WTO within the period of acceptance specified by the Ministerial Conference.

    8.         Any Member of the WTO may initiate a proposal to amend the provisions of the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annexes 2 and 3 by submitting such proposal to the Ministerial Conference.  The decision to approve amendments to the Multilateral Trade Agreement in Annex 2 shall be made by consensus and these amendments shall take effect for all Members upon approval by the Ministerial Conference.  Decisions to approve amendments to the Multilateral Trade Agreement in Annex 3 shall take effect for all Members upon approval by the Ministerial Conference.

    9.         The Ministerial Conference, upon the request of the Members parties to a trade agreement, may decide exclusively by consensus to add that agreement to Annex 4.  The Ministerial Conference, upon the request of the Members parties to a Plurilateral Trade Agreement, may decide to delete that Agreement from Annex 4.

    10.       Amendments to a Plurilateral Trade Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

    Article XI

    Original Membership

    1.         The contracting parties to GATT 1947 as of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, and the European Communities, which accept this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements and for which Schedules of Concessions and Commitments are annexed to GATT 1994 and for which Schedules of Specific Commitments are annexed to GATS shall become original Members of the WTO.

    2.         The least-developed countries recognized as such by the United Nations will only be required to undertake commitments and concessions to the extent consistent with their individual development, financial and trade needs or their administrative and institutional capabilities.

    Article XII

    Accession

    1.         Any State or separate customs territory possessing full autonomy in the conduct of its external commercial relations and of the other matters provided for in this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements may accede to this Agreement, on terms to be agreed between it and the WTO.  Such accession shall apply to this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements annexed thereto.

    2.         Decisions on accession shall be taken by the Ministerial Conference.  The Ministerial Conference shall approve the agreement on the terms of accession by a two-thirds majority of the Members of the WTO.

    3.         Accession to a Plurilateral Trade Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

    Article XIII

    Non-Application of Multilateral Trade Agreements between Particular Members

    1.         This Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annexes 1 and 2 shall not apply as between any Member and any other Member if either of the Members, at the time either becomes a Member, does not consent to such application.

    2.         Paragraph 1 may be invoked between original Members of the WTO which were contracting parties to GATT 1947 only where Article XXXV of that Agreement had been invoked earlier and was effective as between those contracting parties at the time of entry into force for them of this Agreement.

    3.         Paragraph 1 shall apply between a Member and another Member which has acceded under Article XII only if the Member not consenting to the application has so notified the Ministerial Conference before the approval of the agreement on the terms of accession by the Ministerial Conference.

    4.         The Ministerial Conference may review the operation of this Article in particular cases at the request of any Member and make appropriate recommendations.

    5.         Non-application of a Plurilateral Trade Agreement between parties to that Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

    Article XIV

    Acceptance, Entry into Force and Deposit

    1.         This Agreement shall be open for acceptance, by signature or otherwise, by contracting parties to GATT 1947, and the European Communities, which are eligible to become original Members of the WTO in accordance with Article XI of this Agreement.  Such acceptance shall apply to this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements annexed hereto.  This Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements annexed hereto shall enter into force on the date determined by Ministers in accordance with paragraph 3 of the Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations and shall remain open for acceptance for a period of two years following that date unless the Ministers decide otherwise.  An acceptance following the entry into force of this Agreement shall enter into force on the 30th day following the date of such acceptance.

    2.         A Member which accepts this Agreement after its entry into force shall implement those concessions and obligations in the Multilateral Trade Agreements that are to be implemented over a period of time starting with the entry into force of this Agreement as if it had accepted this Agreement on the date of its entry into force.

    3.         Until the entry into force of this Agreement, the text of this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements shall be deposited with the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947.  The Director-General shall promptly furnish a certified true copy of this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and a notification of each acceptance thereof, to each government and the European Communities having accepted this Agreement.  This Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and any amendments thereto, shall, upon the entry into force of this Agreement, be deposited with the Director-General of the WTO.

    4.         The acceptance and entry into force of a Plurilateral Trade Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.  Such Agreements shall be deposited with the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947.  Upon the entry into force of this Agreement, such Agreements shall be deposited with the Director-General of the WTO.

    Article XV

    Withdrawal

    1.         Any Member may withdraw from this Agreement.  Such withdrawal shall apply both to this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements and shall take effect upon the expiration of six months from the date on which written notice of withdrawal is received by the Director-General of the WTO.

    2.         Withdrawal from a Plurilateral Trade Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

    Article XVI

    Miscellaneous Provisions

    1.         Except as otherwise provided under this Agreement or the Multilateral Trade Agreements, the WTO shall be guided by the decisions, procedures and customary practices followed by the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947 and the bodies established in the framework of GATT 1947.

    2.         To the extent practicable, the Secretariat of GATT 1947 shall become the Secretariat of the WTO, and the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947, until such time as the Ministerial Conference has appointed a Director-General in accordance with paragraph 2 of Article VI of this Agreement, shall serve as Director-General of the WTO.

    3.         In the event of a conflict between a provision of this Agreement and a provision of any of the Multilateral Trade Agreements, the provision of this Agreement shall prevail to the extent of the conflict.

    4.         Each  Member shall ensure the conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures with its obligations as provided in the annexed Agreements.

    5.         No reservations may be made in respect of any provision of this Agreement.  Reservations in respect of any of the provisions of the Multilateral Trade Agreements may only be made to the extent provided for in those Agreements.  Reservations in respect of a provision of a Plurilateral Trade Agreement shall be governed by the provisions of that Agreement.

    6.         This Agreement shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

                DONE at Marrakesh this fifteenth day of April one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four, in a single copy, in the English, French and Spanish languages, each text being authentic.

    Explanatory Notes:

                The terms "country" or "countries" as used in this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements are to be understood to include any separate customs territory Member of the WTO.

                In the case of a separate customs territory Member of the WTO, where an expression in this Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements is qualified by the term "national", such expression shall be read as pertaining to that customs territory, unless otherwise specified.

    LIST OF ANNEXES

    ANNEX 1

    ANNEX 1A:  Multilateral Agreements on Trade in Goods

    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade1994
    Agreement on Agriculture
    Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
    Agreement on Textiles and Clothing
    Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
    Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures
    Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994
    Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994
    Agreement on Preshipment Inspection
    Agreement on Rules of Origin
    Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures
    Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures
    Agreement on Safeguards

    ANNEX 1B:  General Agreement on Trade in Services and Annexes

    ANNEX 1C:  Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

    ANNEX 2

    Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes

    ANNEX 3

    Trade Policy Review Mechanism

    ANNEX 4

    Plurilateral Trade Agreements

    Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft
    Agreement on Government Procurement
    International Dairy Agreement
    International Bovine Meat Agreement

    ANNEX 1

    ANNEX 1A

    MULTILATERAL AGREEMENTS ON TRADE IN GOODS

    General interpretative note to Annex 1A: 

                In the event of conflict between a provision of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 and a provision of another agreement in Annex 1A to the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (referred to in the agreements in Annex 1A as the "WTO Agreement"), the provision of the other agreement shall prevail to the extent of the conflict.

    GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994

    1.         The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 ("GATT 1994") shall consist of:

                (a)        the provisions in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, dated 30 October 1947, annexed to the Final Act Adopted at the Conclusion of the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment (excluding the Protocol of Provisional Application), as rectified, amended or modified by the terms of legal instruments which have entered into force before the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement;

                (b)        the provisions of the legal instruments set forth below that have entered into force under the GATT 1947 before the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement: 

                            (i)         protocols and certifications relating to tariff concessions;

                            (ii)        protocols of accession (excluding the provisions (a) concerning provisional application and withdrawal of provisional application and (b) providing that Part II of GATT 1947 shall be applied provisionally to the fullest extent not inconsistent with legislation existing on the date of the Protocol);

                            (iii)       decisions on waivers granted under Article XXV of GATT 1947 and still in force on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement[5];

                            (iv)       other decisions of the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947;

                (c)        the Understandings set forth below:

                            (i)         Understanding on the Interpretation of Article II:1(b) of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994;

                            (ii)        Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XVII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994;

                            (iii)       Understanding on Balance-of-Payments Provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994;

                            (iv)       Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994;

                            (v)        Understanding in Respect of Waivers of Obligations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994;

                            (vi)       Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXVIII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994;  and

                (d)        the Marrakesh Protocol to GATT 1994.

    2.         Explanatory Notes

                (a)        The references to "contracting party" in the provisions of GATT 1994 shall be deemed to read "Member".  The references to "less-developed contracting party" and "developed contracting party" shall be deemed to read "developing country Member" and "developed country Member".  The references to "Executive Secretary" shall be deemed to read "Director-General of the WTO".

                (b)        The references to the CONTRACTING PARTIES acting jointly in Articles XV:1, XV:2, XV:8, XXXVIII and the Notes Ad Article XII and XVIII;  and in the provisions on special exchange agreements in Articles XV:2, XV:3, XV:6, XV:7 and XV:9 of GATT 1994 shall be deemed to be references to the WTO.  The other functions that the provisions of GATT 1994 assign to the CONTRACTING PARTIES acting jointly shall be allocated by the Ministerial Conference.

    (c)        (i)         The text of GATT 1994 shall be authentic in English, French and Spanish.

                 (ii)        The text of GATT 1994 in the French language shall be subject to the rectifications of terms indicated in Annex A to document MTN.TNC/41.

                 (iii)       The authentic text of GATT 1994 in the Spanish language shall be the text in Volume IV of the Basic Instruments and Selected Documents series, subject to the rectifications of terms indicated in Annex B to document MTN.TNC/41.

    3.         (a)        The provisions of Part II of GATT 1994 shall not apply to measures taken by a Member under specific mandatory legislation, enacted by that Member before it became a contracting party to GATT 1947, that prohibits the use, sale or lease of foreign-built or foreign-reconstructed vessels in commercial applications between points in national waters or the waters of an exclusive economic zone.  This exemption applies to:  (a) the continuation or prompt renewal of a non-conforming provision of such legislation;  and (b) the amendment to a non-conforming provision of such legislation to the extent that the amendment does not decrease the conformity of the provision with Part II of GATT 1947.  This exemption is limited to measures taken under legislation described above that is notified and specified prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.  If such legislation is subsequently modified to decrease its conformity with Part II of GATT 1994, it will no longer qualify for coverage under this paragraph. 

                (b)        The Ministerial Conference shall review this exemption not later than five years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement and thereafter every two years for as long as the exemption is in force for the purpose of examining whether the conditions which created the need for the exemption still prevail.

                (c)        A Member whose measures are covered by this exemption shall annually submit a detailed statistical notification consisting of a five-year moving average of actual and expected deliveries of relevant vessels as well as additional information on the use, sale, lease or repair of relevant vessels covered by this exemption.

                (d)        A Member that considers that this exemption operates in such a manner as to justify a reciprocal and proportionate limitation on the use, sale, lease or repair of vessels constructed in the territory of the Member invoking the exemption shall be free to introduce such a limitation subject to prior notification to the Ministerial Conference.

                (e)        This exemption is without prejudice to solutions concerning specific aspects of the legislation covered by this exemption negotiated in sectoral agreements or in other fora.

    UNDERSTANDING ON THE INTERPRETATION OF ARTICLE II:1(b) OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994

    Members hereby agree as follows:

    1.         In order to ensure transparency of the legal rights and obligations deriving from paragraph 1(b) of Article II, the nature and level of any "other duties or charges" levied on bound tariff items, as referred to in that provision, shall be recorded in the Schedules of concessions annexed to GATT 1994 against the tariff item to which they apply.  It is understood that such recording does not change the legal character of "other duties or charges".

    2.         The date as of which "other duties or charges" are bound, for the purposes of Article II, shall be 15 April 1994.  "Other duties or charges" shall therefore be recorded in the Schedules at the levels applying on this date.  At each subsequent renegotiation of a concession or negotiation of a new concession the applicable date for the tariff item in question shall become the date of the incorporation of the new concession in the appropriate Schedule.  However, the date of the instrument by which a concession on any particular tariff item was first incorporated into GATT 1947 or GATT 1994 shall also continue to be recorded in column 6 of the Loose-Leaf Schedules.

    3.         "Other duties or charges" shall be recorded in respect of all tariff bindings. 

    4.         Where a tariff item has previously been the subject of a concession, the level of "other duties or charges" recorded in the appropriate Schedule shall not be higher than the level obtaining at the time of the first incorporation of the concession in that Schedule.  It will be open to any Member to challenge the existence of an "other duty or charge", on the ground that no such "other duty or charge" existed at the time of the original binding of the item in question, as well as the consistency of the recorded level of any "other duty or charge" with the previously bound level, for a period of three years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement or three years after the date of deposit with the Director-General of the WTO of the instrument incorporating the Schedule in question into GATT 1994, if that is a later date.

    5.         The recording of "other duties or charges" in the Schedules is without prejudice to their consistency with rights and obligations under GATT 1994 other than those affected by paragraph 4.  All Members retain the right to challenge, at any time, the consistency of any "other duty or charge" with such obligations.

    6.         For the purposes of this Understanding, the provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding shall apply.

    7.         "Other duties or charges" omitted from a Schedule at the time of deposit of the instrument incorporating the Schedule in question into GATT 1994 with, until the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947 or, thereafter, with the Director-General of the WTO, shall not subsequently be added to it and any "other duty or charge" recorded at a level lower than that prevailing on the applicable date shall not be restored to that level unless such additions or changes are made within six months of the date of deposit of the  instrument.

    8.         The decision in paragraph 2 regarding the date applicable to each concession for the purposes of paragraph 1(b) of Article II of GATT 1994 supersedes the decision regarding the applicable date taken on 26 March 1980 (BISD 27S/24).

    UNDERSTANDING ON THE INTERPRETATION OF ARTICLE XVII OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994

    Members,

                Noting that Article XVII provides for obligations on Members in respect of the activities of the state trading enterprises referred to in paragraph 1 of Article XVII, which are required to be consistent with the general principles of non-discriminatory treatment prescribed in GATT 1994 for governmental measures affecting imports or exports by private traders;

                Noting further that Members are subject to their GATT 1994 obligations in respect of those governmental measures affecting state trading enterprises;

                Recognizing that this Understanding is without prejudice to the substantive disciplines prescribed in Article XVII;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    1.         In order to ensure the transparency of the activities of state trading enterprises, Members shall notify such enterprises to the Council for Trade in Goods, for review by the working party to be set up under paragraph 5, in accordance with the following working definition:

    "Governmental and non-governmental enterprises, including marketing boards, which have been granted exclusive or special rights or privileges, including statutory or constitutional powers, in the exercise of which they influence through their purchases or sales the level or direction of imports or exports."

    This notification requirement does not apply to imports of products for immediate or ultimate consumption in governmental use or in use by an enterprise as specified above and not otherwise for resale or use in the production of goods for sale.

    2.         Each Member shall conduct a review of its policy with regard to the submission of notifications on state trading enterprises to the Council for Trade in Goods, taking account of the provisions of this Understanding.  In carrying out such a review, each Member should have regard to the need to ensure the maximum transparency possible in its notifications so as to permit a clear appreciation of the manner of operation of the enterprises notified and the effect of their operations on international trade.

    3.         Notifications shall be made in accordance with the questionnaire on state trading adopted on 24 May 1960 (BISD 9S/184-185), it being understood that Members shall notify the enterprises referred to in paragraph 1 whether or not imports or exports have in fact taken place.

    4.         Any Member which has reason to believe that another Member has not adequately met its notification obligation may raise the matter with the Member concerned.  If the matter is not satisfactorily resolved it may make a counter-notification to the Council for Trade in Goods, for consideration by the working party set up under paragraph 5, simultaneously informing the Member concerned.

    5.         A working party shall be set up, on behalf of the Council for Trade in Goods, to review notifications and counter-notifications.  In the light of this review and without prejudice to paragraph 4(c) of Article XVII, the Council for Trade in Goods may make recommendations with regard to the adequacy of notifications and the need for further information.  The working party shall also review, in the light of the notifications received, the adequacy of the above-mentioned questionnaire on state trading and the coverage of state trading enterprises notified under paragraph 1.  It shall also develop an illustrative list showing the kinds of relationships between governments and enterprises, and the kinds of activities, engaged in by these enterprises, which may be relevant for the purposes of Article XVII.  It is understood that the Secretariat will provide a general background paper for the working party on the operations of state trading enterprises as they relate to international trade.  Membership of the working party shall be open to all Members indicating their wish to serve on it.  It shall meet within a year of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement and thereafter at least once a year.  It shall report annually to the Council for Trade in Goods.[6]

    UNDERSTANDING ON THE BALANCE-OF-PAYMENTS PROVISIONS OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994

    Members,

                Recognizing the provisions of Articles XII and XVIII:B of GATT 1994 and of the Declaration on Trade Measures Taken for Balance-of-Payments Purposes adopted on 28 November 1979 (BISD 26S/205-209, referred to in this Understanding as the "1979 Declaration") and in order to clarify such provisions[7];

                Hereby agree as follows:

    Application of Measures

    1.         Members confirm their commitment to announce publicly, as soon as possible, time-schedules for the removal of restrictive import measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes.  It is understood that such time-schedules may be modified as appropriate to take into account changes in the balance-of-payments situation.  Whenever a time-schedule is not publicly announced by a Member, that Member shall provide justification as to the reasons therefor.

    2.         Members confirm their commitment to give preference to those measures which have the least disruptive effect on trade.  Such measures (referred to in this Understanding as "price-based measures") shall be understood to include import surcharges, import deposit requirements or other equivalent trade measures with an impact on the price of imported goods.  It is understood that, notwithstanding the provisions of Article II, price-based measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes may be applied by a Member in excess of the duties inscribed in the Schedule of that Member.  Furthermore, that Member shall indicate the amount by which the price-based measure exceeds the bound duty clearly and separately under the notification procedures of this Understanding. 

    3.         Members shall seek to avoid the imposition of new quantitative restrictions for balance-of-payments purposes unless, because of a critical balance-of-payments situation, price-based measures cannot arrest a sharp deterioration in the external payments position.  In those cases in which a Member applies quantitative restrictions, it shall provide justification as to the reasons why price-based measures are not an adequate instrument to deal with the balance-of-payments situation.  A Member maintaining quantitative restrictions shall indicate in successive consultations the progress made in significantly reducing the incidence and restrictive effect of such measures.  It is understood that not more than one type of restrictive import measure taken for balance-of-payments purposes may be applied on the same product.

    4.         Members confirm that restrictive import measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes may only be applied to control the general level of imports and may not exceed what is necessary to address the balance-of-payments situation.  In order to minimize any incidental protective effects, a Member shall administer restrictions in a transparent manner.  The authorities of the importing Member shall provide adequate justification as to the criteria used to determine which products are subject to restriction.  As provided in paragraph 3 of Article XII and paragraph 10 of Article XVIII, Members may, in the case of certain essential products, exclude or limit the application of surcharges applied across the board or other measures applied for balance-of-payments purposes.  The term "essential products" shall be understood to mean products which meet basic consumption needs or which contribute to the Member's effort to improve its balance-of-payments situation, such as capital goods or inputs needed for production.  In the administration of quantitative restrictions, a Member shall use discretionary licensing only when unavoidable and shall phase it out progressively.  Appropriate justification shall be provided as to the criteria used to determine allowable import quantities or values.

    Procedures for Balance-of-Payments Consultations

    5.         The Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions (referred to in this Understanding as the "Committee") shall carry out consultations in order to review all restrictive import measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes.  The membership of the Committee is open to all Members indicating their wish to serve on it.  The Committee shall follow the procedures for consultations on balance-of-payments restrictions approved on 28 April 1970 (BISD 18S/48-53, referred to in this Understanding as "full consultation procedures"), subject to the provisions set out below.

    6.         A Member applying new restrictions or raising the general level of its existing restrictions by a substantial intensification of the measures shall enter into consultations with the Committee within four months of the adoption of such measures.  The Member adopting such measures may request that a consultation be held under paragraph 4(a) of Article XII or paragraph 12(a) of Article XVIII as appropriate.  If no such request has been made, the Chairman of the Committee shall invite the Member to hold such a consultation.  Factors that may be examined in the consultation would include, inter alia, the introduction of new types of restrictive measures for balance-of-payments purposes, or an increase in the level or product coverage of restrictions.

    7.         All restrictions applied for balance-of-payments purposes shall be subject to periodic review in the Committee under paragraph 4(b) of Article XII or under paragraph 12(b) of Article XVIII, subject to the possibility of altering the periodicity of consultations in agreement with the consulting Member or pursuant to any specific review procedure that may be recommended by the General Council.

    8.         Consultations may be held under the simplified procedures approved on 19 December 1972 (BISD 20S/47-49, referred to in this Understanding as "simplified consultation procedures") in the case of least-developed country Members or in the case of developing country Members which are pursuing liberalization efforts in conformity with the schedule presented to the Committee in previous consultations.  Simplified consultation procedures may also be used when the Trade Policy Review of a developing country Member is scheduled for the same calendar year as the date fixed for the consultations.  In such cases the decision as to whether full consultation procedures should be used will be made on the basis of the factors enumerated in paragraph 8 of the 1979 Declaration.  Except in the case of least-developed country Members, no more than two successive consultations may be held under simplified consultation procedures.

    Notification and Documentation

    9.         A Member shall notify to the General Council the introduction of or any changes in the application of restrictive import measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes, as well as any modifications in time-schedules for the removal of such measures as announced under paragraph 1.  Significant changes shall be notified to the General Council prior to or not later than 30 days after their announcement.  On a yearly basis, each Member shall make available to the Secretariat a consolidated notification, including all changes in laws, regulations, policy statements or public notices, for examination by Members.  Notifications shall include full information, as far as possible, at the tariff-line level, on the type of measures applied, the criteria used for their administration, product coverage and trade flows affected.

    10.       At the request of any Member, notifications may be reviewed by the Committee.  Such reviews would be limited to the clarification of specific issues raised by a notification or examination of whether a consultation under paragraph 4(a) of Article XII or paragraph 12(a) of Article XVIII is required.  Members which have reasons to believe that a restrictive import measure applied by another Member was taken for balance-of-payments purposes may bring the matter to the attention of the Committee.  The Chairman of the Committee shall request information on the measure and make it available to all Members.  Without prejudice to the right of any member of the Committee to seek appropriate clarifications in the course of consultations, questions may be submitted in advance for consideration by the consulting Member. 

    11.       The consulting Member shall prepare a Basic Document for the consultations which, in addition to any other information considered to be relevant, should include:   (a) an overview of the balance-of-payments situation and prospects, including a consideration of the internal and external factors having a bearing on the balance-of-payments situation and the domestic policy measures taken in order to restore equilibrium on a sound and lasting basis;  (b) a full description of the restrictions applied for balance-of-payments purposes, their legal basis and steps taken to reduce incidental protective effects;  (c) measures taken since the last consultation to liberalize import restrictions, in the light of the conclusions of the Committee;  (d)  a plan for the elimination and progressive relaxation of remaining restrictions.  References may be made, when relevant, to the information provided in other notifications or reports made to the WTO.  Under simplified consultation procedures, the consulting Member shall submit a written statement containing essential information on the elements covered by the Basic Document.

    12.       The Secretariat shall, with a view to facilitating the consultations in the Committee, prepare a factual background paper dealing with the different aspects of the plan for consultations.  In the case of developing country Members, the Secretariat document shall include relevant background and analytical material on the incidence of the external trading environment on the balance-of-payments situation and prospects of the consulting Member.  The technical assistance services of the Secretariat shall, at the request of a developing country Member, assist in preparing the documentation for the consultations.

    Conclusions of Balance-of-Payments Consultations

    13.       The Committee shall report on its consultations to the General Council.  When full consultation procedures have been used, the report should indicate the Committee's conclusions on the different elements of the plan for consultations, as well as the facts and reasons on which they are based.  The Committee shall endeavour to include in its conclusions proposals for recommendations aimed at promoting the implementation of Articles XII and XVIII:B, the 1979 Declaration and this Understanding.  In those cases in which a time-schedule has been presented for the removal of restrictive measures taken for balance-of-payments purposes, the General Council may recommend that, in adhering to such a time-schedule, a Member shall be deemed to be in compliance with its GATT 1994 obligations.  Whenever the General Council has made specific recommendations, the rights and obligations of Members shall be assessed in the light of such recommendations.  In the absence of specific proposals for recommendations by the General Council, the Committee's conclusions should record the different views expressed in the Committee.  When simplified consultation procedures have been used, the report shall include a summary of the main elements discussed in the Committee and a decision on whether full consultation procedures are required.

    UNDERSTANDING ON THE INTERPRETATION OF ARTICLE XXIV OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994

    Members,

                Having regard to the provisions of Article XXIV of GATT 1994;

                Recognizing that customs unions and free trade areas have greatly increased in number and importance since the establishment of GATT 1947 and today cover a significant proportion of world trade;

                Recognizing the contribution to the expansion of world trade that may be made by closer integration between the economies of the parties to such agreements;

                Recognizing also that such contribution is increased if the elimination between the constituent territories of duties and other restrictive regulations of commerce extends to all trade, and diminished if any major sector of trade is excluded;

                Reaffirming that the purpose of such agreements should be to facilitate trade between the constituent territories and not to raise barriers to the trade of other Members with such territories;  and that in their formation or enlargement the parties to them should to the greatest possible extent avoid creating adverse effects on the trade of other Members;

                Convinced also of the need to reinforce the effectiveness of the role of the Council for Trade in Goods in reviewing agreements notified under Article XXIV, by clarifying the criteria and procedures for the assessment of new or enlarged agreements, and improving the transparency of all Article XXIV agreements;

                Recognizing the need for a common understanding of the obligations of Members under paragraph 12 of Article XXIV;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    1.         Customs unions, free-trade areas, and interim agreements leading to the formation of a customs union or free-trade area, to be consistent with Article XXIV, must satisfy, inter alia, the provisions of paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8 of that Article.

    Article XXIV:5

    2.         The evaluation under paragraph 5(a) of Article XXIV of the general incidence of the duties and other regulations of commerce applicable before and after the formation of a customs union shall in respect of duties and charges be based upon an overall assessment of weighted average tariff rates and of customs duties collected.  This assessment shall be based on import statistics for a previous representative period to be supplied by the customs union, on a tariff-line basis and in values and quantities, broken down by WTO country of origin.  The Secretariat shall compute the weighted average tariff rates and customs duties collected in accordance with the methodology used in the assessment of tariff offers in the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations.  For this purpose, the duties and charges to be taken into consideration shall be the applied rates of duty.  It is recognized that for the purpose of the overall assessment of the incidence of other regulations of commerce for which quantification and aggregation are difficult, the examination of individual measures, regulations, products covered and trade flows affected may be required.

    3.         The "reasonable length of time" referred to in paragraph 5(c) of Article XXIV should exceed 10 years only in exceptional cases.  In cases where Members parties to an interim agreement believe that 10 years would be insufficient they shall provide a full explanation to the Council for Trade in Goods of the need for a longer period.

    Article XXIV:6

    4.         Paragraph 6 of Article XXIV establishes the procedure to be followed when a Member forming a customs union proposes to increase a bound rate of duty.  In this regard Members reaffirm that the procedure set forth in Article XXVIII, as elaborated in the guidelines adopted on 10 November 1980 (BISD 27S/26-28) and in the Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXVIII of GATT 1994, must be commenced before tariff concessions are modified or withdrawn upon the formation of a customs union or an interim agreement leading to the formation of a customs union. 

    5.         These negotiations will be entered into in good faith with a view to achieving mutually satisfactory compensatory adjustment.  In such negotiations, as required by paragraph 6 of Article XXIV, due account shall be taken of reductions of duties on the same tariff line made by other constituents of the customs union upon its formation.  Should such reductions not be sufficient to provide the necessary compensatory adjustment, the customs union would offer compensation, which may take the form of reductions of duties on other tariff lines.  Such an offer shall be taken into consideration by the Members having negotiating rights in the binding being modified or withdrawn.  Should the compensatory adjustment remain unacceptable, negotiations should be continued.  Where, despite such efforts, agreement in negotiations on compensatory adjustment under Article XXVIII as elaborated by the Understanding on the Interpretation of Article XXVIII of GATT 1994 cannot be reached within a reasonable period from the initiation of negotiations, the customs union shall, nevertheless, be free to modify or withdraw the concessions;  affected Members shall then be free to withdraw substantially equivalent concessions in accordance with Article XXVIII.

    6.         GATT 1994 imposes no obligation on Members benefiting from a reduction of duties consequent upon the formation of a customs union, or an interim agreement leading to the formation of a customs union, to provide compensatory adjustment to its constituents.

    Review of Customs Unions and Free-Trade Areas

    7.         All notifications made under paragraph 7(a) of Article XXIV shall be examined by a working party in the light of the relevant provisions of GATT 1994 and of paragraph 1 of this Understanding.  The working party shall submit a report to the Council for Trade in Goods on its findings in this regard. The Council for Trade in Goods may make such recommendations to Members as it deems appropriate.

    8.         In regard to interim agreements, the working party may in its report make appropriate recommendations on the proposed time-frame and on measures required to complete the formation of the customs union or free-trade area.  It may if necessary provide for further review of the agreement.

    9.         Members parties to an interim agreement shall notify substantial changes in the plan and schedule included in that agreement to the Council for Trade in Goods and, if so requested, the Council shall examine the changes.

    10.       Should an interim agreement notified under paragraph 7(a) of Article XXIV not include a plan and schedule, contrary to paragraph 5(c) of Article XXIV, the working party shall in its report recommend such a plan and schedule.  The parties shall not maintain or put into force, as the case may be, such agreement if they are not prepared to modify it in accordance with these recommendations.  Provision shall be made for subsequent review of the implementation of the recommendations.

    11.       Customs unions and constituents of free-trade areas shall report periodically to the Council for Trade in Goods, as envisaged by the CONTRACTING PARTIES to GATT 1947 in their instruction to the GATT 1947 Council concerning reports on regional agreements (BISD 18S/38), on the operation of the relevant agreement.  Any significant changes and/or developments in the agreements should be reported as they occur. 

    Dispute Settlement

    12.       The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding may be invoked with respect to any matters arising from the application of those provisions of Article XXIV relating to customs unions, free-trade areas or interim agreements leading to the formation of a customs union or free-trade area.

    Article XXIV:12

    13.       Each Member is fully responsible under GATT 1994 for the observance of all provisions of GATT 1994, and shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to it to ensure such observance by regional and local governments and authorities within its territory.

    14.       The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding may be invoked in respect of measures affecting its observance taken by regional or local governments or authorities within the territory of a Member.  When the Dispute Settlement Body has ruled that a provision of GATT 1994 has not been observed, the responsible Member shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to it to ensure its observance.  The provisions relating to compensation and suspension of concessions or other obligations apply in cases where it has not been possible to secure such observance.

    15.       Each Member undertakes to accord sympathetic consideration to and afford adequate opportunity for consultation regarding any representations made by another Member concerning measures affecting the operation of GATT 1994 taken within the territory of the former.

    UNDERSTANDING IN RESPECT OF WAIVERS OF OBLIGATIONS UNDER THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994

    Members hereby agree as follows:

    1.         A request for a waiver or for an extension of an existing waiver shall describe the measures which the Member proposes to take, the specific policy objectives which the Member seeks to pursue and the reasons which prevent the Member from achieving its policy objectives by measures consistent with its obligations under GATT 1994.

    2.         Any waiver in effect on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement shall terminate, unless extended in accordance with the procedures above and those of Article IX of the WTO Agreement, on the date of its expiry or two years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, whichever is earlier.

    3.         Any Member considering that a benefit accruing to it under GATT 1994 is being nullified or impaired as a result of:

                (a)        the failure of the Member to whom a waiver was granted to observe the terms or conditions of the waiver, or

                (b)        the application of a measure consistent with the terms and conditions of the waiver

    may invoke the provisions of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding.

    UNDERSTANDING ON THE INTERPRETATION OF ARTICLE XXVIII OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994

    Members hereby agree as follows:

    1.         For the purposes of modification or withdrawal of a concession, the Member which has the highest ratio of exports affected by the concession (i.e. exports of the product to the market of the Member modifying or withdrawing the concession) to its total exports shall be deemed to have a principal supplying interest if it does not already have an initial negotiating right or a principal supplying interest as provided for in paragraph 1 of Article XXVIII.  It is however agreed that this paragraph will be reviewed by the Council for Trade in Goods five years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement with a view to deciding whether this criterion has worked satisfactorily in securing a redistribution of negotiating rights in favour of small and medium-sized exporting Members.  If this is not the case, consideration will be given to possible improvements, including, in the light of the availability of adequate data, the adoption of a criterion based on the ratio of exports affected by the concession to exports to all markets of the product in question.

    2.         Where a Member considers that it has a principal supplying interest in terms of paragraph 1, it should communicate its claim in writing, with supporting evidence, to the Member proposing to modify or withdraw a concession, and at the same time inform the Secretariat.  Paragraph 4 of the "Procedures for Negotiations under Article XXVIII" adopted on 10 November 1980 (BISD 27S/26-28) shall apply in these cases.

    3.         In the determination of which Members have a principal supplying interest (whether as provided for in paragraph 1 above or in paragraph 1 of Article XXVIII) or substantial interest, only trade in the affected product which has taken place on an MFN basis shall be taken into consideration.  However, trade in the affected product which has taken place under non-contractual preferences shall also be taken into account if the trade in question has ceased to benefit from such preferential treatment, thus becoming MFN trade, at the time of the negotiation for the modification or withdrawal of the concession, or will do so by the conclusion of that negotiation.

    4.         When a tariff concession is modified or withdrawn on a new product (i.e. a product for which three years' trade statistics are not available) the Member possessing initial negotiating rights on the tariff line where the product is or was formerly classified shall be deemed to have an initial negotiating right in the concession in question.  The determination of principal supplying and substantial interests and the calculation of compensation shall take into account, inter alia, production capacity and investment in the affected product in the exporting Member and estimates of export growth, as well as forecasts of demand for the product in the importing Member.  For the purposes of this paragraph, "new product" is understood to include a tariff item created by means of a breakout from an existing tariff line.

    5.         Where a Member considers that it has a principal supplying or a substantial interest in terms of paragraph 4, it should communicate its claim in writing, with supporting evidence, to the Member proposing to modify or withdraw a concession, and at the same time inform the Secretariat.  Paragraph 4 of the above-mentioned "Procedures for Negotiations under Article XXVIII" shall apply in these cases.

    6.         When an unlimited tariff concession is replaced by a tariff rate quota, the amount of compensation provided should exceed the amount of the trade actually affected by the modification of the concession.  The basis for the calculation of compensation should be the amount by which future trade prospects exceed the level of the quota.  It is understood that the calculation of future trade prospects should be based on the greater of:

                (a)        the average annual trade in the most recent representative three-year period, increased by the average annual growth rate of imports in that same period, or by 10 per cent, whichever is the greater;  or

                (b)        trade in the most recent year increased by 10 per cent. 

    In no case shall a Member's liability for compensation exceed that which would be entailed by complete withdrawal of the concession.

    7.         Any Member having a principal supplying interest, whether as provided for in paragraph 1 above or in paragraph 1 of Article XXVIII, in a concession which is modified or withdrawn shall be accorded an initial negotiating right in the compensatory concessions, unless another form of compensation is agreed by the Members concerned.

    MARRAKESH PROTOCOL TO THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994

    Members,

                Having carried out negotiations within the framework of GATT 1947, pursuant to the Ministerial Declaration on the Uruguay Round,

                Hereby agree as follows:

    1.         The schedule annexed to this Protocol relating to a Member shall become a Schedule to GATT 1994 relating to that Member on the day on which the WTO Agreement enters into force for that Member.  Any schedule submitted in accordance with the Ministerial Decision on measures in favour of least-developed countries shall be deemed to be annexed to this Protocol.

    2.         The tariff reductions agreed upon by each Member shall be implemented in five equal rate reductions, except as may be otherwise specified in a Member's Schedule.  The first such reduction shall be made effective on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, each successive reduction shall be made effective on 1 January of each of the following years, and the final rate shall become effective no later than the date four years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, except as may be otherwise specified in that Member's Schedule.  Unless otherwise specified in its Schedule, a Member that accepts the WTO Agreement after its entry into force shall, on the date that Agreement enters into force for it, make effective all rate reductions that have already taken place together with the reductions which it would under the preceding sentence have been obligated to make effective on 1 January of the year following, and shall make effective all remaining rate reductions on the schedule specified in the previous sentence.  The reduced rate should in each stage be rounded off to the first decimal.  For agricultural products, as defined in Article 2 of the Agreement on Agriculture, the staging of reductions shall be implemented as specified in the relevant parts of the schedules.

    3.         The implementation of the concessions and commitments contained in the schedules annexed to this Protocol shall, upon request, be subject to multilateral examination by the Members.  This would be without prejudice to the rights and obligations of Members under Agreements in Annex 1A of the WTO Agreement.

    4.         After the schedule annexed to this Protocol relating to a Member has become a Schedule to GATT 1994 pursuant to the provisions of paragraph 1, such Member shall be free at any time to withhold or to withdraw in whole or in part the concession in such Schedule with respect to any product for which the principal supplier is any other Uruguay Round participant the schedule of which has not yet become a Schedule to GATT 1994.  Such action can, however, only be taken after written notice of any such withholding or withdrawal of a concession has been given to the Council for Trade in Goods and after consultations have been held, upon request, with any Member, the relevant schedule relating to which has become a Schedule to GATT 1994 and which has a substantial interest in the product involved.  Any concessions so withheld or withdrawn shall be applied on and after the day on which the schedule of the Member which has the principal supplying interest becomes a Schedule to GATT 1994.

    5.         (a)        Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 4 of the Agreement on Agriculture, for the purpose of the reference in paragraphs 1:(b) and 1(c) of Article II of GATT 1994 to the date of that Agreement, the applicable date in respect of each product which is the subject of a concession provided for in a schedule of concessions annexed to this Protocol shall be the date of this Protocol.

                (b)        For the purpose of the reference in paragraph 6(a) of Article II of GATT 1994 to the date of that Agreement, the applicable date in respect of a schedule of concessions annexed to this Protocol shall be the date of this Protocol.

    6.         In cases of modification or withdrawal of concessions relating to non-tariff measures as contained in Part III of the schedules, the provisions of Article XXVIII of GATT 1994 and the "Procedures for Negotiations under Article XXVIII" adopted on 10 November 1980 (BISD 27S/26-28) shall apply.  This would be without prejudice to the rights and obligations of Members under GATT 1994.

    7.         In each case in which a schedule annexed to this Protocol results for any product in treatment less favourable than was provided for such product in the Schedules of GATT 1947 prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, the Member to whom the schedule relates shall be deemed to have taken appropriate action as would have been otherwise necessary under the relevant provisions of Article XXVIII of GATT 1947 or 1994.  The provisions of this paragraph shall apply only to Egypt, Peru, South Africa and Uruguay.

    8.         The Schedules annexed hereto are authentic in the English, French or Spanish language as specified in each Schedule.

    9.         The date of this Protocol is 15 April 1994.

    [The agreed schedules of participants will be annexed to the Marrakesh Protocol in the treaty copy of the WTO Agreement.]

    AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE

    Members,

                Having decided to establish a basis for initiating a process of reform of trade in agriculture in line with the objectives of the negotiations as set out in the Punta del Este Declaration;

                Recalling that their long-term objective as agreed at the Mid-Term Review of the Uruguay Round "is to establish a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system and that a reform process should be initiated through the negotiation of commitments on support and protection and through the establishment of strengthened and more operationally effective GATT rules and disciplines";

                Recalling further that "the above-mentioned long-term objective is to provide for substantial progressive reductions in agricultural support and protection sustained over an agreed period of time, resulting in correcting and preventing restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets";

                Committed to achieving specific binding commitments in each of the following areas:  market access;  domestic support;  export competition;  and to reaching an agreement on sanitary and phytosanitary issues;

                Having agreed that in implementing their commitments on market access, developed country Members would take fully into account the particular needs and conditions of developing country Members by providing for a greater improvement of opportunities and terms of access for agricultural products of particular interest to these Members, including the fullest liberalization of trade in tropical agricultural products as agreed at the Mid-Term Review, and for products of particular importance to the diversification of production from the growing of illicit narcotic crops;

               Noting that commitments under the reform programme should be made in an equitable way among all Members, having regard to non-trade concerns, including food security and the need to protect the environment;  having regard to the agreement that special and differential treatment for developing countries is an integral element of the negotiations, and taking into account the possible negative effects of the implementation of the reform programme on  least-developed and net food-importing developing countries;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    Part I

    Article 1

    Definition of Terms

                In this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires:

                (a)        "Aggregate Measurement of Support" and "AMS" mean the annual level of support, expressed in monetary terms, provided for an agricultural product in favour of the producers of the basic agricultural product or non-product-specific support provided in favour of agricultural producers in general, other than support provided under programmes that qualify as exempt from reduction under Annex 2 to this Agreement, which is:

                            (i)         with respect to support provided during the base period, specified in the relevant tables of supporting material incorporated by reference in Part IV of a Member's Schedule;  and

                            (ii)        with respect to support provided during any year of the implementation period and thereafter, calculated in accordance with the provisions of Annex 3 of this Agreement and taking into account the constituent data and methodology used in the tables of supporting material incorporated by reference in Part IV of the Member's Schedule;

                (b)        "basic agricultural product" in relation to domestic support commitments is defined as the product as close as practicable to the point of first sale as specified in a Member's Schedule and in the related supporting material;

                (c)        "budgetary outlays" or "outlays" includes revenue foregone;

                (d)        "Equivalent Measurement of Support" means the annual level of support, expressed in monetary terms, provided to producers of a basic agricultural product through the application of one or more measures, the calculation of which in accordance with the AMS methodology is impracticable, other than support provided under programmes that qualify as exempt from reduction under Annex 2 to this Agreement, and which is:

                            (i)         with respect to support provided during the base period, specified in the relevant tables of supporting material incorporated by reference in Part IV of a Member's Schedule;  and

                            (ii)        with respect to support provided during any year of the implementation period and thereafter, calculated in accordance with the provisions of Annex 4 of this Agreement and taking into account the constituent data and methodology used in the tables of supporting material incorporated by reference in Part IV of the Member's Schedule;

                (e)        "export subsidies" refers to subsidies contingent upon export performance, including the export subsidies listed in Article 9 of this Agreement;

                (f)        "implementation period" means the six-year period commencing in the year 1995, except that, for the purposes of Article 13, it means the nine-year period commencing in 1995;

                (g)        "market access concessions" includes all market access commitments undertaken pursuant to this Agreement;

                (h)        "Total Aggregate Measurement of Support" and "Total AMS" mean the sum of all domestic support provided in favour of agricultural producers, calculated as the sum of all aggregate measurements of support for basic agricultural products, all non-product-specific aggregate measurements of support and all equivalent measurements of support  for agricultural products, and which is:

                            (i)         with respect to support provided during the base period (i.e. the "Base Total AMS") and the maximum support permitted to be provided during any year of the implementation period or thereafter (i.e. the "Annual and Final Bound Commitment Levels"), as specified in Part IV of a Member's Schedule;  and

                                        (ii)        with respect to the level of support actually provided during any year of the implementation period and thereafter (i.e.  the "Current Total AMS"), calculated in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, including Article 6, and with the constituent data and methodology used in the tables of supporting material incorporated by reference in Part IV of the Member's Schedule;

                            (i)         "year" in paragraph (f) above and in relation to the specific commitments of a Member refers to the calendar, financial or marketing year specified in the Schedule relating to that Member.

    Article 2

    Product Coverage

                This Agreement applies to the products listed in Annex 1 to this Agreement, hereinafter referred to as agricultural products.

    Part II

    Article 3

    Incorporation of Concessions and Commitments

    1.         The domestic support and export subsidy commitments in Part IV of each Member's Schedule constitute commitments limiting subsidization and are hereby made an integral part of GATT 1994.

    2.         Subject to the provisions of Article 6, a Member shall not provide support in favour of domestic producers in excess of the commitment levels specified in Section I of Part IV of its Schedule.

    3.         Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2(b) and 4 of Article 9, a Member shall not provide export subsidies listed in paragraph 1 of Article 9 in respect of the agricultural products or groups of products specified in Section II of Part IV of its Schedule in excess of the budgetary outlay and quantity commitment levels specified therein and shall not provide such subsidies in respect of any agricultural product not specified in that Section of its Schedule.

    Part III

    Article 4

    Market Access

    1.         Market access concessions contained in Schedules relate to bindings and reductions of tariffs, and to other market access commitments as specified therein.

    2.         Members shall not maintain, resort to, or revert to any measures of the kind which have been required to be converted into ordinary customs duties[8], except as otherwise provided for in Article 5 and Annex 5.

    Article 5

    Special Safeguard Provisions

    1.         Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1(b) of Article II of GATT 1994, any Member may take recourse to the provisions of paragraphs 4 and 5 below in connection with the importation of an agricultural product, in respect of which measures referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 4 of this Agreement have been converted into an ordinary customs duty and which is designated in its Schedule with the symbol "SSG" as being the subject of a concession in respect of which the provisions of this Article may be invoked, if: 

                (a)        the volume of imports of that product entering the customs territory of the Member granting the concession during any year exceeds a trigger level which relates to the existing market access opportunity as set out in paragraph 4;  or, but not concurrently:

                (b)        the price at which imports of that product may enter the customs territory of the Member granting the concession, as determined on the basis of the c.i.f. import price of the shipment concerned expressed in terms of its domestic currency, falls below a trigger price equal to the average 1986 to 1988  reference price[9] for the product concerned.

    2.         Imports under current and minimum access commitments established as part of a concession referred to in paragraph 1 above shall be counted for the purpose of determining the volume of imports required for invoking the provisions of subparagraph 1(a) and paragraph 4, but imports under such commitments shall not be affected by any additional duty imposed under either subparagraph 1(a) and paragraph 4 or subparagraph 1(b) and paragraph 5 below.

    3.         Any supplies of the product in question which were en route on the basis of a contract settled before the additional duty is imposed under subparagraph 1(a) and paragraph 4 shall be exempted from any such additional duty, provided that they may be counted in the volume of imports of the product in question during the following year for the purposes of triggering the provisions of subparagraph 1(a) in that year.

    4.         Any additional duty imposed under subparagraph 1(a) shall only be maintained until the end of the year in which it has been imposed, and may only be levied at a level which shall not exceed one third of the level of the ordinary customs duty in effect in the year in which the action is taken.  The trigger level shall be set according to the following schedule based on market access opportunities defined as imports as a percentage of the corresponding domestic consumption[10] during the three preceding years for which data are available:

                (a)        where such market access opportunities for a product are less than or equal to 10 per cent, the base trigger level shall equal 125 per cent;

                (b)        where such market access opportunities for a product are greater than 10 per cent but less than or equal to 30 per cent, the base trigger level shall equal 110 per cent;

                (c)        where such market access opportunities for a product are greater than 30 per cent, the base trigger level shall equal 105 per cent.

                In all cases the additional duty may be imposed in any year where the absolute volume of imports of the product concerned entering the customs territory of the Member granting the concession exceeds the sum of (x) the base trigger level set out above multiplied by the average quantity of imports during the three preceding years for which data are available and (y) the absolute volume change in domestic consumption of the product concerned in the most recent year for which data are available compared to the preceding year, provided that the trigger level shall not be less than 105 per cent of the average quantity of imports in (x) above.

    5.         The additional duty imposed under subparagraph 1(b) shall be set according to the following schedule:

                (a)        if the difference between the c.i.f. import price of the shipment expressed in terms of the domestic currency (hereinafter referred to as the "import price") and the trigger price as defined under that subparagraph is less than or equal to 10 per cent of the trigger price, no additional duty shall be imposed;

                (b)        if the difference between the import price and the trigger price (hereinafter referred to as the "difference") is greater than 10 per cent but less than or equal to 40 per cent of the trigger price, the additional duty shall equal 30 per cent of the amount by which the difference exceeds 10 per cent;

                (c)        if the difference is greater than 40 per cent but less than or equal to 60 per cent of the trigger price, the additional duty shall equal 50 per cent of the amount by which the difference exceeds 40 per cent, plus the additional duty allowed under (b);

                (d)        if the difference is greater than 60 per cent but less than or equal to 75 per cent, the additional duty shall equal 70 per cent of the amount by which the difference exceeds 60 per cent of the trigger price, plus the additional duties allowed under (b) and (c);

                (e)        if the difference is greater than 75 per cent of the trigger price, the additional duty shall equal 90 per cent of the amount by which the difference exceeds 75 per cent, plus the additional duties allowed under (b), (c) and (d).

    6.         For perishable and seasonal products, the conditions set out above shall be applied in such a manner as to take account of the specific characteristics of such products.  In particular, shorter time periods under subparagraph 1(a) and paragraph 4 may be used in reference to the corresponding periods in the base period and different reference prices for different periods may be used under subparagraph 1(b).

    7.         The operation of the special safeguard shall be carried out in a transparent manner.  Any Member taking action under subparagraph 1(a) above shall give notice in writing, including relevant data, to the Committee on Agriculture as far in advance as may be practicable and in any event within 10 days of the implementation of such action.  In cases where changes in consumption volumes must be allocated to individual tariff lines subject to action under paragraph 4, relevant data shall include the information and methods used to allocate these changes.  A Member taking action under paragraph 4 shall afford any interested Members the opportunity to consult with it in respect of the conditions of application of such action.  Any Member taking action under subparagraph 1(b) above shall give notice in writing, including relevant data, to the Committee on Agriculture within 10 days of the implementation of the first such action or, for perishable and seasonal products, the first action in any period.  Members undertake, as far as practicable, not to take recourse to the provisions of subparagraph 1(b) where the volume of imports of the products concerned are declining.  In either case a Member taking such action shall afford any interested Members the opportunity to consult with it in respect of the conditions of application of such action.

    8.         Where measures are taken in conformity with paragraphs 1 through 7 above, Members undertake not to have recourse, in respect of such measures, to the provisions of paragraphs 1(a) and 3 of Article XIX of GATT 1994 or paragraph 2 of Article 8 of the Agreement on Safeguards.

    9.         The provisions of this Article shall remain in force for the duration of the reform process as determined under Article 20.

    Part IV

    Article 6

    Domestic Support Commitments

    1.         The domestic support reduction commitments of each Member contained in Part IV of its Schedule shall apply to all of its domestic support measures in favour of agricultural producers with the exception of domestic measures which are not subject to reduction in terms of the criteria set out in this Article and in Annex 2 to this Agreement.  The commitments are expressed in terms of Total Aggregate Measurement of Support and "Annual and Final Bound Commitment Levels".

    2.         In accordance with the Mid-Term Review Agreement that government measures of assistance, whether direct or indirect, to encourage agricultural and rural development are an integral part of the development programmes of developing countries, investment subsidies which are generally available to agriculture in developing country Members and agricultural input subsidies generally available to low-income or resource-poor producers in developing country Members shall be exempt from domestic support reduction commitments that would otherwise be applicable to such measures, as shall domestic support to producers in developing country Members to encourage diversification from growing illicit narcotic crops.  Domestic support meeting the criteria of this paragraph shall not be required to be included in a Member's calculation of its Current Total AMS.

    3.         A Member shall be considered to be in compliance with its domestic support reduction commitments in any year in which its domestic support in favour of agricultural producers expressed in terms of Current Total AMS does not exceed the corresponding annual or final bound commitment level specified in Part IV of the Member's Schedule.

    4.         (a)        A Member shall not be required to include in the calculation of its Current Total AMS and shall not be required to reduce:

                            (i)         product-specific domestic support which would  otherwise be required to be included in a Member's calculation of its Current AMS where such support does not exceed 5 per cent of that Member's total value of production of a basic agricultural product during the relevant year;  and

                            (ii)        non-product-specific domestic support which would otherwise be required to be included in a Member's calculation of its Current AMS where such support does not exceed 5 per cent of the value of that Member's total agricultural production.

                (b)        For developing country Members, the de minimis percentage under this paragraph shall be 10 per cent.

    5.         (a)        Direct payments under production-limiting programmes shall not be subject to the commitment to reduce domestic support if:

                            (i)         such payments are based on fixed area and yields;  or

                            (ii)        such payments are made on 85 per cent or less of the base level of production;  or

                            (iii)        livestock payments are made on a fixed number of head.

    (b)        The exemption from the reduction commitment for direct payments meeting the above criteria shall be reflected by the exclusion of the value of those direct payments in a Member's calculation of its Current Total AMS.

    Article 7

    General Disciplines on Domestic Support

    1.         Each Member shall ensure that any domestic support measures in favour of agricultural producers which are not subject to reduction commitments because they qualify under the criteria set out in Annex 2 to this Agreement are maintained in conformity therewith.

    2.         (a)        Any domestic support measure in favour of agricultural producers, including any modification to such measure, and any measure that is subsequently introduced that cannot be shown to satisfy the criteria in Annex 2 to this Agreement or to be exempt from reduction by reason of any other provision of this Agreement shall be included in the Member's calculation of its Current Total AMS.

                (b)        Where no Total AMS commitment exists in Part IV of a Member's Schedule, the Member shall not provide support to agricultural producers in excess of the relevant de minimis level set out in paragraph 4 of Article 6.

    Part V

    Article 8

    Export Competition Commitments

                Each Member undertakes not to provide export subsidies otherwise than in conformity with this Agreement and with the commitments as specified in that Member's Schedule.

    Article 9

    Export Subsidy Commitments

    1.         The following export subsidies are subject to reduction commitments under this Agreement:

                (a)       the provision by governments or their agencies of direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind, to a firm, to an industry, to producers of an agricultural product, to a cooperative or other association of such producers, or to a marketing board, contingent on export performance;

                (b)        the sale or disposal for export by governments or their agencies of non-commercial stocks of agricultural products at a price lower than the comparable price charged for the like product to buyers in the domestic market;

                (c)        payments on the export of an agricultural product that are financed by virtue of governmental action, whether or not a charge on the public account is involved, including payments that are financed from the proceeds of a levy imposed on the agricultural product concerned or on an agricultural product from which the exported product is derived;

                (d)        the provision of subsidies to reduce the costs of marketing exports of agricultural products (other than widely available export promotion and advisory services) including handling, upgrading and other processing costs, and the costs of international transport and freight;

                (e)        internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, provided or mandated by governments, on terms more favourable than for domestic shipments;

                (f)        subsidies on agricultural products contingent on their incorporation in exported products.

    2.         (a)        Except as provided in subparagraph (b), the export subsidy commitment levels for each year of the implementation period, as specified in a Member's Schedule, represent with respect to the export subsidies listed in paragraph 1 of this Article:

                            (i)         in the case of budgetary outlay reduction commitments, the maximum level of expenditure for such subsidies that may be allocated or incurred in that year in respect of the agricultural product, or group of products, concerned; and

                            (ii)        in the case of export quantity reduction commitments, the maximum quantity of an agricultural product, or group of products, in respect of which such export subsidies may be granted in that year.

                (b)        In any of the second through fifth years of the implementation period, a Member may provide export subsidies listed in paragraph 1 above in a given year in excess of the corresponding annual commitment levels in respect of the products or groups of products specified in Part IV of the Member's Schedule, provided that:

                            (i)         the cumulative amounts of budgetary outlays for such subsidies, from the beginning of the implementation period through the year in question, does not exceed the cumulative amounts that would have resulted from full compliance with the relevant annual outlay commitment levels specified in the Member's Schedule by more than 3 per cent of the base period level of such budgetary outlays;

                            (ii)        the cumulative quantities exported with the benefit of such export subsidies, from the beginning of the implementation period through the year in question, does not exceed the cumulative quantities that would have resulted from full compliance with the relevant annual quantity commitment levels specified in the Member's Schedule by more than 1.75 per cent of the base period quantities;

                            (iii)      the total cumulative amounts of budgetary outlays for such export subsidies and the quantities benefiting from such export subsidies over the entire implementation period are no greater than the totals that would have resulted from full compliance with the relevant annual commitment levels specified in the Member's Schedule;  and

                            (iv)       the Member's budgetary outlays for export subsidies and the quantities benefiting from such subsidies, at the conclusion of the implementation period, are no greater than 64 per cent and 79 per cent of the 1986-1990 base period levels, respectively.  For developing country Members these percentages shall be 76 and 86 per cent, respectively.

    3.         Commitments relating to limitations on the extension of the scope of export subsidization are as specified in Schedules.

    4.         During the implementation period, developing country Members shall not be required to undertake commitments in respect of the export subsidies listed in subparagraphs (d) and (e) of paragraph 1 above, provided that these are not applied in a manner that would circumvent reduction commitments.

    Article 10

    Prevention of Circumvention  of Export Subsidy Commitments

    1.         Export subsidies not listed in paragraph 1 of Article 9 shall not be applied in a manner which results in, or which threatens to lead to, circumvention of export subsidy commitments;  nor shall non-commercial  transactions be used to circumvent such commitments.

    2.         Members undertake to work toward the development of internationally agreed disciplines to govern the provision of export credits, export credit guarantees or insurance programmes and, after agreement on such disciplines, to provide export credits, export credit guarantees or insurance programmes only in conformity therewith.

    3.         Any Member which claims that any quantity exported in excess of a reduction commitment level is not subsidized must establish that no export subsidy, whether listed in Article 9 or not, has been granted in respect of the quantity of exports in question.

    4.         Members donors of international food aid shall ensure:

                (a)        that the provision of international food aid is not tied directly or indirectly to commercial exports of agricultural products to recipient countries; 

                (b)        that international food aid transactions, including bilateral food aid which is monetized, shall be carried out in accordance with the FAO "Principles of Surplus Disposal and Consultative Obligations", including, where appropriate, the system of Usual Marketing Requirements (UMRs);  and

                (c)        that such aid shall be provided to the extent possible in fully grant form or on terms no less concessional than those provided for in Article IV of the Food Aid Convention 1986.

    Article 11

    Incorporated Products

                In no case may the per-unit subsidy paid on an incorporated agricultural primary product exceed the per-unit export subsidy that would be payable on exports of the primary product as such.

    Part VI

    Article 12

    Disciplines on Export Prohibitions and Restrictions

    1.         Where any Member institutes any new export prohibition or restriction on foodstuffs in accordance with paragraph 2(a) of Article XI of GATT 1994, the Member shall observe the following provisions:

                (a)        the Member instituting the export prohibition or restriction shall give due consideration to the effects of such prohibition or restriction on importing Members' food security;

                (b)        before any Member institutes an export prohibition or restriction, it shall give notice in writing, as far in advance as practicable, to the Committee on Agriculture comprising such information as the nature and the duration of such measure, and shall consult,  upon request, with any other Member having a substantial interest as an importer with respect to any matter related to the measure in question.  The Member instituting such export prohibition or restriction shall provide, upon request, such a Member with necessary information.

    2.         The provisions of this Article shall not apply to any developing country Member, unless the measure is taken by a developing country Member which is a net-food exporter of the specific foodstuff concerned.

    Part VII

    Article 13

    Due Restraint

                During the implementation period, notwithstanding the provisions of GATT 1994 and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (referred to in this Article as the "Subsidies Agreement"):

                (a)        domestic support measures that conform fully to the provisions of Annex 2 to this Agreement shall be:

                            (i)         non-actionable subsidies for purposes of countervailing duties[11];

                            (ii)        exempt from actions based on Article XVI of GATT 1994 and Part III of the Subsidies Agreement;  and

                            (iii)       exempt from actions based on non-violation nullification or impairment of the benefits of tariff concessions accruing to another Member under Article II of GATT 1994, in the sense of paragraph 1(b) of  Article XXIII of GATT 1994;

                (b)        domestic support measures that conform fully to the provisions of Article 6 of this Agreement including direct payments that conform to the requirements of paragraph 5 thereof, as reflected in each Member's Schedule, as well as domestic support within de minimis levels and in conformity with paragraph 2 of Article 6, shall be:

                            (i)         exempt from the imposition of countervailing duties unless a determination of injury or threat thereof is made in accordance with Article VI of GATT 1994 and Part V of the Subsidies Agreement, and due restraint shall be shown in initiating any countervailing duty investigations;

                            (ii)        exempt from actions based on paragraph 1 of Article XVI of GATT 1994 or Articles 5 and 6 of the Subsidies Agreement, provided that such measures do not grant support to a specific commodity in excess of that decided during the 1992 marketing year;  and

                            (iii)       exempt from actions based on non-violation nullification or impairment of the benefits of tariff concessions accruing to another Member under Article II of GATT 1994, in the sense of paragraph 1(b) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994, provided that such measures do not grant support to a specific commodity in excess of that decided during the 1992 marketing year;

                (c)        export subsidies that conform fully to the provisions of Part V of this Agreement, as reflected in each Member's Schedule, shall be:

                            (i)         subject to countervailing duties only upon a determination of injury or threat thereof based on volume, effect on prices, or consequent impact in accordance with Article VI of GATT 1994 and Part V of the Subsidies Agreement, and due restraint shall be shown in initiating any countervailing duty investigations;  and

                            (ii)        exempt from actions based on Article XVI of GATT 1994 or Articles 3, 5 and 6 of the Subsidies Agreement.

    Part VIII

    Article 14

    Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

                Members agree to give effect to the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    Part IX

    Article 15

    Special and Differential Treatment

    1.         In keeping with the recognition that differential and more favourable treatment for developing country Members is an integral part of the negotiation, special and differential treatment in respect of commitments shall be provided as set out in the relevant provisions of this Agreement and embodied in the Schedules of concessions and commitments.

    2.         Developing country Members shall have the flexibility to implement reduction commitments over a period of up to 10 years.  Least-developed country Members shall not be required to undertake reduction commitments.

    Part X

    Article 16

    Least-Developed and Net Food-Importing Developing Countries

    1.         Developed country Members shall take such action as is provided for within the framework of the Decision on Measures Concerning the Possible Negative Effects of the Reform Programme on Least-Developed and Net Food-Importing Developing Countries.

    2.         The Committee on Agriculture shall monitor, as appropriate, the follow-up to this Decision.

    Part XI

    Article 17

    Committee on Agriculture

                A Committee on Agriculture is hereby established.

    Article 18

    Review of the Implementation of Commitments

    1.         Progress in the implementation of commitments negotiated under the Uruguay Round reform programme shall be reviewed by the Committee on Agriculture.

    2.         The review process shall be undertaken on the basis of notifications submitted by Members in relation to such matters and at such intervals as shall be determined, as well as on the basis of such documentation as the Secretariat may be requested to prepare in order to facilitate the review process.

    3.         In addition to the notifications to be submitted under paragraph 2, any new domestic support measure, or modification of an existing measure, for which exemption from reduction is claimed shall be notified promptly.  This notification shall contain details of the new or modified measure and its conformity with the agreed criteria as set out either in Article 6 or in Annex 2.

    4.         In the review process Members shall give due consideration to the influence of excessive rates of inflation on the ability of any Member to abide by its domestic support commitments.

    5.         Members agree to consult annually in the Committee on Agriculture with respect to their participation in the normal growth of world trade in agricultural products within the framework of the commitments on export subsidies under this Agreement.

    6.         The review process shall provide an opportunity for Members to raise any matter relevant to the implementation of commitments under the reform programme as set out in this Agreement.

    7.         Any Member may bring to the attention of the Committee on Agriculture any measure which it considers ought to have been notified by another Member.

    Article 19

    Consultation and Dispute Settlement

                The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994, as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding, shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement.

    Part XII

    Article 20

    Continuation of the Reform Process

                Recognizing that the long-term objective of substantial progressive reductions in support and protection resulting in fundamental reform is an ongoing process, Members agree that negotiations for continuing the process will be initiated one year before the end of the implementation period, taking into account: 

                (a)        the experience to that date from implementing the reduction commitments; 

                (b)        the effects of the reduction commitments on world trade in agriculture;

                (c)        non-trade concerns, special and differential treatment to developing country Members, and the objective to establish a fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system, and the other objectives and concerns mentioned in the preamble to this Agreement;  and

                (d)        what further commitments are necessary to achieve the above mentioned long-term objectives.

    Part XIII

    Article 21

    Final Provisions

    1.         The provisions of GATT 1994 and of other Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement shall apply subject to the provisions of this Agreement.

    2.         The Annexes to this Agreement are hereby made an integral part of this Agreement.

    ANNEX 1

    PRODUCT COVERAGE

    1.         This Agreement shall cover the following products:

    (i) HS Chapters 1 to 24 less fish and fish products, plus*
    (ii) HS Code 2905.43 (mannitol)
    HS Code 2905.44 (sorbitol)
    HS Heading 33.01 (essential oils)
    HS Headings 35.01 to 35.05 (albuminoidal substances, modified starches, glues)
    HS Code 3809.10 (finishing agents)
    HS Code 3823.60 (sorbitol n.e.p.)
    HS Headings 41.01 to 41.03 (hides and skins)
    HS Heading 43.01 (raw furskins)
    HS Headings 50.01 to 50.03 (raw silk and silk waste)
    HS Headings 51.01 to 51.03 (wool and animal hair)
    HS Headings 52.01 to 52.03 (raw cotton, waste and cotton carded or combed)
    HS Heading 53.01 (raw flax)
    HS Heading 53.02 (raw hemp)

    2.         The foregoing shall not limit the product coverage of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    *The product descriptions in round brackets are not necessarily exhaustive.

    ANNEX 2

    DOMESTIC SUPPORT:  THE BASIS FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE REDUCTION COMMITMENTS

    1.         Domestic support measures for which exemption from the reduction commitments is claimed shall meet the fundamental requirement that they have no, or at most minimal, trade-distorting effects or effects on production.  Accordingly, all measures for which exemption is claimed shall conform to the following basic criteria:

                (a)        the support in question shall be provided through a publicly-funded government programme (including government revenue foregone) not involving transfers from consumers;  and,

                (b)        the support in question shall not have the effect of providing price support to producers;

    plus policy-specific criteria and conditions as set out below.

    Government Service Programmes

    2.         General services

                Policies in this category involve expenditures (or revenue foregone) in relation to programmes which provide services or benefits to agriculture or the rural community.  They shall not involve direct payments to producers or processors.  Such programmes, which include but are not restricted to the following list, shall meet the general criteria in paragraph 1 above and policy-specific conditions where set out below:

                (a)        research, including general research, research in connection with environmental programmes, and research programmes relating to particular products;

                (b)        pest and disease control, including general and product-specific pest and disease control measures, such as early-warning systems, quarantine and eradication;

                (c)        training services, including both general and specialist training facilities;

                (d)        extension and advisory services, including the provision of means to facilitate the transfer of information and the results of research to producers and consumers;

                (e)        inspection services, including general inspection services and the inspection of particular products for health, safety, grading or standardization purposes;

                (f)        marketing and promotion services, including market information, advice and promotion relating to particular products but excluding expenditure for unspecified purposes that could be used by sellers to reduce their selling price or confer a direct economic benefit to purchasers; and

                (g)        infrastructural services, including: electricity reticulation, roads and other means of transport, market and port facilities, water supply facilities, dams and drainage schemes, and infrastructural works associated with environmental programmes.  In all cases the expenditure shall be directed to the provision or construction of capital works only, and shall exclude the subsidized provision of on-farm facilities other than for the reticulation of generally available public utilities.  It shall not include subsidies to inputs or operating costs, or preferential user charges.

    3.         Public stockholding for food security purposes[12]

                Expenditures (or revenue foregone) in relation to the accumulation and holding of stocks of products which form an integral part of a food security programme identified in national legislation.  This may include government aid to private storage of products as part of such a programme. 

    The volume and accumulation of such stocks shall correspond to predetermined targets related solely to food security.  The process of stock accumulation and disposal shall be financially transparent.  Food purchases by the government shall be made at current market prices and sales from food security stocks shall be made at no less than the current domestic market price for the product and quality in question.

    4.         Domestic food aid[13]

                Expenditures (or revenue foregone) in relation to the provision of domestic food aid to sections of the population in need.

    Eligibility to receive the food aid shall be subject to clearly-defined criteria related to nutritional objectives.  Such aid shall be in the form of direct provision of food to those concerned or the provision of means to allow eligible recipients to buy food either at market or at subsidized prices.  Food purchases by the government shall be made at current market prices and the financing and administration of the aid shall be transparent.

    5.         Direct payments to producers

                Support provided through direct payments (or revenue foregone, including payments in kind) to producers for which exemption from reduction commitments is claimed shall meet the basic criteria set out in paragraph 1 above, plus specific criteria applying to individual types of direct payment as set out in paragraphs 6 through 13 below.  Where exemption from reduction is claimed for any existing or new type of direct payment other than those specified in paragraphs 6 through 13, it shall conform to criteria (b) through (e) in paragraph 6, in addition to the general criteria set out in paragraph 1.

    6.         Decoupled income support

                (a)        Eligibility for such payments shall be determined by clearly-defined criteria such as income, status as a producer or landowner, factor use or production level in a defined and fixed base period.

                (b)        The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the type or volume of production (including livestock units) undertaken by the producer in any year after the base period.

                (c)        The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the prices, domestic or international, applying to any production undertaken in any year after the base period.

                (d)        The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the factors of production employed in any year after the base period.

                (e)        No production shall be required in order to receive such payments.

    7.         Government financial participation in income insurance and income safety-net programmes

                (a)        Eligibility for such payments shall be determined by an income loss, taking into account only income derived from agriculture, which exceeds 30 per cent of average gross income or the equivalent in net income terms (excluding any payments from the same or similar schemes) in the preceding three-year period or a three-year average based on the preceding five-year period, excluding the highest and the lowest entry.  Any producer meeting this condition shall be eligible to receive the payments.

                (b)        The amount of such payments shall compensate for less than 70 per cent of the producer's income loss in the year the producer becomes eligible to receive this assistance.

                (c)        The amount of any such payments shall relate solely to income;  it shall not relate to the type or volume of production (including livestock units) undertaken by the producer;  or to the prices, domestic or international, applying to such production; or to the factors of production employed.

                (d)        Where a producer receives in the same year payments under this paragraph and under paragraph 8 (relief from natural disasters), the total of such payments shall be less than 100 per cent of the producer's total loss.

    8.         Payments (made either directly or by way of government financial participation in crop insurance schemes) for relief from natural disasters

                (a)        Eligibility for such payments shall arise only following a formal recognition by government authorities that a natural or like disaster (including disease outbreaks, pest infestations, nuclear accidents, and war on the territory of the Member concerned) has occurred or is occurring;  and shall be determined by a production loss which exceeds 30 per cent of the average of production in the preceding three-year period or a three-year average based on the preceding five-year period, excluding the highest and the lowest entry.

                (b)        Payments made following a disaster shall be applied only in respect of losses of income, livestock (including payments in connection with the veterinary treatment of animals), land or other production factors due to the natural disaster in question.

                (c)        Payments shall compensate for not more than the total cost of replacing such losses and shall not require or specify the type or quantity of future production.

                (d)        Payments made during a disaster shall not exceed the level required to prevent or alleviate further loss as defined in criterion (b) above.

                (e)        Where a producer receives in the same year payments under this paragraph and under paragraph 7 (income insurance and income safety-net programmes), the total of such payments shall be less than 100 per cent of the producer's total loss.

    9.         Structural adjustment assistance provided through producer retirement programmes

                (a)        Eligibility for such payments shall be determined by reference to clearly defined criteria in programmes designed to facilitate the retirement of persons engaged in marketable agricultural production, or their movement to non-agricultural activities.

                (b)        Payments shall be conditional upon the total and permanent retirement of the recipients from marketable agricultural production.

    10.       Structural adjustment assistance provided through resource retirement programmes

                (a)        Eligibility for such payments shall be determined by reference to clearly defined criteria in programmes designed to remove land or other resources, including livestock, from marketable agricultural production.

                (b)        Payments shall be conditional upon the retirement of land from marketable agricultural production for a minimum of three years, and in the case of livestock on its slaughter or definitive permanent disposal.

                (c)        Payments shall not require or specify any alternative use for such land or other resources which involves the production of marketable agricultural products.

                (d)        Payments shall not be related to either the type or quantity of production or to the prices, domestic or international, applying to production undertaken using the land or other resources remaining in production.

    11.       Structural adjustment assistance provided through investment aids

                (a)        Eligibility for such payments shall be determined by reference to clearly-defined criteria in government programmes designed to assist the financial or physical restructuring of a producer's operations in response to objectively demonstrated structural disadvantages.  Eligibility for such programmes may also be based on a clearly-defined government programme for the reprivatization of agricultural land.

                (b)        The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the type or volume of production (including livestock units) undertaken by the producer in any year after the base period other than as provided for under criterion (e) below.

                (c)        The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the prices, domestic or international, applying to any production undertaken in any year after the base period.

                (d)        The payments shall be given only for the period of time necessary for the realization of the investment in respect of which they are provided.

                (e)        The payments shall not mandate or in any way designate the agricultural products to be produced by the recipients except to require them not to produce a particular product.

                (f)        The payments shall be limited to the amount required to compensate for the structural disadvantage.

    12.       Payments under environmental programmes

                (a)        Eligibility for such payments shall be determined as part of a clearly-defined government environmental or conservation programme and be dependent on the fulfilment of specific conditions under the government programme, including conditions related to production methods or inputs.

                (b)        The amount of payment shall be limited to the extra costs or loss of income involved in complying with the government programme.

    13.       Payments under regional assistance programmes

                (a)        Eligibility for such payments shall be limited to producers in disadvantaged regions.  Each such region must be a clearly designated contiguous geographical area with a definable economic and administrative identity, considered as disadvantaged on the basis of neutral and objective criteria clearly spelt out in law or regulation and indicating that the region's difficulties arise out of more than temporary circumstances.

                (b)        The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the type or volume of production (including livestock units) undertaken by the producer in any year after the base period other than to reduce that production.

                (c)        The amount of such payments in any given year shall not be related to, or based on, the prices, domestic or international, applying to any production undertaken in any year after the base period.

                (d)        Payments shall be available only to producers in eligible regions, but generally available to all producers within such regions.

                (e)        Where related to production factors, payments shall be made at a degressive rate above a threshold level of the factor concerned.

                (f)        The payments shall be limited to the extra costs or loss of income involved in undertaking agricultural production in the prescribed area.

    ANNEX 3

    DOMESTIC SUPPORT:

    CALCULATION OF AGGREGATE MEASUREMENT OF SUPPORT

    1.         Subject to the provisions of Article 6, an Aggregate Measurement of Support (AMS) shall be calculated on a product-specific basis for each basic agricultural product receiving market price support, non-exempt direct payments, or any other subsidy not exempted from the reduction commitment ("other non-exempt policies").  Support which is non-product specific shall be totalled into one non-product-specific AMS in total monetary terms.

    2.         Subsidies under paragraph 1 shall include both budgetary outlays and revenue foregone by governments or their agents.

    3.         Support at both the national and sub-national level shall be included.

    4.         Specific agricultural levies or fees paid by producers shall be deducted from the AMS.

    5.         The AMS calculated as outlined below for the base period shall constitute the base level for the implementation of the reduction commitment on domestic support.

    6.         For each basic agricultural product, a specific AMS shall be established, expressed in total monetary value terms.

    7.         The AMS shall be calculated as close as practicable to the point of first sale of the basic agricultural product concerned.  Measures directed at agricultural processors shall be included to the extent that such measures benefit the producers of the basic agricultural products. 

    8.         Market price support:  market price support shall be calculated using the gap between a fixed external reference price and the applied administered price multiplied by the quantity of production eligible to receive the applied administered price.  Budgetary payments made to maintain this gap, such as buying-in or storage costs, shall not be included in the AMS.

    9.         The fixed external reference price shall be based on the years 1986 to 1988 and shall generally be the average f.o.b. unit value for the basic agricultural product concerned in a net exporting country and the average c.i.f. unit value for the basic agricultural product concerned in a net importing country in the base period.  The fixed reference price may be adjusted for quality differences as necessary.

    10.       Non-exempt direct payments:  non-exempt direct payments which are dependent on a price gap shall be calculated either using the gap between the fixed reference price and the applied administered price multiplied by the quantity of production eligible to receive the administered price, or using budgetary outlays. 

    11.       The fixed reference price shall be based on the years 1986 to 1988 and shall generally be the actual price used for determining payment rates.

    12.       Non-exempt direct payments which are based on factors other than price shall be measured using budgetary outlays.

    13.       Other non-exempt measures, including input subsidies and other measures such as marketing-cost reduction measures:  the value of such measures shall be measured using government budgetary outlays or, where the use of budgetary outlays does not reflect the full extent of the subsidy concerned, the basis for calculating the subsidy shall be the gap between the price of the subsidized good or service and a representative market price for a similar good or service multiplied by the quantity of the good or service.

    ANNEX 4

    DOMESTIC SUPPORT: 

    CALCULATION  OF  EQUIVALENT MEASUREMENT OF SUPPORT

    1.         Subject to the provisions of Article 6, equivalent measurements of support shall be calculated in respect of all basic agricultural products where market price support as defined in Annex 3 exists but for which calculation of this component of the AMS is not practicable.  For such products the base level for implementation of the domestic support reduction commitments shall consist of a market price support component expressed in terms of equivalent measurements of support under paragraph 2 below, as well as any non-exempt direct payments and other non-exempt support, which shall be evaluated as provided for under paragraph 3 below.  Support at both national and sub-national level shall be included.

    2.         The equivalent measurements of support provided for in paragraph 1 shall be calculated on a product-specific basis for all basic agricultural products as close as practicable to the point of first sale receiving market price support and for which the calculation of the market price support component of the AMS is not practicable.  For those basic agricultural products, equivalent measurements of market price support shall be made using the applied administered price and the quantity of production eligible to receive that price or, where this is not practicable, on budgetary outlays used to maintain the producer price.

    3.         Where basic agricultural products falling under paragraph 1 are the subject of non-exempt direct payments or any other product-specific subsidy not exempted from the reduction commitment, the basis for equivalent measurements of support concerning these measures shall be calculations as for the corresponding AMS components (specified in paragraphs 10 through 13 of Annex 3).

    4.         Equivalent measurements of support shall be calculated on the amount of subsidy as close as practicable to the point of first sale of the basic agricultural product concerned.  Measures directed at agricultural processors shall be included to the extent that such measures benefit the producers of the basic agricultural products.  Specific agricultural levies or fees paid by producers shall reduce the equivalent measurements of support by a corresponding amount.

    ANNEX 5

    SPECIAL TREATMENT WITH RESPECT TO PARAGRAPH 2 OF ARTICLE 4

    Section A

    1.         The provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 4 shall not apply with effect from the entry into force of the WTO Agreement to any primary agricultural product and its worked and/or prepared products ("designated products") in respect of which the following conditions are complied with (hereinafter referred to as "special treatment"):

                (a)        imports of the designated products comprised less than 3 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period 1986-1988 ("the base period");

                (b)        no export subsidies have been provided since the beginning of the base period for the designated products;

                (c)        effective production-restricting measures are applied to the primary agricultural product;

                (d)        such products are designated with the symbol "ST-Annex 5" in Section I-B of Part I of a Member's Schedule annexed to the Marrakesh Protocol, as being subject to special treatment reflecting factors of non-trade concerns, such as food security and environmental protection;  and

                (e)        minimum access opportunities in respect of the designated products correspond, as specified in Section I-B of Part I of the Schedule of the Member concerned, to 4 per cent of  base period domestic consumption of the designated products from the beginning of the first year of the implementation period and, thereafter, are increased by 0.8 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period per year for the remainder of the implementation period.

    2.         At the beginning of any year of the implementation period a Member may cease to apply  special treatment in respect of the designated products by complying with the provisions of paragraph 6.  In such a case, the Member concerned shall maintain the minimum access opportunities already in effect at such time and increase the minimum access opportunities by 0.4 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period per year for the remainder of the implementation period.  Thereafter, the level of minimum access opportunities resulting from this formula in the final year of the implementation period shall be maintained in the Schedule of the Member concerned.

    3.         Any negotiation on the question of whether there can be a continuation of the special treatment as set out in paragraph 1 after the end of the implementation period shall be completed within the time-frame of the implementation period itself as a part of the negotiations set out in Article 20 of this Agreement, taking into account the factors of non-trade concerns.

    4.         If it is agreed as a result of the negotiation referred to in paragraph 3 that a Member may continue to apply the special treatment, such Member shall confer additional and acceptable concessions as determined in that negotiation.

    5.         Where the special treatment is not to be continued at the end of the implementation period, the Member concerned shall implement the provisions of paragraph 6.  In such a case, after the end of the implementation period the minimum access opportunities for the designated products shall be maintained at the level of 8 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period in the Schedule of the Member concerned.

    6.         Border measures other than ordinary customs duties maintained in respect of the designated products shall become subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 4 with effect from the beginning of the year in which the special treatment ceases to apply.  Such products shall be subject to ordinary customs duties, which shall be bound in the Schedule of the Member concerned and applied, from the beginning of the year in which special treatment ceases and thereafter, at such rates as would have been applicable had a reduction of at least 15 per cent been implemented over the implementation period in equal annual instalments.  These duties shall be established on the basis of tariff equivalents to be calculated in accordance with the guidelines prescribed in the attachment hereto.

    Section B

    7.         The provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 4 shall also not apply with effect from the entry into force of the WTO Agreement to a primary agricultural product that is the predominant staple in the traditional diet of a developing country Member and in respect of which the following conditions, in addition to those specified in paragraph 1(a) through 1(d), as they apply to the products concerned, are complied with:

                (a)        minimum access opportunities in respect of the products concerned, as specified in Section I-B of Part I of the Schedule of the developing country Member concerned, correspond to 1 per cent of base period domestic consumption of the products concerned from the beginning of the first year of the implementation period and are increased in equal annual instalments to 2 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period at the beginning of the fifth year of the implementation period.  From the beginning of the sixth year of the implementation period, minimum access opportunities in respect of the products concerned correspond to 2 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period and are increased in equal annual instalments to 4 per cent of corresponding domestic consumption in the base period until the beginning of the 10th year.  Thereafter, the level of minimum access opportunities resulting from this formula in the 10th year shall be maintained in the Schedule of the developing country Member concerned;

                (b)        appropriate market access opportunities have been provided for in other products under this Agreement.

    8.         Any negotiation on the question of whether there can be a continuation of the special treatment as set out in paragraph 7 after the end of the 10th year following the beginning of the implementation period shall be initiated and completed within the time-frame of the 10th year itself following the beginning of the implementation period.

    9.         If it is agreed as a result of the negotiation referred to in paragraph 8 that a Member may continue to apply the special treatment, such Member shall confer additional and acceptable concessions as determined in that negotiation.

    10.       In the event that special treatment under paragraph 7 is not to be continued beyond the 10th year following the beginning of the implementation period, the products concerned shall be subject to ordinary customs duties, established on the basis of a tariff equivalent to be calculated in accordance with the guidelines prescribed in the attachment hereto, which shall be bound in the Schedule of the Member concerned.  In other respects, the provisions of paragraph 6 shall apply as modified by the relevant special and differential treatment accorded to developing country Members under this Agreement.

    Attachment to Annex 5

    Guidelines for the Calculation of Tariff
    Equivalents for the Specific Purpose Specified in
    Paragraphs 6 and 10 of this Annex

    1.         The calculation of the tariff equivalents, whether expressed as ad valorem or specific rates, shall be made using the actual difference between internal and external prices in a transparent manner. Data used shall be for the years 1986 to 1988.  Tariff equivalents:

                (a)        shall primarily be established at the four-digit level of the HS; 

                (b)        shall be established at the six-digit or a more detailed level of the HS wherever appropriate;

                (c)        shall generally be established for worked and/or prepared products by multiplying the specific tariff equivalent(s) for the primary agricultural product(s) by the proportion(s) in value terms or in physical terms as appropriate of the primary agricultural product(s) in the worked and/or prepared products, and take account, where necessary, of any additional elements currently providing protection to industry.

    2.         External prices shall be, in general, actual average c.i.f. unit values for the importing country.  Where average c.i.f. unit values are not available or appropriate, external prices shall be either: 

                (a)        appropriate average c.i.f. unit values of a near country;  or

                (b)        estimated from average f.o.b. unit values of (an) appropriate major exporter(s) adjusted by adding an estimate of insurance, freight and other relevant costs to the importing country.

    3.         The external prices shall generally be converted to domestic currencies using the annual average market exchange rate for the same period as the price data.

    4.         The internal price shall generally be a representative wholesale price ruling in the domestic market or an estimate of that price where adequate data is not available.

    5.         The initial tariff equivalents may be adjusted, where necessary, to take account of differences in quality or variety using an appropriate coefficient.

    6.         Where a tariff equivalent resulting from these guidelines is negative or lower than the current bound rate, the initial tariff equivalent may be established at the current bound rate or on the basis of national offers for that product.

    7.         Where an adjustment is made to the level of a tariff equivalent which would have resulted from the above guidelines, the Member concerned shall afford, on request, full opportunities for consultation with a view to negotiating appropriate solutions.

    AGREEMENT ON THE APPLICATION OF SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES

    Members,

                Reaffirming that no Member should be prevented from adopting or enforcing measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, subject to the requirement that these measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between Members where the same conditions prevail or a disguised restriction on international trade; 

                Desiring to improve the human health, animal health and phytosanitary situation in all Members;

                Noting that sanitary and phytosanitary measures are often applied on the basis of bilateral agreements or protocols; 

                Desiring the establishment of a multilateral framework of rules and disciplines to guide the development, adoption and enforcement of sanitary and phytosanitary measures in order to minimize their  negative effects on trade;

                Recognizing the important contribution that international standards, guidelines and recommendations can make in this regard; 

                Desiring to further the use of harmonized sanitary and phytosanitary measures between Members, on the basis of international standards, guidelines and recommendations developed by the relevant international organizations, including the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Office of Epizootics, and the relevant international and regional organizations operating within the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention, without requiring Members to change their appropriate level of protection of human, animal or plant life or health;

                Recognizing that developing country Members may encounter special difficulties in complying with the sanitary or phytosanitary measures of importing Members, and as a consequence in access to markets, and also in the formulation and application of sanitary or phytosanitary measures in their own territories, and desiring to assist them in their endeavours in this regard; 

                Desiring therefore to elaborate rules for the application of the provisions of GATT 1994 which relate to the use of sanitary or phytosanitary measures, in particular the provisions of Article XX(b)[14];

                Hereby agree as follows: 

    Article 1

    General Provisions

    1.         This Agreement applies to all sanitary and phytosanitary measures which may, directly or indirectly, affect international trade.  Such measures shall be developed and applied in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

    2.         For the purposes of this Agreement, the definitions provided in Annex A shall apply. 

    3.         The annexes are an integral part of this Agreement.

    4.         Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the rights of Members under the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade with respect to measures not within the scope of this Agreement. 

    Article 2

    Basic Rights and Obligations

    1.         Members have the right to take sanitary and phytosanitary measures necessary for the protection of human, animal or plant life or health, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement. 

    2.         Members shall ensure that any sanitary or phytosanitary measure is applied only to the extent necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, is based on scientific principles and is not maintained without sufficient scientific evidence, except as provided for in paragraph 7 of Article 5.

    3.         Members shall ensure that their sanitary and phytosanitary measures do not arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate between Members where identical or similar conditions prevail, including between their own territory and that of other Members.  Sanitary and phytosanitary measures shall not be applied in a manner which would constitute a disguised restriction on international trade.

    4.         Sanitary or phytosanitary measures which conform to the relevant provisions of this Agreement shall be presumed to be in accordance with the obligations of the Members under the provisions of GATT 1994 which relate to the use of sanitary or phytosanitary measures, in particular the provisions of Article XX(b).

    Article 3

    Harmonization

    1.         To harmonize sanitary and phytosanitary measures on as wide a basis as possible, Members shall base their sanitary or phytosanitary measures on international standards, guidelines or recommendations, where they exist, except as otherwise provided for in this Agreement, and in particular in paragraph 3.

    2.         Sanitary or phytosanitary measures which conform to international standards, guidelines or recommendations shall be deemed to be necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, and presumed to be consistent with the relevant provisions of this Agreement and of GATT 1994.

    3.         Members may introduce or maintain sanitary or phytosanitary measures which result in a higher level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection than would be achieved by measures based on the relevant international standards, guidelines or recommendations, if there is a scientific justification, or as a consequence of the level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection a Member determines to be appropriate in accordance with the relevant provisions of paragraphs 1 through 8 of Article 5.[15]   Notwithstanding the above, all measures which result in a level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection different from that which would be achieved by measures based on international standards, guidelines or recommendations shall not be inconsistent with any other provision of this Agreement.

    4.         Members shall play a full part, within the limits of their resources, in the relevant international organizations and their subsidiary bodies, in particular the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Office of Epizootics, and the international and regional organizations operating within the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention, to promote within these organizations the development and periodic review of standards, guidelines and recommendations with respect to all aspects of sanitary and phytosanitary measures.

    5.         The Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures provided for in paragraphs 1 and 4 of Article 12 (referred to in this Agreement as the "Committee") shall develop a procedure to monitor the process of international harmonization and coordinate efforts in this regard with the relevant international organizations.

    Article 4

    Equivalence

    1.         Members shall accept the sanitary or phytosanitary measures of other Members as equivalent, even if these measures differ from their own or from those used by other Members trading in the same product, if the exporting Member objectively demonstrates to the importing Member that its measures achieve the importing Member's appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection.  For this purpose, reasonable access shall be given, upon request, to the importing Member for inspection, testing and other relevant procedures.

    2.         Members shall, upon request, enter into consultations with the aim of achieving bilateral and multilateral agreements on recognition of the equivalence of specified sanitary or phytosanitary measures. 

    Article 5

    Assessment of Risk and Determination of the Appropriate Level of Sanitary or Phytosanitary Protection

    1.         Members shall ensure that their sanitary or phytosanitary measures are based on an assessment, as appropriate to the circumstances, of the risks to human, animal or plant life or health, taking into account risk assessment techniques developed by the relevant international organizations.

    2.         In the assessment of risks, Members shall take into account available scientific evidence;  relevant processes and production methods;  relevant inspection, sampling and testing methods;  prevalence of specific diseases or pests; existence of pest- or disease-free areas; relevant ecological and environmental conditions; and quarantine or other treatment.

    3.         In assessing the risk to animal or plant life or health and determining the measure to be applied for achieving the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection from such risk, Members shall take into account as relevant economic factors:  the potential damage in terms of loss of production or sales in the event of the entry, establishment or spread of a pest or disease;  the costs of control or eradication in the territory of the importing Member;  and the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative approaches to limiting risks.

    4.         Members should, when determining the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection, take into account the objective of minimizing negative trade effects.

    5.         With the objective of achieving consistency in the application of the concept of appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection against risks to human life or health, or to animal and plant life or health, each Member shall avoid arbitrary or unjustifiable distinctions in the levels it considers to be appropriate in different situations, if such distinctions result in discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade.  Members shall cooperate in the Committee, in accordance with paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of Article 12, to develop guidelines to further the practical implementation of this provision.  In developing the guidelines, the Committee shall take into account all relevant factors, including the exceptional character of human health risks to which people voluntarily expose themselves.

    6.         Without prejudice to paragraph 2 of Article 3, when establishing or maintaining sanitary or phytosanitary measures to achieve the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection, Members shall ensure that such measures are not more trade-restrictive than required to achieve their appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection, taking into account technical and economic feasibility.[16]

    7.         In cases where relevant scientific evidence is insufficient, a Member may provisionally adopt sanitary or phytosanitary measures on the basis of available pertinent information, including that from the relevant international organizations as well as from sanitary or phytosanitary measures applied by other Members.  In such circumstances, Members shall seek to obtain the additional information necessary for a more objective assessment of risk and review the sanitary or phytosanitary measure accordingly within a reasonable period of time.

    8.         When a Member has reason to believe that a specific sanitary or phytosanitary measure introduced or maintained by another Member is constraining, or has the potential to constrain, its exports and the measure is not based on the relevant international standards, guidelines or recommendations, or such standards, guidelines or recommendations do not exist, an explanation of the reasons for such sanitary or phytosanitary measure may be requested and shall be provided by the Member maintaining the measure.

    Article 6

    Adaptation to Regional Conditions, Including Pest- or Disease-Free Areas and Areas of Low Pest or Disease Prevalence

    1.         Members shall ensure that their sanitary or phytosanitary measures are adapted to the sanitary or phytosanitary characteristics of the area - whether all of a country, part of a country, or all or parts of several countries - from which the product originated and to which the product is destined.  In assessing the sanitary or phytosanitary characteristics of a region, Members shall take into account, inter alia, the level of prevalence of specific diseases or pests, the existence of eradication or control programmes, and appropriate criteria or guidelines which may be developed by the relevant international organizations. 

    2.         Members shall, in particular, recognize the concepts of pest- or disease-free areas and areas of low pest or disease prevalence.  Determination of such areas shall be based on factors such as geography, ecosystems, epidemiological surveillance, and the effectiveness of sanitary or phytosanitary controls.

    3.         Exporting Members claiming that areas within their territories are pest- or disease-free areas or areas of low pest or disease prevalence shall provide the necessary evidence thereof in order to objectively demonstrate to the importing Member that such areas are, and are likely to remain, pest- or disease-free areas or areas of low pest or disease prevalence, respectively.  For this purpose, reasonable access shall be given, upon request, to the importing Member for inspection, testing and other relevant procedures.

    Article 7

    Transparency

                Members shall notify changes in their sanitary or phytosanitary measures and shall provide information on their sanitary or phytosanitary measures in accordance with the provisions of Annex B.

    Article 8

    Control, Inspection and Approval Procedures

                Members shall observe the provisions of Annex C in the operation of control, inspection and approval procedures, including national systems for approving the use of additives or for establishing tolerances for contaminants in foods, beverages or feedstuffs, and otherwise ensure that their procedures are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement.

    Article 9

    Technical Assistance

    1.         Members agree to facilitate the provision of technical assistance to other Members, especially developing country Members, either bilaterally or through the appropriate international organizations.  Such assistance may be, inter alia, in the areas of processing technologies, research and infrastructure, including in the establishment of national regulatory bodies, and may take the form of advice, credits, donations and grants, including for the purpose of seeking technical expertise, training and equipment to allow such countries to adjust to, and comply with, sanitary or phytosanitary measures necessary to achieve the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection in their export markets.

    2.         Where substantial investments are required in order for an exporting developing country Member to fulfil the sanitary or phytosanitary requirements of an importing Member, the latter shall consider providing such technical assistance as will permit the developing country Member to maintain and expand its market access opportunities for the product involved.

    Article 10

    Special and Differential Treatment

    1.         In the preparation and application of sanitary or phytosanitary  measures, Members shall take account of the special needs of developing country Members, and in particular of the least-developed country Members. 

    2.         Where the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection allows scope for the phased introduction of new sanitary or phytosanitary measures, longer time-frames for compliance should be accorded on products of interest to developing country Members so as to maintain opportunities for their exports.

    3.         With a view to ensuring that developing country Members are able to comply with the provisions of this Agreement, the Committee is enabled to grant to such countries, upon request, specified, time-limited exceptions in whole or in part from obligations under this Agreement, taking into account their financial, trade and development needs.

    4.         Members should encourage and facilitate the active participation of developing country Members in the relevant international organizations. 

    Article 11

    Consultations and Dispute Settlement

    1.         The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically provided herein.

    2.         In a dispute under this Agreement involving scientific or technical issues, a panel should seek advice from experts chosen by the panel in consultation with the parties to the dispute.  To this end, the panel may, when it deems it appropriate, establish an advisory technical experts group, or consult the relevant international organizations, at the request of either party to the dispute or on its own initiative.

    3.         Nothing in this Agreement shall impair the rights of Members under other international agreements, including the right to resort to the good offices or dispute settlement mechanisms of other international organizations or established under any international agreement.

    Article 12

    Administration

    1.         A Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures  is hereby established to provide a regular forum for consultations.  It shall carry out the functions necessary to implement the provisions of this Agreement and the furtherance of its objectives, in particular with respect to harmonization.  The Committee shall reach its decisions by consensus.

    2.         The Committee shall encourage and facilitate ad hoc consultations or negotiations among Members on specific sanitary or phytosanitary issues.  The Committee shall encourage the use of international standards, guidelines or recommendations by all Members and, in this regard, shall sponsor technical consultation and study with the objective of increasing coordination and integration between international and national systems and approaches for approving the use of food additives or for establishing tolerances for contaminants in foods, beverages or feedstuffs.

    3.         The Committee shall maintain close contact with the relevant international organizations in the field of sanitary and phytosanitary protection, especially with the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Office of Epizootics, and the Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention, with the objective of securing the best available scientific and technical advice for the administration of this Agreement and in order to ensure that unnecessary duplication of effort is avoided. 

    4.         The Committee shall develop a procedure to monitor the process of international harmonization and the use of international standards, guidelines or recommendations.  For this purpose, the Committee should, in conjunction with the relevant international organizations, establish a list of international standards, guidelines or recommendations relating to sanitary or phytosanitary measures which the Committee determines to have a major trade impact.  The list should include an indication by Members of those international standards, guidelines or recommendations which they apply as conditions for import or on the basis of which imported products conforming to these standards can enjoy access to their markets.  For those cases in which a Member does not apply an international standard, guideline or recommendation as a condition for import, the Member should provide an indication of the reason therefor, and, in particular, whether it considers that the standard is not stringent enough to provide the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection.  If a Member revises its position, following its indication of the use of a standard, guideline or recommendation as a condition for import, it should provide an explanation for its change and so inform the Secretariat as well as the relevant international organizations, unless such notification and explanation is given according to the procedures of Annex B.

    5.         In order to avoid unnecessary duplication, the Committee may decide, as appropriate, to use the information generated by the procedures, particularly for notification, which are in operation in the relevant international organizations.

    6.         The Committee may, on the basis of an initiative from one of the  Members, through appropriate channels invite the relevant international organizations or their subsidiary bodies to examine specific matters with respect to a particular standard, guideline or recommendation, including the basis of explanations for non-use given according to paragraph 4. 

    7.         The Committee shall review the operation and implementation of this  Agreement three years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, and thereafter as the need arises. Where appropriate, the Committee may submit to the Council for Trade in Goods proposals to amend the text of this Agreement having regard, inter alia, to the experience gained in its implementation. 

    Article 13

    Implementation

                Members are fully responsible under this Agreement for the observance of all obligations set forth herein.  Members shall formulate and implement positive measures and mechanisms in support of the observance of the provisions of this Agreement by other than central government bodies.  Members shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure that non-governmental entities within their territories, as well as regional bodies in which relevant entities within their territories are members, comply with the relevant provisions of this Agreement.  In addition, Members shall not take measures which have the effect of, directly or indirectly, requiring or encouraging such regional or non-governmental entities, or local governmental bodies, to act in a manner inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement.  Members shall ensure that they rely on the services of non-governmental entities for implementing sanitary or phytosanitary measures only if these entities comply with the provisions of this Agreement. 

    Article 14

    Final Provisions

                The least-developed country Members may delay application of the provisions of this Agreement for a period of five years following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement with respect to their sanitary or phytosanitary measures affecting importation or imported products. Other developing country Members may delay application of the provisions of this Agreement, other than paragraph 8 of Article 5 and Article 7, for two years following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement with respect to their existing sanitary or phytosanitary measures affecting importation or imported products, where such application is prevented by a lack of technical expertise, technical infrastructure or resources.

    ANNEX A

    DEFINITIONS[17]

    1.         Sanitary or phytosanitary measure - Any measure applied:

                (a)        to protect animal or plant life or health within the territory of the Member from risks arising from the entry, establishment or spread of pests, diseases, disease-carrying organisms or disease-causing organisms; 

                (b)        to protect human or animal life or health within the territory of the Member from risks arising from additives, contaminants, toxins or disease-causing organisms in foods, beverages or feedstuffs; 

                (c)        to protect human life or health within the territory of the  Member from risks arising from diseases carried by animals, plants or products thereof, or from the entry, establishment or spread of pests;  or

                (d)        to prevent or limit other damage within the territory of the  Member from the entry, establishment or spread of pests. 

    Sanitary or phytosanitary measures include all relevant laws, decrees, regulations, requirements and procedures including, inter alia, end product criteria;  processes and production methods;  testing, inspection, certification and approval procedures;  quarantine treatments including relevant requirements associated with the transport of animals or plants, or with the materials necessary for their survival during transport;  provisions on relevant statistical methods, sampling procedures and methods of risk assessment;  and packaging and labelling requirements directly related to food safety. 

    2.         Harmonization - The establishment, recognition and application of common sanitary and phytosanitary measures by different Members. 

    3.         International standards, guidelines and recommendations

                (a)        for food safety, the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission relating to food additives, veterinary drug and pesticide residues, contaminants, methods of analysis and sampling, and codes and guidelines of hygienic practice;

                (b)        for animal health and zoonoses, the standards, guidelines and recommendations developed under the auspices of the International Office of Epizootics;

                (c)        for plant health, the international standards, guidelines and recommendations developed under the auspices of the Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention in cooperation with regional organizations operating within the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention;  and

                (d)        for matters not covered by the above organizations, appropriate standards, guidelines and recommendations promulgated by other  relevant international organizations open for membership to all Members, as identified by the Committee.

    4.         Risk assessment - The evaluation of the likelihood of entry,  establishment or spread of a pest or disease within the territory of an importing Member according to the sanitary or phytosanitary measures which might be applied, and of the associated potential biological and economic consequences; or the evaluation of the potential for adverse effects on human or animal health arising from the presence of additives, contaminants, toxins or disease-causing organisms in food, beverages or feedstuffs.

    5.         Appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection - The level of protection deemed appropriate by the Member establishing a sanitary or phytosanitary measure to protect human, animal or plant life or health within its territory. 

    NOTE:  Many Members otherwise refer to this concept as the "acceptable level of risk".

    6.         Pest- or disease-free area - An area, whether all of a country, part of a country, or all or parts of several countries, as identified by the competent authorities, in which a specific pest or disease does not occur.

    NOTE:  A pest- or disease-free area may surround, be surrounded by, or be adjacent to an area - whether within part of a country or in a geographic region which includes parts of or all of several countries -in which a specific pest or disease is known to occur but is subject to regional control measures such as the establishment of protection, surveillance and buffer zones which will confine or eradicate the pest or disease in question.

    7.         Area of low pest or disease prevalence - An area, whether all of a country, part of a country, or all or parts of several countries, as identified by the competent authorities, in which a specific pest or disease occurs at low levels and which is subject to effective surveillance, control or eradication measures. 

    ANNEX  B

    TRANSPARENCY OF SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY REGULATIONS

    Publication of regulations

    1.         Members shall ensure that all sanitary and phytosanitary regulations[18] which have been adopted are published promptly in such a manner as to enable interested Members to become acquainted with them.

    2.         Except in urgent circumstances, Members shall allow a reasonable interval between the publication of a sanitary or phytosanitary regulation and its entry into force in order to allow time for producers in exporting Members, and particularly in developing country Members, to adapt their products and methods of production to the requirements of the importing Member.

    Enquiry points

    3.         Each Member shall ensure that one enquiry point exists which is responsible for the provision of answers to all reasonable questions from interested Members as well as for the provision of relevant documents regarding: 

                (a)        any sanitary or phytosanitary regulations adopted or proposed within its territory; 

                (b)        any control and inspection procedures, production and quarantine treatment, pesticide tolerance and food additive approval procedures, which are operated within its territory;

                (c)        risk assessment procedures, factors taken into consideration, as well as the determination of the appropriate level of sanitary or phytosanitary protection; 

                (d)        the membership and participation of the Member, or of relevant bodies within its territory, in international and regional sanitary and phytosanitary organizations and systems, as well as in bilateral and multilateral agreements and arrangements within the scope of this Agreement, and the texts of such agreements and arrangements. 

    4.         Members shall ensure that where copies of documents are requested by interested Members, they are supplied at the same price (if any), apart from the cost of delivery, as to the nationals[19] of the Member concerned.

    Notification procedures

    5.         Whenever an international standard, guideline or recommendation does  not exist or the content of a proposed sanitary or phytosanitary regulation is not substantially the same as the content of an international standard, guideline or recommendation, and if the regulation may have a significant effect on trade of other Members, Members shall:

    (a)        publish a notice at an early stage in such a manner as to enable interested Members to become acquainted with the proposal to introduce a particular regulation;

    (b)        notify other Members, through the Secretariat, of the products to be covered by the regulation together with a brief indication of the objective and rationale of the proposed regulation.  Such notifications shall take place at an early stage, when amendments can still be introduced and comments taken into account;

    (c)        provide upon request to other Members copies of the proposed regulation and, whenever possible, identify the parts which in substance deviate from international standards, guidelines or recommendations; 

    (d)        without discrimination, allow reasonable time for other Members to make comments in writing, discuss these comments upon request, and take the comments and the results of the discussions into account.

    6.         However, where urgent problems of health protection arise or threaten to arise for a Member, that Member may omit such of the steps enumerated in paragraph 5 of this Annex as it finds necessary, provided that the Member:

                (a)        immediately notifies other Members, through the Secretariat, of the particular regulation and the products covered, with a brief indication of the objective and the rationale of the regulation, including the nature of the urgent problem(s);

                (b)        provides, upon request, copies of the regulation to other Members;

                (c)        allows other Members to make comments in writing, discusses these comments upon request, and takes the comments and the results of the discussions into account.

    7.         Notifications to the Secretariat shall be in English, French or Spanish.

    8.         Developed country Members shall, if requested by other Members, provide copies of the documents or, in case of voluminous documents, summaries of the documents covered by a specific notification in English, French or Spanish. 

    9.         The Secretariat shall promptly circulate copies of the notification to all Members and interested international organizations and draw the attention of developing  country Members to any notifications relating to products of particular interest to them.

    10.       Members shall designate a single central government authority as responsible for the implementation, on the national level, of the provisions concerning notification procedures according to paragraphs 5, 6, 7 and 8 of this Annex.

    General reservations

    11.       Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring:

                (a)        the provision of particulars or copies of drafts or the publication of texts other than in the language of the Member except as stated in paragraph 8 of this Annex;  or

                (b)        Members to disclose confidential information which would impede enforcement of sanitary or phytosanitary legislation or which would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises. 

    ANNEX C

    CONTROL, INSPECTION AND APPROVAL PROCEDURES[20]

    1.         Members shall ensure, with respect to any procedure to check and ensure the fulfilment of sanitary or phytosanitary measures, that: 

                (a)        such procedures are undertaken and completed without undue delay and in no less favourable manner for imported products than for like domestic products; 

                (b)        the standard processing period of each procedure is published or that the anticipated processing period is communicated to the applicant upon request;  when receiving an application, the competent body promptly examines the completeness of the documentation and informs the applicant in a precise and complete manner of all deficiencies;  the competent body transmits as soon as possible the results of the procedure in a precise and complete manner to the applicant so that corrective action may be taken if necessary;  even when the application has deficiencies, the competent body proceeds as far as practicable with the procedure if the applicant so requests;  and that upon request, the applicant is informed of the stage of the procedure, with any delay being explained;

                (c)        information requirements are limited to what is necessary for appropriate control, inspection and approval procedures,  including for approval of the use of additives or for the establishment of tolerances for contaminants in food, beverages or feedstuffs; 

                (d)        the confidentiality of information about imported products arising from or supplied in connection with control, inspection and approval is respected in a way no less favourable than for domestic products and in such a manner that legitimate commercial interests are protected;

                (e)        any requirements for control, inspection and approval of individual specimens of a product are limited to what is reasonable and necessary; 

                (f)        any fees imposed for the procedures on imported products are equitable in relation to any fees charged on like domestic products or products originating in any other Member and should be no higher than the actual cost of the service; 

                (g)        the same criteria should be used in the siting of facilities used in the procedures and the selection of samples of imported products as for domestic products so as to minimize the inconvenience to applicants, importers, exporters or their agents; 

                (h)        whenever specifications of a product are changed subsequent to its control and inspection in light of the applicable regulations, the procedure for the modified product is limited to what is necessary to determine whether adequate confidence exists that the product still meets the regulations concerned;  and

                (i)         a procedure exists to review complaints concerning the operation of such procedures and to take corrective action when a complaint is justified. 

    Where an importing Member operates a system for the approval of the use of food additives or for the establishment of tolerances for contaminants in food, beverages or feedstuffs which prohibits or restricts access to its domestic markets for products based on the absence of an approval, the importing Member shall consider the use of a relevant international standard as the basis for access until a final determination is made.

    2.         Where a sanitary or phytosanitary measure specifies control at the level of production, the Member in whose territory the production takes place shall provide the necessary assistance to facilitate such control and the work of the controlling authorities.

    3.         Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent Members from carrying out reasonable inspection within their own territories.

    AGREEMENT ON TEXTILES AND CLOTHING

    Members,

                Recalling that Ministers agreed at Punta del Este that "negotiations in the area of textiles and clothing shall aim to formulate modalities that would permit the eventual integration of this sector into GATT on the basis of strengthened GATT rules and disciplines, thereby also contributing to the objective of further liberalization of trade";

                Recalling also that in the April 1989 Decision of the Trade Negotiations Committee it was agreed that the process of integration should commence following the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations and should be progressive in character;

                Recalling further that it was agreed that special treatment should be accorded to the least-developed country Members;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    Article 1

    1.         This Agreement sets out provisions to be applied by Members during a transition period for the integration of the textiles and clothing sector into GATT 1994.

    2.         Members agree to use the provisions of paragraph 18 of Article 2 and paragraph 6(b) of Article 6 in such a way as to permit meaningful increases in access possibilities for small suppliers and the development of commercially significant trading opportunities for new entrants in the field of textiles and clothing trade.[21]

    3.         Members shall have due regard to the situation of those Members which have not accepted the Protocols extending the Arrangement Regarding International Trade in Textiles (referred to in this Agreement as the "MFA") since 1986 and, to the extent possible, shall afford them special treatment in applying the provisions of this Agreement.

    4.         Members agree that the particular interests of the cotton-producing exporting Members should, in consultation with them, be reflected in the implementation of the provisions of this Agreement.

    5.         In order to facilitate the integration of the textiles and clothing sector into GATT 1994, Members should allow for continuous autonomous industrial adjustment and increased competition in their markets.

    6.         Unless otherwise provided in this Agreement, its provisions shall not affect the rights and obligations of Members under the provisions of the WTO Agreement and the Multilateral Trade Agreements.

    7.         The textile and clothing products to which this Agreement applies are set out in the Annex.

    Article 2

    1.         All quantitative restrictions within bilateral agreements maintained under Article 4 or notified under Article 7 or 8 of the MFA in force on the day before the entry into force of the WTO Agreement shall, within 60 days following such entry into force, be notified in detail, including the restraint levels, growth rates and flexibility provisions, by the Members maintaining such restrictions to the Textiles Monitoring Body provided for in Article 8 (referred to in this Agreement as the "TMB").  Members agree that as of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, all such restrictions maintained between GATT 1947 contracting parties, and in place on the day before such entry into force, shall be governed by the provisions of this Agreement.

    2.         The TMB shall circulate these notifications to all Members for their information.  It is open to any Member to bring to the attention of the TMB, within 60 days of the circulation of the notifications, any observations it deems appropriate with regard to such notifications.  Such observations shall be circulated to the other Members for their information.  The TMB may make recommendations, as appropriate, to the Members concerned.

    3.         When the 12-month period of restrictions to be notified under paragraph 1 does not coincide with the 12-month period immediately preceding the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, the Members concerned should mutually agree on arrangements to bring the period of restrictions into line with the agreement year[22], and to establish notional base levels of such restrictions in order to implement the provisions of this Article.  Concerned Members agree to enter into consultations promptly upon request with a view to reaching such mutual agreement.  Any such arrangements shall take into account, inter alia, seasonal patterns of shipments in recent years.  The results of these consultations shall be notified to the TMB, which shall make such recommendations as it deems appropriate to the Members concerned.

    4.         The restrictions notified under paragraph 1 shall be deemed to constitute the totality of such restrictions applied by the respective Members on the day before the entry into force of the WTO Agreement.  No new restrictions in terms of products or Members shall be introduced except under the provisions of this Agreement or relevant GATT 1994 provisions.[23]  Restrictions not notified within 60 days of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement shall be terminated forthwith.

    5.         Any unilateral measure taken under Article 3 of the MFA prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement may remain in effect for the duration specified therein, but not exceeding 12 months, if it has been reviewed by the Textiles Surveillance Body (referred to in this Agreement as the "TSB") established under the MFA.  Should the TSB not have had the opportunity to review any such unilateral measure, it shall be reviewed by the TMB in accordance with the rules and procedures governing Article 3 measures under the MFA.  Any measure applied under an MFA Article 4 agreement prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement that is the subject of a dispute which the TSB has not had the opportunity to review shall also be reviewed by the TMB in accordance with the MFA rules and procedures applicable for such a review.

    6.         On the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, each Member shall integrate into GATT 1994 products which accounted for not less than 16 per cent of the total volume of the Member’s 1990 imports of the products in the Annex, in terms of HS lines or categories.  The products to be integrated shall encompass products from each of the following four groups:  tops and yarns, fabrics, made-up textile products, and clothing.

    7.         Full details of the actions to be taken pursuant to paragraph 6 shall be notified by the Members concerned according to the following:

                (a)        Members maintaining restrictions falling under paragraph 1 undertake, notwithstanding the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, to notify such details to the GATT Secretariat not later than the date determined by the Ministerial Decision of 15 April 1994.  The GATT Secretariat shall promptly circulate these notifications to the other participants for information.  These notifications will be made available to the TMB, when established, for the purposes of paragraph 21;

                (b)        Members which have, pursuant to paragraph 1 of Article 6, retained the right to use the provisions of Article 6, shall notify such details to the TMB not later than 60 days following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, or, in the case of those Members covered by paragraph 3 of Article 1, not later than at the end of the 12th month that the WTO Agreement is in effect.  The TMB shall circulate these notifications to the other Members for information and review them as provided in paragraph 21.

    8.         The remaining products, i.e. the products not integrated into GATT 1994 under paragraph 6, shall be integrated, in terms of HS lines or categories, in three stages, as follows:

                (a)        on the first day of the 37th month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, products which accounted for not less than 17 per cent of the total volume of the Member’s 1990 imports of the products in the Annex.  The products to be integrated by the Members shall encompass products from each of the following four groups: tops and yarns, fabrics, made-up textile products, and clothing;

                (b)        on the first day of the 85th month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, products which accounted for not less than 18 per cent of the total volume of the Member’s 1990 imports of the products in the Annex.  The products to be integrated by the Members shall encompass products from each of the following four groups:  tops and yarns, fabrics, made-up textile products, and clothing;

                (c)        on the first day of the 121st month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, the textiles and clothing sector shall stand integrated into GATT 1994, all restrictions under this Agreement having been eliminated.

    9.         Members which have notified, pursuant to paragraph 1 of Article 6, their intention not to retain the right to use the provisions of Article 6 shall, for the purposes of this Agreement, be deemed to have integrated their textiles and clothing products into GATT 1994.  Such Members shall, therefore, be exempted from complying with the provisions of paragraphs 6 to 8 and 11.

    10.       Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent a Member which has submitted an integration programme pursuant to paragraph 6 or 8 from integrating products into GATT 1994 earlier than provided for in such a programme.  However, any such integration of products shall take effect at the beginning of an agreement year, and details shall be notified to the TMB at least three months prior thereto for circulation to all Members.

    11.       The respective programmes of integration, in pursuance of paragraph 8, shall be notified in detail to the TMB at least 12 months before their coming into effect, and circulated by the TMB to all Members.

    12.       The base levels of the restrictions on the remaining products, mentioned in paragraph 8, shall be the restraint levels referred to in paragraph 1.

    13.       During Stage 1 of this Agreement (from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement to the 36th month that it is in effect, inclusive) the level of each restriction under MFA bilateral agreements in force for the 12-month period prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement shall be increased annually by not less than the growth rate established for the respective restrictions, increased by 16 per cent.

    14.       Except where the Council for Trade in Goods or the Dispute Settlement Body decides otherwise under paragraph 12 of Article 8, the level of each remaining restriction shall be increased annually during subsequent stages of this Agreement by not less than the following:

                (a)        for Stage 2 (from the 37th to the 84th month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, inclusive), the growth rate for the respective restrictions during Stage 1, increased by 25 per cent;

                (b)        for Stage 3 (from the 85th to the 120th month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, inclusive), the growth rate for the respective restrictions during Stage 2, increased by 27 per cent.

    15.       Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent a Member from eliminating any restriction maintained pursuant to this Article, effective at the beginning of any agreement year during the transition period, provided the exporting Member concerned and the TMB are notified at least three months prior to the elimination coming into effect.  The period for prior notification may be shortened to 30 days with the agreement of the restrained Member.  The TMB shall circulate such notifications to all Members.  In considering the elimination of restrictions as envisaged in this paragraph, the Members concerned shall take into account the treatment of similar exports from other Members.

    16.       Flexibility provisions, i.e. swing, carryover and carry forward, applicable to all restrictions maintained pursuant to this Article, shall be the same as those provided for in MFA bilateral agreements for the 12-month period prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement.  No quantitative limits shall be placed or maintained on the combined use of swing, carryover and carry forward.

    17.       Administrative arrangements, as deemed necessary in relation to the implementation of any provision of this Article, shall be a matter for agreement between the Members concerned.  Any such arrangements shall be notified to the TMB.

    18.       As regards those Members whose exports are subject to restrictions on the day before the entry into force of the WTO Agreement and whose restrictions represent 1.2 per cent or less of the total volume of the restrictions applied by an importing Member as of 31 December 1991 and notified under this Article, meaningful improvement in access for their exports shall be provided, at the entry into force of the WTO Agreement and for the duration of this Agreement, through advancement by one stage of the growth rates set out in paragraphs 13 and 14, or through at least equivalent changes as may be mutually agreed with respect to a different mix of base levels, growth and flexibility provisions.  Such improvements shall be notified to the TMB.

    19.       In any case, during the duration of this Agreement, in which a safeguard measure is initiated by a Member under Article XIX of GATT 1994 in respect of a particular product during a period of one year immediately following the integration of that product into GATT 1994 in accordance with the provisions of this Article, the provisions of Article XIX, as interpreted by the Agreement on Safeguards, will apply, save as set out in paragraph 20.

    20.       Where such a measure is applied using non-tariff means, the importing Member concerned shall apply the measure in a manner as set forth in paragraph 2(d) of Article XIII of GATT 1994 at the request of any exporting Member whose exports of such products were subject to restrictions under this Agreement at any time in the one-year period immediately prior to the initiation of the safeguard measure.  The exporting Member concerned shall administer such a measure.  The applicable level shall not reduce the relevant exports below the level of a recent representative period, which shall normally be the average of exports from the Member concerned in the last three representative years for which statistics are available.  Furthermore, when the safeguard measure is applied for more than one year, the applicable level shall be progressively liberalized at regular intervals during the period of application.  In such cases the exporting Member concerned shall not exercise the right of suspending substantially equivalent concessions or other obligations under paragraph 3(a) of Article XIX of GATT 1994.

    21.       The TMB shall keep under review the implementation of this Article.  It shall, at the request of any Member, review any particular matter with reference to the implementation of the provisions of this Article.  It shall make appropriate recommendations or findings within 30 days to the Member or Members concerned, after inviting the participation of such Members.

    Article 3

    1.         Within 60 days following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, Members maintaining restrictions[24] on textile and clothing products (other than restrictions maintained under the MFA and covered by the provisions of Article 2), whether consistent with GATT 1994 or not, shall (a) notify them in detail to the TMB, or (b) provide to the TMB notifications with respect to them which have been submitted to any other WTO body.  The notifications should, wherever applicable, provide information with respect to any GATT 1994 justification for the restrictions, including GATT 1994 provisions on which they are based.

    2.         Members maintaining restrictions falling under paragraph 1, except those justified under a GATT 1994 provision, shall either:

                (a)        bring them into conformity with GATT 1994 within one year following the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, and notify this action to the TMB for its information;  or

                (b)        phase them out progressively according to a programme to be presented to the TMB by the Member maintaining the restrictions not later than six months after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.  This programme shall provide for all restrictions to be phased out within a period not exceeding the duration of this Agreement.  The TMB may make recommendations to the Member concerned with respect to such a programme.

    3.         During the duration of this Agreement, Members shall provide to the TMB, for its information, notifications submitted to any other WTO bodies with respect to any new restrictions or changes in existing restrictions on textile and clothing products, taken under any GATT 1994 provision, within 60 days of their coming into effect.

    4.         It shall be open to any Member to make reverse notifications to the TMB, for its information, in regard to the GATT 1994 justification, or in regard to any restrictions that may not have been notified under the provisions of this Article.  Actions with respect to such notifications may be pursued by any Member under relevant GATT 1994 provisions or procedures in the appropriate WTO body.

    5.         The TMB shall circulate the notifications made pursuant to this Article to all Members for their information. 

    Article 4

    1.         Restrictions referred to in Article 2, and those applied under Article 6, shall be administered by the exporting Members.  Importing Members shall not be obliged to accept shipments in excess of the restrictions notified under Article 2, or of restrictions applied pursuant to Article 6.

    2.         Members agree that the introduction of changes, such as changes in practices, rules, procedures and categorization of textile and clothing products, including those changes relating to the Harmonized System, in the implementation or administration of those restrictions notified or applied under this Agreement should not:  upset the balance of rights and obligations between the Members concerned under this Agreement;  adversely affect the access available to a  Member;  impede the full utilization of such access;  or disrupt trade under this Agreement.

    3.         If a product which constitutes only part of a restriction is notified for integration pursuant to the provisions of Article 2, Members agree that any change in the level of that restriction shall not upset the balance of rights and obligations between the Members concerned under this Agreement.

    4.         When changes mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 3 are necessary, however, Members agree that the Member initiating such changes shall inform and, wherever possible, initiate consultations with the affected Member or Members prior to the implementation of such changes, with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable solution regarding appropriate and equitable adjustment.  Members further agree that where consultation prior to implementation is not feasible, the Member initiating such changes will, at the request of the affected Member, consult, within 60 days if possible, with the Members concerned with a view to reaching a mutually satisfactory solution regarding appropriate and equitable adjustments.  If a mutually satisfactory solution is not reached, any Member involved may refer the matter to the TMB for recommendations as provided in Article 8.  Should the TSB not have had the opportunity to review a dispute concerning such changes introduced prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, it shall be reviewed by the TMB in accordance with the rules and procedures of the MFA applicable for such a review.

    Article 5

    1.         Members agree that circumvention by transshipment, re-routing, false declaration concerning country or place of origin, and falsification of official documents, frustrates the implementation of this Agreement to integrate the textiles and clothing sector into GATT 1994.  Accordingly, Members should establish the necessary legal provisions and/or administrative procedures to address and take action against such circumvention.  Members further agree that, consistent with their domestic laws and procedures, they will cooperate fully to address problems arising from circumvention.

    2.         Should any Member believe that this Agreement is being circumvented by transshipment, re-routing, false declaration concerning country or place of origin, or falsification of official documents, and that no, or inadequate, measures are being applied to address and/or to take action against such circumvention, that Member should consult with the Member or Members concerned with a view to seeking a mutually satisfactory solution.  Such consultations should be held promptly, and within 30 days when possible.  If a mutually satisfactory solution is not reached, the matter may be referred by any Member involved to the TMB for recommendations.

    3.         Members agree to take necessary action, consistent with their domestic laws and procedures, to prevent, to investigate and, where appropriate, to take legal and/or administrative action against circumvention practices within their territory.  Members agree to cooperate fully, consistent with their domestic laws and procedures, in instances of circumvention or alleged circumvention of this Agreement, to establish the relevant facts in the places of import, export and, where applicable, transshipment.  It is agreed that such cooperation, consistent with domestic laws and procedures, will include:  investigation of circumvention practices which increase restrained exports to the Member maintaining such restraints;  exchange of documents, correspondence, reports and other relevant information to the extent available;  and facilitation of plant visits and contacts, upon request and on a case-by-case basis.  Members should endeavour to clarify the circumstances of any such instances of circumvention or alleged circumvention, including the respective roles of the exporters or importers involved.

    4.         Where, as a result of investigation, there is sufficient evidence that circumvention has occurred (e.g. where evidence is available concerning the country or place of true origin, and the circumstances of such circumvention), Members agree that appropriate action, to the extent necessary to address the problem, should be taken.  Such action may include the denial of entry of goods or, where goods have entered, having due regard to the actual circumstances and the involvement of the country or place of true origin, the adjustment of charges to restraint levels to reflect the true country or place of origin.  Also, where there is evidence of the involvement of the territories of the Members through which the goods have been transshipped, such action may include the introduction of restraints with respect to such Members.  Any such actions, together with their timing and scope, may be taken after consultations held with a view to arriving at a mutually satisfactory solution between the concerned Members and shall be notified to the TMB with full justification.  The Members concerned may agree on other remedies in consultation.  Any such agreement shall also be notified to the TMB, and the TMB may make such recommendations to the Members concerned as it deems appropriate.  If a mutually satisfactory solution is not reached, any Member concerned may refer the matter to the TMB for prompt review and recommendations.

    5.         Members note that some cases of circumvention may involve shipments transiting through countries or places with no changes or alterations made to the goods contained in such shipments in the places of transit.  They note that it may not be generally practicable for such places of transit to exercise control over such shipments.

    6.         Members agree that false declaration concerning fibre content, quantities, description or classification of merchandise also frustrates the objective of this Agreement.  Where there is evidence that any such false declaration has been made for purposes of circumvention, Members agree that appropriate measures, consistent with domestic laws and procedures, should be taken against the exporters or importers involved.  Should any Member believe that this Agreement is being circumvented by such false declaration and that no, or inadequate, administrative measures are being applied to address and/or to take action against such circumvention, that Member should consult promptly with the Member involved with a view to seeking a mutually satisfactory solution.  If such a solution is not reached, the matter may be referred by any  Member involved to the TMB for recommendations.  This provision is not intended to prevent Members from making technical adjustments when inadvertent errors in declarations have been made.

    Article 6

    1.         Members recognize that during the transition period it may be necessary to apply a specific transitional safeguard mechanism (referred to in this Agreement as "transitional safeguard").  The transitional safeguard may be applied by any Member to products covered by the Annex, except those integrated into GATT 1994 under the provisions of Article 2.  Members not maintaining restrictions falling under Article 2 shall notify the TMB within 60 days following the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, as to whether or not they wish to retain the right to use the provisions of this Article.  Members which have not accepted the Protocols extending the MFA since 1986  shall make such notification within 6 months following the entry into force of the WTO Agreement.  The transitional safeguard should be applied as sparingly as possible, consistently with the provisions of this Article and the effective implementation of the integration process under this Agreement.

    2.         Safeguard action may be taken under this Article when, on the basis of a determination by a Member[25], it is demonstrated that a particular product is being imported into its territory in such increased quantities as to cause serious damage, or actual threat thereof, to the domestic industry producing like and/or directly competitive products.  Serious damage or actual threat thereof must demonstrably be caused by such increased quantities in total imports of that product and not by such other factors as technological changes or changes in consumer preference.

    3.         In making a determination of serious damage, or actual threat thereof, as referred to in paragraph 2, the Member shall examine the effect of those imports on the state of the particular industry, as reflected in changes in such relevant economic variables as output, productivity, utilization of capacity, inventories, market share, exports, wages, employment, domestic prices, profits and investment; none of which, either alone or combined with other factors, can necessarily give decisive guidance.

    4.         Any measure invoked pursuant to the provisions of this Article shall be applied on a Member-by-Member basis.  The Member or Members to whom serious damage, or actual threat thereof, referred to in paragraphs 2 and  3, is attributed, shall be determined on the basis of a sharp and substantial increase in imports, actual or imminent[26], from such a Member or Members individually, and on the basis of the level of imports as compared with imports from other sources, market share, and import and domestic prices at a comparable stage of commercial transaction;  none of these factors, either alone or combined with other factors, can necessarily give decisive guidance.  Such safeguard measure shall not be applied to the exports of any Member whose exports of the particular product are already under restraint under this Agreement.

    5.         The period of validity of a determination of serious damage or actual threat thereof for the purpose of invoking safeguard action shall not exceed 90 days from the date of initial notification as set forth in paragraph 7.

    6.         In the application of the transitional safeguard, particular account shall be taken of the interests of exporting Members as set out below:

                (a)        least-developed country Members shall be accorded treatment significantly more favourable than that provided to the other groups of Members referred to in this paragraph, preferably in all its elements but, at least, on overall terms;

                (b)        Members whose total volume of textile and clothing exports is small in comparison with the total volume of exports of other Members and who account for only a small percentage of total imports of that product into the importing Member shall be accorded differential and more favourable treatment in the fixing of the economic terms provided in paragraphs 8, 13 and 14.  For those suppliers, due account will be taken, pursuant to paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 1, of the future possibilities for the development of their trade and the need to allow commercial quantities of imports from them;

                (c)        with respect to wool products from wool-producing developing country Members whose economy and textiles and clothing trade are dependent on the wool sector, whose total textile and clothing exports consist almost exclusively of wool products, and whose volume of textiles and clothing trade is comparatively small in the markets of the importing Members, special consideration shall be given to the export needs of such Members when considering quota levels, growth rates and flexibility;

                (d)        more favourable treatment shall be accorded to re-imports by a Member of textile and clothing products which that Member has exported to another Member for processing and subsequent reimportation, as defined by the laws and practices of the importing Member, and subject to satisfactory control and certification procedures, when these products are imported from a Member for which this type of trade represents a significant proportion of its total exports of textiles and clothing.

    7.         The Member proposing to take safeguard action shall seek consultations with the Member or Members which would be affected by such action.  The request for consultations shall be accompanied by specific and relevant factual information, as up-to-date as possible, particularly in regard to:  (a) the factors, referred to in paragraph 3, on which the Member invoking the action has based its determination of the existence of serious damage or actual threat thereof;  and (b) the factors, referred to in paragraph 4, on the basis of which it proposes to invoke the safeguard action with respect to the Member or Members concerned.  In respect of requests made under this paragraph, the information shall be related, as closely as possible, to identifiable segments of production and to the reference period set out in paragraph 8.  The Member invoking the action shall also indicate the specific level at which imports of the product in question from the Member or Members concerned are proposed to be restrained;  such level shall not be lower than the level referred to in paragraph 8.  The Member seeking consultations shall, at the same time, communicate to the Chairman of the TMB the request for consultations, including all the relevant factual data outlined in paragraphs 3 and 4, together with the proposed restraint level.  The Chairman shall inform the members of the TMB of the request for consultations, indicating the requesting Member, the product in question and the Member having received the request.  The Member or Members concerned shall respond to this request promptly and the consultations shall be held without delay and normally be completed within 60 days of the date on which the request was received.

    8.         If, in the consultations, there is mutual understanding that the situation calls for restraint on the exports of the particular product from the Member or Members concerned, the level of such restraint shall be fixed at a level not lower than the actual level of exports or imports from the Member concerned during the 12-month period terminating two months preceding the month in which the request for consultation was made. 

    9.         Details of the agreed restraint measure shall be communicated to the TMB within 60 days from the date of conclusion of the agreement.  The TMB shall determine whether the agreement is justified in accordance with the provisions of this Article.  In order to make its determination, the TMB shall have available to it the factual data provided to the Chairman of the TMB, referred to in paragraph 7, as well as any other relevant information provided by the Members concerned.  The TMB may make such recommendations as it deems appropriate to the Members concerned.

    10.       If, however, after the expiry of the period of 60 days from the date on which the request for consultations was received, there has been no agreement between the Members, the Member which proposed to take safeguard action may apply the restraint by date of import or date of export, in accordance with the provisions of this Article, within 30 days following the 60-day period for consultations, and at the same time refer the matter to the TMB.  It shall be open to either Member to refer the matter to the TMB before the expiry of the period of 60 days.  In either case, the TMB shall promptly conduct an examination of the matter, including the determination of serious damage, or actual threat thereof, and its causes, and make appropriate recommendations to the Members concerned within 30 days.  In order to conduct such examination, the TMB shall have available to it the factual data provided to the Chairman of the TMB, referred to in paragraph 7, as well as any other relevant information provided by the Members concerned.

    11.       In highly unusual and critical circumstances, where delay would cause damage which would be difficult to repair, action under paragraph 10 may be taken provisionally on the condition that the request for consultations and notification to the TMB shall be effected within no more than five working days after taking the action.  In the case that consultations do not produce agreement, the TMB shall be notified at the conclusion of consultations, but in any case no later than 60 days from the date of the implementation of the action.  The TMB shall promptly conduct an examination of the matter, and make appropriate recommendations to the Members concerned within 30 days.  In the case that consultations do produce agreement, Members shall notify the TMB upon conclusion but, in any case, no later than 90 days from the date of the implementation of the action.  The TMB may make such recommendations as it deems appropriate to the Members concerned.

    12.       A Member may maintain measures invoked pursuant to the provisions of this Article: (a) for up to three years without extension, or (b) until the product is integrated into GATT 1994, whichever comes first.

    13.       Should the restraint measure remain in force for a period exceeding one year, the level for subsequent years shall be the level specified for the first year increased by a growth rate of not less than 6 per cent per annum, unless otherwise justified to the TMB.  The restraint level for the product concerned may be exceeded in either year of any two subsequent years by carry forward and/or carryover of 10 per cent of which carry forward shall not represent more than 5 per cent.  No quantitative limits shall be placed on the combined use of carryover, carry forward and the provision of paragraph 14.

    14.       When more than one product from another Member is placed under restraint under this Article by a Member, the level of restraint agreed, pursuant to the provisions of this Article, for each of these products may be exceeded by 7 per cent, provided that the total exports subject to restraint do not exceed the total of the levels for all products so restrained under this Article, on the basis of agreed common units.  Where the periods of application of restraints of these products do not coincide with each other, this provision shall be applied to any overlapping period on a pro rata basis.

    15.       If a safeguard action is applied under this Article to a product for which a restraint was previously in place under the MFA during the 12-month period prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, or pursuant to the provisions of Article 2 or 6, the level of the new restraint shall be the level provided for in paragraph 8 unless the new restraint comes into force within one year of:

                (a)        the date of notification referred to in paragraph 15 of Article 2 for the elimination of the previous restraint;  or

                (b)        the date of removal of the previous restraint put in place pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of the MFA

    in which case the level shall not be less than the higher of (i) the level of restraint for the last 12-month period during which the product was under restraint, or (ii) the level of restraint provided for in paragraph 8.

    16.       When a Member which is not maintaining a restraint under Article 2 decides to apply a restraint pursuant to the provisions of this Article, it shall establish appropriate arrangements which:  (a) take full account of such factors as established tariff classification and quantitative units based on normal commercial practices in export and import transactions, both as regards fibre composition and in terms of competing for the same segment of its domestic market, and (b) avoid over-categorization.  The request for consultations referred to in paragraphs 7 or 11 shall include full information on such arrangements.

    Article 7

    1.         As part of the integration process and with reference to the specific commitments undertaken by the Members as a result of the Uruguay Round, all Members shall take such actions as may be necessary to abide by GATT 1994 rules and disciplines so as to:

                (a)        achieve improved access to markets for textile and clothing products through such measures as tariff reductions and bindings, reduction or elimination of non-tariff barriers, and facilitation of customs, administrative and licensing formalities;

                (b)        ensure the application of policies relating to fair and equitable trading conditions as regards textiles and clothing in such areas as dumping and anti-dumping rules and procedures, subsidies and countervailing measures, and protection of intellectual property rights; and

                (c)        avoid discrimination against imports in the textiles and clothing sector when taking measures for general trade policy reasons.

    Such actions shall be without prejudice to the rights and obligations of Members under GATT 1994.

    2.         Members shall notify to the TMB the actions referred to in paragraph 1 which have a bearing on the implementation of this Agreement.  To the extent that these have been notified to other WTO bodies, a summary, with reference to the original notification, shall be sufficient to fulfil the requirements under this paragraph.  It shall be open to any  Member to make reverse notifications to the TMB.

    3.         Where any Member considers that another Member has not taken the actions referred to in paragraph 1, and that the balance of rights and obligations under this Agreement has been upset, that Member may bring the matter before the relevant WTO bodies and inform the TMB.  Any subsequent findings or conclusions by the WTO bodies concerned shall form a part of the TMB's comprehensive report.

    Article 8

    1.         In order to supervise the implementation of this Agreement, to examine all measures taken under this Agreement and their conformity therewith, and to take the actions specifically required of it by this Agreement, the Textiles Monitoring Body ("TMB") is hereby established.  The TMB shall consist of a Chairman and 10 members.  Its membership shall be balanced and broadly representative of the Members and shall provide for rotation of its members at appropriate intervals.  The members shall be appointed by Members designated by the Council for Trade in Goods to serve on the TMB, discharging their function on an ad personam basis.

    2.         The TMB shall develop its own working procedures.  It is understood, however, that consensus within the TMB does not require the assent or concurrence of members appointed by  Members involved in an unresolved issue under review by the TMB.

    3.         The TMB shall be considered as a standing body and shall meet as necessary to carry out the functions required of it under this Agreement.  It shall rely on notifications and information supplied by the Members under the relevant Articles of this Agreement, supplemented by any additional information or necessary details they may submit or it may decide to seek from them.  It may also rely on notifications to and reports from other WTO bodies and from such other sources as it may deem appropriate.

    4.         Members shall afford to each other adequate opportunity for consultations with respect to any matters affecting the operation of this Agreement.

    5.         In the absence of any mutually agreed solution in the bilateral consultations provided for in this Agreement, the TMB shall, at the request of either Member, and following a thorough and prompt consideration of the matter, make recommendations to the Members concerned.

    6.         At the request of any Member, the TMB shall review promptly any particular matter which that Member considers to be detrimental to its interests under this Agreement and where consultations between it and the Member or Members concerned have failed to produce a mutually satisfactory solution.  On such matters, the TMB may make such observations as it deems appropriate to the Members concerned and for the purposes of the review provided for in paragraph 11.

    7.         Before formulating its recommendations or observations, the TMB shall invite participation of such Members as may be directly affected by the matter in question.

    8.         Whenever the TMB is called upon to make recommendations or findings, it shall do so, preferably within a period of 30 days, unless a different time period is specified in this Agreement.  All such recommendations or findings shall be communicated to the Members directly concerned.  All such recommendations or findings shall also be communicated to the Council for Trade in Goods for its information.

    9.         The Members shall endeavour to accept in full the recommendations of the TMB, which shall exercise proper surveillance of the implementation of such recommendations.

    10.       If a Member considers itself unable to conform with the recommendations of the TMB, it shall provide the TMB with the reasons therefor not later than one month after receipt of such recommendations.  Following thorough consideration of the reasons given, the TMB shall issue any further recommendations it considers appropriate forthwith.  If, after such further recommendations, the matter remains unresolved, either Member may bring the matter before the Dispute Settlement Body and invoke paragraph 2 of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 and the relevant provisions of the Dispute Settlement Understanding.

    11.       In order to oversee the implementation of this Agreement, the Council for Trade in Goods shall conduct a major review before the end of each stage of the integration process.  To assist in this review, the TMB shall, at least five months before the end of each stage, transmit to the Council for Trade in Goods a comprehensive report on the implementation of this Agreement during the stage under review, in particular in matters with regard to the integration process, the application of the transitional safeguard mechanism, and relating to the application of GATT 1994 rules and disciplines as defined in Articles 2, 3, 6 and 7 respectively.  The TMB's comprehensive report may include any recommendation as deemed appropriate by the TMB to the Council for Trade in Goods.

    12.       In the light of its review the Council for Trade in Goods shall by consensus take such decisions as it deems appropriate to ensure that the balance of rights and obligations embodied in this Agreement is not being impaired.  For the resolution of any disputes that may arise with respect to matters referred to in Article 7, the Dispute Settlement Body may authorize, without prejudice to the final date set out under Article 9, an adjustment to paragraph 14 of Article 2, for the stage subsequent to the review, with respect to any Member found not to be complying with its obligations under this Agreement.

    Article 9

                This Agreement and all restrictions thereunder shall stand terminated on the first day of the 121st month that the WTO Agreement is in effect, on which date the textiles and clothing sector shall be fully integrated into GATT 1994.  There shall be no extension of this Agreement.

    ANNEX

    LIST OF PRODUCTS COVERED BY THIS AGREEMENT

    1.         This Annex lists textile and clothing products defined by Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) codes at the six-digit level.

    2.         Actions under the safeguard provisions in Article 6 will be taken with respect to particular textile and clothing products and not on the basis of the HS lines per se.

    3.         Actions under the safeguard provisions in Article 6 of this Agreement shall not apply to:

                (a)        developing country Members' exports of handloom fabrics of the cottage industry, or hand-made cottage industry products made of such handloom fabrics, or traditional folklore handicraft textile and clothing products, provided that such products are properly certified under arrangements established between the Members concerned;

                (b)        historically traded textile products which were internationally traded in commercially significant quantities prior to 1982, such as bags, sacks, carpetbacking, cordage, luggage, mats, mattings and carpets typically made from fibres such as jute, coir, sisal, abaca, maguey and henequen;

                (c)        products made of pure silk.

    For such products, the provisions of Article XIX of GATT 1994, as interpreted by the Agreement on Safeguards, shall be applicable.

    Products within Section XI (Textiles and Textile Articles) of the

    Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) Nomenclature

    HS No.

     

    Product Description

     

    Ch. 50 Silk
    5004.00 Silk yarn (other than yarn spun from silk waste) not put up for retail sale
    5005.00 Yarn spun from silk waste, not put up for retail sale
    5006.00 Silk yarn & yarn spun from silk waste, put up f retail sale; silk-worm gut
    5007.10 Woven fabrics of noil silk
    5007.20 Woven fabrics of silk/silk waste, other than noil silk, 85%/more of such fibres
    5007.90 Woven fabrics of silk, nes
    Ch. 51 Wool, fine/coarse animal hair, horsehair yarn & fabric
    5105.10 Carded wool
    5105.21 Combed wool in fragments
    5105.29 Wool tops and other combed wool, other than combed wool in fragments
    5105.30 Fine animal hair, carded or combed
    5106.10 Yarn of carded wool,>/=85% by weight of wool, nt put up for retail sale
    5106.20 Yarn of carded, wool,<85% by weight of wool, not put up for retail sale
    5107.10 Yarn of combed wool,>/=85% by weight of wool, not put up for retail sale
    5107.20 Yarn of combed wool,<85% by weight of wool, not put up for retail sale
    5108.10 Yarn of carded fine animal hair, not put up for retail sale
    5108.20 Yarn of combed fine animal hair, not put up for retail sale
    5109.10 Yarn of wool/of fine animal hair,>/=85% by weight of such fibres, put up
    5109.90 Yarn of wool/of fine animal hair,<85% by weight of such fibres, put up
    5110.00 Yarn of coarse animal hair or of horsehair
    5111.11 Woven fabrics of carded wool/fine animal hair,>/=85% by weight,</=300 g/m2
    5111.19 Woven fabrics of carded wool/fine animal hair,>/=85% by weight,>300 g/m2
    5111.20 Woven fabric of carded wool/fine animal hair,>/=85% by wt, mixd w m-m fi
    5111.30 Woven fabric of carded wool/fine animal hair,>/=85% by wt, mixd w m-m fib
    5111.90 Woven fabrics of carded wool/fine animal hair,>/= 85% by weight, nes
    5112.11 Woven fabric of combed wool/fine animal hair,>/=85% by weight,</=200 g/m2
    5112.19 Woven fabrics of combed wool/fine animal hair,>/=85% by weight,>200 g/m2
    5112.20 Woven fabrics of combed wool/fine animal hair,<85% by wt, mixd w m-m fil
    5112.30 Woven fabrics of combed wool/fine animal hair,<85% by wt, mixd w m-m fib
    5112.90 Woven fabrics of combed wool/fine animal hair, <85% by weight, nes
    5113.00 Woven fabrics of coarse animal hair or of horsehair
    Ch. 52 Cotton
    5204.11 Cotton sewing thread >/=85% by weight of cotton, not put up for retail sale
    5204.19 Cotton sewing thread,<85% by weight of cotton, not put up for retail sale
    5204.20 Cotton sewing thread, put up for retail sale
    5205.11 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,single, uncombed,>/=714.29 dtex, nt put up
    5205.12 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,single, uncombed, 714.29 >dtex>/=232.56, not put up
    5205.13 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,single, uncombed, 232.56>dtex>/=192.31, not put up
    5205.14 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,single, uncombed, 192.31 >dtex>/=125, not put up
    5205.15 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,single, uncombed,<125 dtex, nt put up f retail sale
    5205.21 Cotton yarn,>/=85%, single, combed,>/=714.29, not put up
    5205.22 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,single, combed, 714.29 >dtex>/=232.56, not put up
    5205.23 Cotton yarn,>/=85%, single, combed, 232.56 >dtex>/=192.31, not put up
    5205.24 Cotton yarn,>/=85%, single, combed, 192.31 >dtex>/=125, not put up
    5205.25 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,single, combed,<125 dtex, not put up for retail sale
    5205.31 Cotton yarn,>/=85%, multi, uncombed,>/=714.29 dtex, not put up, nes
    5205.32 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,multi, uncombed, 714.29 >dtex>/=232.56, not put up, nes
    5205.33 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,multi, uncombed, 232.56 >dtex>/=192.31, not put up, nes
    5205.34 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,multi, uncombed, 192.31 >dtex>/=125, nt put up, nes
    5205.35 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,multi, uncombed, <125 dtex, not put up, nes
    5205.41 Cotton yarn,>/=85%, multiple, combed,>/=714.29 dtex, not put up, nes
    5205.42 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,multi, combed, 714.29 >dtex>/=232.56, nt put up, nes
    5205.43 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,multi, combed, 232.56 >dtex>/=192.31, nt put up, nes
    5205.44 Cotton yarn,>/=85%,multiple, combed, 192.31 >dtex>/=125, not put up, nes
    5205.45 Cotton yarn,>/=85%, multiple, combed, <125 dtex, not put up, nes
    5206.11 Cotton yarn, <85%, single, uncombed,>/=714.29, not put up
    5206.12 Cotton yarn, <85%, single, uncombed, 714.29 >dtex>/=232.56, nt put up
    5206.13 Cotton yarn, <85%, single, uncombed, 232.56 >dtex>/=192.31, not put up
    5206.14 Cotton yarn, <85%, single, uncombed, 192.31 >dtex>/=125, nt put up
    5206.15 Cotton yarn,<85%,single, uncombed,<125 dtex, not put up for retail sale
    5206.21 Cotton yarn, <85%, single, combed,>/=714.29 dtex, nt put up
    5206.22 Cotton yarn, <85%, single, combed, 714.29 >dtex>/=232.56, not put up
    5206.23 Cotton yarn, <85%, single, combed, 232.56 >dtex>/=192.31, not put up
    5206.24 Cotton yarn, <85%, single, combed, 192.31 >dtex>/=125, not put up
    5206.25 Cotton yarn,<85%,single, combed,<125 dtex, not put up for retail sale
    5206.31 Cotton yarn, <85%, multiple, uncombed,>/=714.29, not put up, nes
    5206.32 Cotton yarn,<85%,multiple, uncombed, 714.29 >dtex>/=232.56, nt put up, nes
    5206.33 Cotton yarn,<85%,multiple, uncombed, 232.56 >dex>/=192.31, nt put up, nes
    5206.34 Cotton yarn,<85%,multiple, uncombed, 192.31 >dtex>/=125, nt put up, nes
    5206.35 Cotton yarn, <85%, multiple, uncombed, <125 dtex, not put up, nes
    5206.41 Cotton yarn, <85%, multiple, combed,>/=714.29, nt put up, nes
    5206.42 Cotton yarn,<85%,multiple, combed, 714.29 >dtex>/=232.56, nt put up, nes
    5206.43 Cotton yarn,<85%,multiple, combed, 232.56 >dtex>/=192.31, nt put up, nes
    5206.44 Cotton yarn,<85%,multiple, combed, 192.31 >dtex>/=125, nt put up, nes
    5206.45 Cotton yarn, <85%, multiple, combed, <125 dtex, not put up, nes
    5207.10 Cotton yarn (other than sewing thread)>/=85% by weight of cotton, put up
    5207.90 Cotton yarn (other than sewg thread) <85% by wt of cotton, put up f retl sale
    5208.11 Plain weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, not more than 100 g/m2, unbleached
    5208.12 Plain weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, >100 g/m2 to 200 g/m2, unbleached
    5208.13 Twill weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, not more than 200 g/m2, unbleached
    5208.19 Woven fabrics of cotton,>/=85%, not more than 200 g/m2, unbleached, nes
    5208.21 Plain weave cotton fabrics,>/=85%, not more than 100 g/m2, bleached
    5208.22 Plain weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, >100 g/m2 to 200 g/m2, bleached
    5208.23 Twill weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, not more than 200 g/m2, bleached
    5208.29 Woven fabrics of cotton,>/=85%, nt more than 200 g/m2, bleached, nes
    5208.31 Plain weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, not more than 100 g/m2, dyed
    5208.32 Plain weave cotton fabric,>/=85%,>100g/m= to 200g/m=, dyed
    5208.33 Twill weave cotton fabrics,>/=85%, not more than 200 g/m2, dyed
    5208.39 Woven fabrics of cotton,>/=85%, not more than 200 g/m2, dyed, nes
    5208.41 Plain weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, not more than 100 g/m2, yarn dyed
    5208.42 Plain weave cotton fabrics,>/=85%, >100 g/m2 to 200 g/m2, yarn dyed
    5208.43 Twill weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, not more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyed
    5208.49 Woven fabrics of cotton,>/=85%,nt more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyed, nes
    5208.51 Plain weave cotton fabrics,>/=85%, not more than 100 g/m2, printed
    5208.52 Plain weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, >100 g/m2 to 200 g/m2, printed
    5208.53 Twill weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, not more than 200 g/m2, printed
    5208.59 Woven fabrics of cotton,>/=85%, not more than 200 g/m2, printed, nes
    5209.11 Plain weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, unbleached
    5209.12 Twill weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, unbleached
    5209.19 Woven fabrics of cotton,>/=85%,more than 200 g/m2, unbleached, nes
    5209.21 Plain weave cotton fabric,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, bleached
    5209.22 Twill weave cotton fabrics,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, bleached
     5209.29 Woven fabrics of cotton,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, bleached, nes
    5209.31 Plain weave cotton fabrics,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, dyed
    5209.32 Twill weave cotton fabrics,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, dyed
    5209.39 Woven fabrics of cotton,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, dyed, nes
    5209.41 Plain weave cotton fabrics,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyed
    5209.42 Denim fabrics of cotton,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2
    5209.43 Twill weave cotton fab, other than denim,>/=85%,more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyed
    5209.49 Woven fabrics of cotton,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyed, nes
    5209.51 Plain weave cotton fabrics,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, printed
    5209.52 Twill weave cotton fabrics,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, printed
    5209.59 Woven fabrics of cotton,>/=85%, more than 200 g/m2, printed, nes
    5210.11 Plain weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, unbl
    5210.12 Twill weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, unbl
    5210.19 Woven fab of cotton,<85% mixd with m-m fib,</=200 g/m2, unbl, nes
    5210.21 Plain weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, bl
    5210.22 Twill weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, bl
    5210.29 Woven fabrics of cotton,<85% mixd with m-m fib,</=200 g/m2, bl, nes
    5210.31 Plain weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, dyd
    5210.32 Twill weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, not more than 200 g/m2, dyd
    5210.39 Woven fabrics of cotton,<85% mixd with m-m fib,</=200 g/m2, dyed, nes
    5210.41 Plain weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, nt mor thn 200g/m2, yarn dyd
    5210.42 Twill weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, nt mor thn 200g/m2, yarn dyd
    5210.49 Woven fabrics of cotton,<85% mixed w m-m fib,</=200g/m2, yarn dyed, nes
    5210.51 Plain weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, nt more thn 200 g/m2, printd
    5210.52 Twill weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, nt more thn 200g/m2, printd
    5210.59 Woven fabrics of cotton,<85% mixed with m-m fib,</=200g/m2, printed, nes
    5211.11 Plain weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, more thn 200 g/m2, unbleachd
    5211.12 Twill weave cotton fab,<85% mixed with m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, unbl
    5211.19 Woven fabrics of cotton,<85% mixd w m-m fib, more thn 200g/m2, unbl, nes
    5211.21 Plain weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, bleachd
    5211.22 Twill weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, bleachd
    5211.29 Woven fabrics of cotton,<85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, bl, nes
    5211.31 Plain weave cotton fab,<85% mixed with m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, dyed
    5211.32 Twill weave cotton fab,<85% mixed with m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, dyed
    5211.39 Woven fabrics of cotton,<85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, dyd, nes
    5211.41 Plain weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, yarn dyd
    5211.42 Denim fabrics of cotton, <85% mixed with m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2
    5211.43 Twill weave cotton fab, other than denim,<85% mixd w m-m fib,>200g/m2, yarn dyd
    5211.49 Woven fabrics of cotton,<85% mixd with m-m fib,>200 g/m2, yarn dyed, nes
    5211.51 Plain weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, printd
    5211.52 Twill weave cotton fab,<85% mixd w m-m fib, more than 200 g/m2, printd
    5211.59 Woven fabrics of cotton,<85% mixd w m-m fib, mor thn 200g/m2, printd, nes
    5212.11 Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing not more than 200 g/m2, unbleached, nes
    5212.12 Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing not more than 200 g/m2, bleached, nes
    5212.13 Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing not more than 200 g/m2, dyed, nes
    5212.14 Woven fabrics of cotton,</=200g/m2, of yarns of different colours, nes
    5212.15 Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing not more than 200 g/m2, printed, nes
    5212.21 Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing more than 200 g/m2, unbleached, nes
    5212.22 Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing more than 200 g/m2, bleached, nes
    5212.23 Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing more than 200 g/m2, dyed, nes
    5212.24 Woven fabrics of cotton, >200 g/m2, of yarns of different colours, nes
    5212.25 Woven fabrics of cotton, weighing more than 200 g/m2, printed, nes
    Ch. 53 Other vegetable textile fibres; paper yarn & woven fab
    5306.10 Flax yarn, single
     5306.20 Flax yarn, multile (folded) or cabled
    5307.10 Yarn of jute or of other textile bast fibres, single
    5307.20 Yarn of jute or of oth textile bast fibres, multiple (folded) or cabled
    5308.20 True hemp yarn
    5308.90 Yarn of other vegetable textile fibres
    5309.11 Woven fabrics, containg 85% or more by weight of flax, unbleached or bl
    5309.19 Woven fabrics, containing 85% or more by weight of flax, other than unbl or bl
    5309.21 Woven fabrics of flax, containg <85% by weight of flax, unbleached or bl
    5309.29 Woven fabrics of flax, containing <85% by weight of flax, other than unbl or bl
    5310.10 Woven fabrics of jute or of other textile bast fibres, unbleached
    5310.90 Woven fabrics of jute or of other textile bast fibres, other than unbleached
    5311.00 Woven fabrics of oth vegetable textile fibres; woven fab of paper yarn
    Ch. 54 Man-made filaments
    5401.10 Sewing thread of synthetic filaments
    5401.20 Sewing thread of artificial filaments
    5402.10 High tenacity yarn (other than sewg thread),nylon/oth polyamides fi, nt put up
    5402.20 High tenacity yarn (other than sewg thread),of polyester filaments, not put up
    5402.31 Texturd yarn nes, of nylon/oth polyamides fi,</=50tex/s.y.,not put up
    5402.32 Texturd yarn nes, of nylon/oth polyamides fi,>50 tex/s.y.,not put up
    5402.33 Textured yarn nes, of polyester filaments, not put up for retail sale
    5402.39 Textured yarn of synthetic filaments, nes, not put up
    5402.41 Yarn of nylon or other polyamides fi, single, untwisted, nes, not put up
    5402.42 Yarn of polyester filaments, partially oriented, single, nes, not put up
    5402.43 Yarn of polyester filaments, single, untwisted, nes, not put up
    5402.49 Yarn of synthetic filaments, single, untwisted, nes, not put up
    5402.51 Yarn of nylon or other polyamides fi, single, >50 turns/m, not put up
    5402.52 Yarn of polyester filaments, single, >50 turns per metre, not put up
    5402.59 Yarn of synthetic filaments, single,>50 turns per metre, nes, not put up
    5402.61 Yarn of nylon or other polyamides fi, multiple, nes, not put up
    5402.62 Yarn of polyester filaments, multiple, nes, not put up
    5402.69 Yarn of synthetic filaments, multiple, nes, not put up
    5403.10 High tenacity yarn (other than sewg thread),of viscose rayon filamt, nt put up
    5403.20 Textured yarn nes, of artificial filaments, not put up for retail sale
    5403.31 Yarn of viscose rayon filaments, single, untwisted, nes, not put up
    5403.32 Yarn of viscose rayon filaments, single,>120 turns per m, nes, nt put up
    5403.33 Yarn of cellulose acetate filaments, single, nes, not put up
    5403.39 Yarn of artificial filaments, single, nes, not put up
    5403.41 Yarn of viscose rayon filaments, multiple, nes, not put up
    5403.42 Yarn of cellulose acetate filaments, multiple, nes, not put up
     5403.49 Yarn of artificial filaments, multiple, nes, not put up
    5404.10  Synthetic mono,>/=67dtex, no cross sectional dimension exceeds 1 mm
    5404.90  Strip&the like of syn tex material of an apparent width nt exceedg 5mm
    5405.00  Artificial mono, 67 dtex, cross-sect >1mm; strip of arti tex mat w </=5mm
    5406.10 Yarn of synthetic filament (other than sewing thread), put up for retail sale
     5406.20 Yarn of artificial filament (other than sewing thread),put up for retail sale
    5407.10 Woven fab of high tenacity fi yarns of nylon oth polyamides/polyesters
    5407.20 Woven fab obtaind from strip/the like of synthetic textile materials
    5407.30 Fabrics specif in Note 9 Section XI (layers of parallel syn tex yarn)
    5407.41 Woven fab,>/=85% of nylon/other polyamides filaments, unbl or bl, nes
    5407.42 Woven fabrics,>/=85% of nylon/other polyamides filaments, dyed, nes
    5407.43 Woven fab,>/=85% of nylon/other polyamides filaments, yarn dyed, nes
    5407.44 Woven fabrics,>/=85% of nylon/other polyamides filaments, printed, nes
    5407.51 Woven fabrics,>/=85% of textured polyester filaments, unbl or bl, nes
    5407.52 Woven fabrics,>/=85% of textured polyester filaments, dyed, nes
     5407.53 Woven fabrics,>/=85% of textured polyester filaments, yarn dyed, nes
     5407.54 Woven fabrics,>/=85% of textured polyester filaments, printed, nes
     5407.60 Woven fabrics,>/=85% of non-textured polyester filaments, nes
    5407.71 Woven fab,>/=85% of synthetic filaments, unbleached or bleached, nes
    5407.72 Woven fabrics,>/=85% of synthetic filaments, dyed, nes
    5407.73 Woven fabrics,>/=85% of synthetic filaments, yarn dyed, nes
    5407.74 Woven fabrics,>/=85% of synthetic filaments, printed, nes
    5407.81 Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments,<85% mixd w cotton, unbl o bl, nes
    5407.82 Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments,<85% mixed with cotton, dyed, nes
    5407.83 Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments,<85% mixd w cotton, yarn dyd, nes
    5407.84 Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments,<85% mixd with cotton, printed, nes
    5407.91  Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, unbleached or bleached, nes
    5407.92 Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, dyed, nes
    5407.93 Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, yarn dyed, nes
    5407.94 Woven fabrics of synthetic filaments, printed, nes
    5408.10 Woven fabrics of high tenacity filament yarns of viscose rayon
    5408.21 Woven fab,>/=85% of artificial fi o strip of art tex mat, unbl/bl, nes
    5408.22 Woven fab,>/=85% of artificial fi or strip of art tex mat, dyed, nes
    5408.23 Woven fab,>/=85% of artificial fi or strip of art tex mat, y dyed, nes
    5408.24 Woven fab,>/=85% of artificial fi or strip of art tex mat, printd, nes
    5408.31 Woven fabrics of artificial filaments, unbleached or bleached, nes
    5408.32 Woven fabrics of artificial filaments, dyed, nes
    5408.33 Woven fabrics of artificial filaments, yarn dyed, nes
    5408.34 Woven fabrics of artificial filaments, printed, nes
    Ch. 55 Man-made staple fibres
    5501.10 Filament tow of nylon or other polyamides
    5501.20 Filament tow of polyesters
    5501.30 Filament tow of acrylic or modacrylic
    5501.90 Synthetic filament tow, nes
    5502.00 Artificial filament tow
    5503.10 Staple fibres of nylon or other polyamides, not carded or combed
    5503.20 Staple fibres of polyesters, not carded or combed
    5503.30 Staple fibres of acrylic or modacrylic, not carded or combed
    5503.40 Staple fibres of polypropylene, not carded or combed
    5503.90 Synthetic staple fibres, not carded or combed, nes
    5504.10 Staple fibres of viscose, not carded or combed
    5504.90 Artificial staple fibres, other than viscose, not carded or combed
    5505.10 Waste of synthetic fibres
    5505.20 Waste of artificial fibres
    5506.10 Staple fibres of nylon or other polyamides, carded or combed
    5506.20 Staple fibres of polyesters, carded or combed
    5506.30 Staple fibres of acrylic or modacrylic, carded or combed
    5506.90 Synthetic staple fibres, carded or combed, nes
    5507.00 Artificial staple fibres, carded or combed
    5508.10 Sewing thread of synthetic staple fibres
    5508.20 Sewing thread of artificial staple fibres
    5509.11 Yarn,>/=85% nylon or other polyamides staple fibres, single, not put up
    5509.12 Yarn,>/=85% nylon o oth polyamides staple fibres, multi, not put up, nes
    5509.21 Yarn,>/=85% of polyester staple fibres, single, not put up
    5509.22 Yarn,>/=85% of polyester staple fibres, multiple, not put up, nes
    5509.31 Yarn,>/=85% of acrylic or modacrylic staple fibres, single, not put up
    5509.32 Yarn,>/=85% acrylic/modacrylic staple fibres, multiple, not put up, nes
    5509.41 Yarn,>/=85% of other synthetic staple fibres, single, not put up
    5509.42 Yarn,>/=85% of other synthetic staple fibres, multiple, not put up, nes
    5509.51 Yarn of polyester staple fibres mixd w/ arti staple fib, not put up, nes
    5509.52 Yarn of polyester staple fib mixd w wool/fine animal hair, nt put up, nes
    5509.53 Yarn of polyester staple fibres mixed with cotton, not put up, nes
    5509.59 Yarn of polyester staple fibres, not put up, nes
    5509.61 Yarn of acrylic staple fib mixd w wool/fine animal hair, not put up, nes
    5509.62 Yarn of acrylic staple fibres mixed with cotton, not put up, nes
    5509.69 Yarn of acrylic staple fibres, not put up, nes
    5509.91 Yarn of oth synthetic staple fibres mixed w/wool/fine animal hair, nes
    5509.92 Yarn of other synthetic staple fibres mixed with cotton, not put up, nes
    5509.99 Yarn of other synthetic staple fibres, not put up, nes
    5510.11 Yarn,>/=85% of artificial staple fibres, single, not put up
    5510.12 Yarn,>/=85% of artificial staple fibres, multiple, not put up, nes
    5510.20 Yarn of artificl staple fib mixd w wool/fine animal hair, not put up, nes
    5510.30 Yarn of artificial staple fibres mixed with cotton, not put up, nes
    5510.90 Yarn of artificial staple fibres, not put up, nes
     5511.10 Yarn,>/=85% of synthetic staple fibres, other than sewing thread, put up
    5511.20 Yarn, <85% of synthetic staple fibres, put up for retail sale, nes
    5511.30 Yarn of artificial fibres (other than sewing thread), put up for retail sale
    5512.11 Woven fabrics, containing>/=85% of polyester staple fibres, unbl or bl
    5512.19 Woven fabrics, containg>/=85% of polyester staple fibres, other than unbl or bl
    5512.21 Woven fabrics, containg>/=85% of acrylic staple fibres, unbleached or bl
    5512.29 Woven fabrics, containing>/=85% of acrylic staple fibres, other than unbl or bl
    5512.91 Woven fabrics, containing>/=85% of oth synthetic staple fibres, unbl/bl
    5512.99 Woven fabrics, containg>/=85% of other synthetic staple fib, other than unbl/bl
    5513.11 Plain weave polyest stapl fib fab,<85%,mixd w/cottn,</=170g/m2, unbl/bl
    5513.12 Twill weave polyest stapl fib fab,<85%,mixd w/cottn,</=170g/m2, unbl/bl
    5513.13 Woven fab of polyest staple fib,<85% mixd w/cot,</=170g/m2, unbl/bl, nes
    5513.19 Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib,<85%,mixd w/cot,</=170g/m2, unbl/bl
    5513.21 Plain weave polyester staple fib fab,<85%,mixd w/cotton,</=170g/m2, dyd
    5513.22 Twill weave polyest staple fib fab,<85%,mixd w/cotton,</=170g/m2, dyd
    5513.23 Woven fab of polyester staple fib,<85%,mixd w/cot,</=170 g/m2, dyd, nes
    5513.29 Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib,<85% mixd w/cotton,</=170g/m2, dyed
    5513.31 Plain weave polyest stapl fib fab,<85% mixd w/cot,</=170g/m2, yarn dyd
    5513.32 Twill weave polyest stapl fib fab,<85% mixd w/cot,</=170g/m2, yarn dyd
    5513.33 Woven fab of polyest staple fib,<85% mixd w/cot,</=170 g/m2, dyd nes
    5513.39 Woven fab of oth syn staple fib,<85% mixd w/cot,</=170g/m2, yarn dyd
    5513.41 Plain weave polyester stapl fib fab,<85%,mixd w/cot,</=170g/m2, printd
    5513.42 Twill weave polyest staple fib fab,<85%,mixd w/cot,<=/170g/m2, printd
    5513.43 Woven fab of polyester staple fib,<85%,mixd w/cot,</=170g/m2, ptd, nes
    5513.49 Woven fab of oth syn staple fib,<85%,mixed w/cot,</=170g/m2, printed
    5514.11 Plain weave polyest staple fib fab,<85%,mixd w/cotton,>170g/m2, unbl/bl
    5514.12 Twill weave polyest stapl fib fab,<85%,mixd w/cotton,>170g/m2, unbl/bl
    5514.13 Woven fab of polyester staple fib,<85% mixd w/cot,>170g/m2, unbl/bl, nes
    5514.19 Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib,<85%,mixed w/cot,>170 g/m2, unbl/bl
    5514.21 Plain weave polyester staple fibre fab,<85%,mixd w/cotton,>170g/m2, dyd
    5514.22 Twill weave polyester staple fibre fab,<85%,mixd w/cotton,>170g/m2, dyd
    5514.23 Woven fabrics of polyester staple fib,<85%,mixed w/cot,>170 g/m2, dyed
    5514.29 Woven fabrics of oth synthetic staple fib,<85%,mixd w/cot,>170g/m2, dyd
    5514.31 Plain weave polyester staple fib fab,<85% mixd w/cot,>170g/m2, yarn dyd
    5514.32 Twill weave polyester staple fib fab,<85% mixd w/cot,>170g/m2, yarn dyd
    5514.33 Woven fab of polyester stapl fib,<85% mixd w/cot,>170g/m2, yarn dyd nes
    5514.39 Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib,<85% mixd w/cot,>170 g/m2, yarn dyd
    5514.41 Plain weave polyester staple fibre fab,<85%,mixd w/cot,>170g/m2, printd
    5514.42 Twill weave polyester staple fibre fab,<85%,mixd w/cot,>170g/m2, printd
    5514.43 Woven fab of polyester staple fibres <85%,mixd w/cot,>170g/m2, ptd, nes
    5514.49 Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib,<85%,mixed w/cot,>170 g/m2, printed
    5515.11 Woven fab of polyester staple fib mixd w viscose rayon staple fib, nes
    5515.12 Woven fabrics of polyester staple fibres mixd w man-made filaments, nes
    5515.13 Woven fab of polyester staple fibres mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, nes
    5515.19 Woven fabrics of polyester staple fibres, nes
    5515.21 Woven fabrics of acrylic staple fibres, mixd w man-made filaments, nes
    5515.22 Woven fab of acrylic staple fibres, mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, nes
    5515.29 Woven fabrics of acrylic or modacrylic staple fibres, nes
    5515.91 Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib, mixed with man-made filaments, nes
    5515.92 Woven fabrics of oth syn staple fib, mixd w/wool o fine animal hair, nes
    5515.99 Woven fabrics of synthetic staple fibres, nes
    5516.11 Woven fabrics, containg>/=85% of artificial staple fibres, unbleached/bl
    5516.12 Woven fabrics, containing>/=85% of artificial staple fibres, dyed
    5516.13 Woven fabrics, containing>/=85% of artificial staple fib, yarn dyed
    5516.14 Woven fabrics, containing>/=85% of artificial staple fibres, printed
    5516.21 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib,<85%,mixd w man-made fi, unbl/bl
    5516.22 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib,<85%,mixd with man-made fi, dyd
    5516.23 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib,<85%,mixd with m-m fi, yarn dyd
    5516.24 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib,<85%,mixd w man-made fi, printd
    5516.31 Woven fab of arti staple fib,<85% mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, unbl/bl
    5516.32 Woven fabrics of arti staple fib,<85% mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, dyd
    5516.33 Woven fab of arti staple fib,<85% mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, yarn dyd
    5516.34 Woven fab of arti staple fib,<85% mixd w/wool/fine animal hair, printd
    5516.41 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib,<85% mixd with cotton, unbl o bl
    5516.42 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib, <85% mixed with cotton, dyed
    5516.43 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib,<85% mixd with cotton, yarn dyd
    5516.44 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fib,<85% mixed with cotton, printed
    5516.91 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fibres, unbleached or bleached, nes
    5516.92 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fibres, dyed, nes
    5516.93 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fibres, yarn dyed, nes
    5516.94 Woven fabrics of artificial staple fibres, printed, nes
     Ch. 56 Wadding, felt & nonwoven; yarns; twine, cordage, etc.
    5601.10 Sanitary articles of waddg of textile mat i.e. sanitary towels, tampons
    5601.21 Wadding of cotton and articles thereof, other than sanitary articles
    5601.22 Wadding of man-made fibres and articles thereof, other than sanitary articles
    5601.29 Waddg of oth textile materials&articles thereof, other than sanitary articles
    5601.30 Textile flock and dust and mill neps
    5602.10 Needleloom felt and stitch-bonded fibre fabrics
    5602.21 Felt other than needleloom, of wool or fine animal hair, not impreg, ctd, cov etc
    5602.29 Felt other than needleloom, of other textile materials, not impreg, ctd, cov etc
    5602.90 Felt of textile materials, nes
    5603.00 Nonwovens, whether or not impregnated, coated, covered or laminated
    5604.10 Rubber thread and cord, textile covered
    5604.20 High tenacity yarn of polyest, nylon oth polyamid, viscose rayon, ctd etc
    5604.90 Textile yarn, strips&the like, impreg ctd/cov with rubber o plastics, nes
    5605.00 Metallisd yarn, beg textile yarn combind w metal thread, strip/powder
    5606.00 Gimped yarn nes; chenille yarn; loop wale-yarn
    5607.10 Twine, cordage, ropes and cables, of jute or other textile bast fibres
    5607.21 Binder o baler twine, of sisal o oth textile fibres of the genus Agave
    5607.29 Twine nes, cordage, ropes and cables, of sisal textile fibres
    5607.30 Twine, cordage, ropes and cables, of abaca or other hard (leaf) fibres
    5607.41 Binder or baler twine, of polyethylene or polypropylene
    5607.49 Twine nes, cordage, ropes and cables, of polyethylene or polypropylene
    5607.50 Twine, cordage, ropes and cables, of other synthetic fibres
    5607.90 Twine, cordage, ropes and cables, of other materials
    5608.11 Made up fishing nets, of man-made textile materials
    5608.19 Knottd nettg of twine/cordage/rope, and oth made up nets of m-m tex mat
    5608.90 Knottd nettg of twine/cordage/rope, nes, and made up nets of oth tex mat
    5609.00 Articles of yarn, strip, twine, cordage, rope and cables, nes
    Ch. 57 Carpets and other textile floor coverings
    5701.10 Carpets of wool or fine animal hair, knotted
    5701.90 Carpets of other textile materials, knotted
    5702.10 Kelem, Schumacks, Karamanie and similar textile hand-woven rugs
    5702.20 Floor coverings of coconut fibres (coir)
    5702.31 Carpets of wool/fine animl hair, of wovn pile constructn, nt made up nes
    5702.32 Carpets of man-made textile mat, of wovn pile construct, nt made up, nes
    5702.39 Carpets of oth textile mat, of woven pile constructn, nt made up, nes
    5702.41 Carpets of wool/fine animal hair, of wovn pile construction, made up, nes
    5702.42 Carpets of man-made textile mat, of woven pile construction, made up, nes
    5702.49 Carpets of oth textile materials, of wovn pile construction, made up, nes
    5702.51 Carpets of wool or fine animal hair, woven, not made up, nes
    5702.52 Carpets of man-made textile materials, woven, not made up, nes
    5702.59 Carpets of other textile materials, woven, not made up, nes
    5702.91 Carpets of wool or fine animal hair, woven, made up, nes
    5702.92 Carpets of man-made textile materials, woven, made up, nes
    5702.99 Carpets of other textile materials, woven, made up, nes
    5703.10 Carpets of wool or fine animal hair, tufted
    5703.20 Carpets of nylon or other polyamides, tufted
     5703.30 Carpets of other man-made textile materials, tufted
    5703.90 Carpets of other textile materials, tufted
    5704.10 Tiles of felt of textile materials, havg a max surface area of 0.3 m2
    5704.90 Carpets of felt of textile materials, nes
    5705.00 Carpets and other textile floor coverings, nes
    Ch. 58 Special woven fab; tufted tex fab; lace; tapestries etc.
    5801.10 Woven pile fabrics of wool/fine animal hair, other than terry&narrow fabrics
    5801.21 Woven uncut weft pile fabrics of cotton, other than terry and narrow fabrics
    5801.22 Cut corduroy fabrics of cotton, other than narrow fabrics
    5801.23 Woven weft pile fabrics of cotton, nes
    5801.24 Woven warp pile fab of cotton, pingl (uncut),other than terry&narrow fab
    5801.25 Woven warp pile fabrics of cotton, cut, other than terry and narrow fabrics
    5801.26 Chenille fabrics of cotton, other than narrow fabrics
    5801.31 Woven uncut weft pile fabrics of manmade fibres, other than terry&narrow fab.
     5801.32 Cut corduroy fabrics of man-made fibres, other than narrow fabrics
     5801.33 Woven weft pile fabrics of man-made fibres, nes
    5801.34 Woven warp pile fab of man-made fib, pingl (uncut),other than terry&nar fab
    5801.35 Woven warp pile fabrics of man-made fib, cut, other than terry & narrow fabrics
    5801.36 Chenille fabrics of man-made fibres, other than narrow fabrics
    5801.90 Woven pile fab&chenille fab of other tex mat, other than terry&narrow fabrics
    5802.11 Terry towellg & similar woven terry fab of cotton, other than narrow fab, unbl
    5802.19 Terry towellg&similar woven terry fab of cotton, other than unbl&other than nar fab
    5802.20 Terry towellg&sim woven terry fab of oth tex mat, other than narrow fabrics
    5802.30 Tufted textile fabrics, other than products of heading No 57.03
    5803.10 Gauze of cotton, other than narrow fabrics
    5803.90 Gauze of other textile material, other than narrow fabrics
    5804.10 Tulles & other net fabrics, not incl woven, knitted or crocheted fabrics
    5804.21 Mechanically made lace of man-made fib, in the piece, in strips/motifs
    5804.29 Mechanically made lace of oth tex mat, in the piece, in strips/in motifs
    5804.30 Hand-made lace, in the piece, in strips or in motifs
    5805.00 Hand-woven tapestries & needle-worked tapestries, whether or not made up
    5806.10 Narrow woven pile fabrics and narrow chenille fabrics
    5806.20 Narrow woven fab, cntg by wt>/=5% elastomeric yarn/rubber thread nes
    5806.31 Narrow woven fabrics of cotton, nes
    5806.32 Narrow woven fabrics of man-made fibres, nes
    5806.39 Narrow woven fabrics of other textile materials, nes
    5806.40 Fabrics consisting of warp w/o weft assembled by means of an adhesive
    5807.10 Labels, badges and similar woven articles of textile materials
    5807.90 Labels, badges and similar articles, not woven, of textile materials, nes
    5808.10 Braids in the piece
    5808.90 Ornamental trimmings in the piece, other than knit; tassels, pompons & similar art
    5809.00 Woven fabrics of metal thread/of metallisd yarn, for apparel, etc, nes
    5810.10 Embroidery without visible ground, in the piece, in strips or in motifs
    5810.91 Embroidery of cotton, in the piece, in strips or in motifs, nes
    5810.92 Embroidery of man-made fibres, in the piece, in strips or in motifs, nes
    5810.99 Embroidery of oth textile materials, in the piece, in strips/motifs, nes
    5811.00 Quilted textile products in the piece
    Ch. 59 Impregnated, coated, cover/laminated textile fabric etc.
    5901.10 Textile fabrics coatd with gum, of a kind usd for outer covers of books
    5901.90 Tracg cloth; prepared paintg canvas; stiffened textile fab; for hats etc
    5902.10 Tire cord fabric made of nylon or other polyamides high tenacity yarns
    5902.20 Tire cord fabric made of polyester high tenacity yarns
    5902.90 Tire cord fabric made of viscose rayon high tenacity yarns
    5903.10 Textile fab impregnatd, ctd, cov, or laminatd w polyvinyl chloride, nes
    5903.20 Textile fabrics impregnated, ctd, cov, or laminated with polyurethane, nes
    5903.90 Textile fabrics impregnated, ctd, cov, or laminated with plastics, nes
    5904.10 Lineoleum, whether or not cut to shape
    5904.91 Floor coverings, other than linoleum, with a base of needleloom felt/nonwovens
    5904.92 Floor coverings, other than linoleum, with other textile base
    5905.00 Textile wall coverings
    5906.10 Rubberised textile adhesive tape of a width not exceeding 20 cm
    5906.91 Rubberised textile knitted or crocheted fabrics, nes
    5906.99 Rubberised textile fabrics, nes
    5907.00 Textile fab impreg, ctd, cov nes; paintd canvas (e.g.threatrical scenery)
    5908.00 Textile wicks f lamps, stoves, etc; gas mantles&knittd gas mantle fabric
    5909.00 Textile hosepiping and similar textile tubing
    5910.00 Transmission or conveyor belts or belting of textile material
    5911.10 Textile fabrics usd f card clothing, and sim fabric f technical uses
    5911.20 Textile bolting cloth, whether or not made up
    5911.31 Textile fabrics used in paper-making or similar machines, <650 g/m2
    5911.32 Textile fabrics usd in paper-makg or similar mach, weighg >/=650 g/m2
    5911.40 Textile straing cloth usd in oil presses o the like, incl of human hair
    5911.90 Textile products and articles for technical uses, nes
    Ch. 60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics
    6001.10 Long pile knitted or crocheted textile fabrics
    6001.21 Looped pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of cotton
    6001.22 Looped pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of man-made fibres
    6001.29 Looped pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of other textile materials
    6001.91 Pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of cotton, nes
    6001.92 Pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of man-made fibres, nes
    6001.99 Pile knitted or crocheted fabrics, of other textile materials, nes
    6002.10 Knittd or crochetd tex fab, w</=30 cm,>/=5% of elastomeric/rubber, nes
    6002.20 Knitted or crocheted textile fabrics, of a width not exceedg 30 cm, nes
    6002.30 Knittd/crochetd tex fab, width > 30 cm,>/=5% of elastomeric/rubber, nes
    6002.41 Warp knitted fabrics, of wool or fine animal hair, nes
    6002.42 Warp knitted fabrics, of cotton, nes
    6002.43 Warp knitted fabrics, of man-made fibres, nes
    6002.49 Warp knitted fabrics, of other materials, nes
    6002.91 Knitted or crocheted fabrics, of wool or of fine animal hair, nes
    6002.92 Knitted or crocheted fabrics, of cotton, nes
    6002.93 Knitted or crocheted fabrics, of manmade fibres, nes
    6002.99 Knitted or crocheted fabrics, of other materials, nes
    Ch. 61 Art of apparel & clothing access, knitted or crocheted
    6101.10 Mens/boys overcoats, anoraks etc, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6101.20 Mens/boys overcoats, anoraks etc, of cotton, knitted
    6101.30 Mens/boys overcoats, anoraks etc, of man-made fibres, knitted
    6101.90 Mens/boys overcoats, anoraks etc, of other textile materials, knitted
    6102.10 Womens/girls overcoats, anoraks etc, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6102.20 Womens/girls overcoats, anoraks etc, of cotton, knitted
    6102.30 Womens/girls overcoats, anoraks etc, of man-made fibres, knitted
     6102.90 Womens/girls overcoats, anoraks etc, of other textile materials, knitted
    6103.11 Mens/boys suits, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6103.12 Mens/boys suits, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6103.19 Mens/boys suits, of other textile materials, knitted
    6103.21 Mens/boys ensembles, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6103.22 Mens/boys ensembles, of cotton, knitted
    6103.23 Mens/boys ensembles, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6103.29 Mens/boys ensembles, of other textile materials, knitted
    6103.31 Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6103.32 Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of cotton, knitted
    6103.33 Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6103.39 Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of other textile materials, knitted
    6103.41 Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6103.42 Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of cotton, knitted
    6103.43 Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6103.49 Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of other textile materials, knitted
    6104.11 Womens/girls suits, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6104.12 Womens/girls suits, of cotton, knitted
     6104.13 Womens/girls suits, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6104.19 Womens/girls suits, of other textile materials, knitted
    6104.21 Womens/girls ensembles, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6104.22 Womens/girls ensembles, of cotton, knitted
    6104.23 Womens/girls ensembles, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6104.29 Womens/girls ensembles, of other textile materials, knitted
    6104.31 Womens/girls jackets, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6104.32 Womens/girls jackets, of cotton, knitted
    6104.33 Womens/girls jackets, of synthetic fibres, knitted
     6104.39 Womens/girls jackets, of other textile materials, knitted
    6104.41  Womens/girls dresses, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6104.42 Womens/girls dresses, of cotton, knitted
    6104.43 Womens/girls dresses, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6104.44 Womens/girls dresses, of artificial fibres, knitted
    6104.49 Womens/girls dresses, of other textile materials, knitted
    6104.51 Womens/girls skirts, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6104.52 Womens/girls skirts, of cotton, knitted
    6104.53 Womens/girls skirts, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6104.59 Womens/girls skirts, of other textile materials, knitted
    6104.61 Womens/girls trousers and shorts, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6104.62 Womens/girls trousers and shorts, of cotton, knitted
    6104.63 Womens/girls trousers and shorts, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6104.69 Womens/girls trousers and shorts, of other textile materials, knitted
    6105.10 Mens/boys shirts, of cotton, knitted
    6105.20 Mens/boys shirts, of man-made fibres, knitted
    6105.90 Mens/boys shirts, of other textile materials, knitted
    6106.10 Womens/girls blouses and shirts, of cotton, knitted
    6106.20 Womens/girls blouses and shirts, of man-made fibres, knitted
    6106.90 Womens/girls blouses and shirts, of other materials, knitted
    6107.11 Mens/boys underpants and briefs, of cotton, knitted
     6107.12 Mens/boys underpants and briefs, of man-made fibres, knitted
    6107.19 Mens/boys underpants and briefs, of other textile materials, knitted
    6107.21 Mens/boys nightshirts and pyjamas, of cotton, knitted
    6107.22 Mens/boys nightshirts and pyjamas, of man-made fibres, knitted
    6107.29 Mens/boys nightshirts and pyjamas, of other textile materials, knitted
    6107.91 Mens/boys bathrobes, dressing gowns etc of cotton, knitted
    6107.92 Mens/boys bathrobes, dressing gowns, etc of man-made fibres, knitted
    6107.99 Mens/boys bathrobes, dressg gowns, etc of oth textile materials, knitted
    6108.11 Womens/girls slips and petticoats, of man-made fibres, knitted
    6108.19 Womens/girls slips and petticoats, of other textile materials, knitted
    6108.21 Womens/girls briefs and panties, of cotton, knitted
    6108.22 Womens/girls briefs and panties, of man-made fibres, knitted
    6108.29 Womens/girls briefs and panties, of other textile materials, knitted
    6108.31 Womens/girls nightdresses and pyjamas, of cotton, knitted
    6108.32 Womens/girls nightdresses and pyjamas, of man-made fibres, knitted
    6108.39 Womens/girls nightdresses & pyjamas, of other textile materials, knitted
    6108.91 Womens/girls bathrobes, dressing gowns, etc, of cotton, knitted
    6108.92 Womens/girls bathrobes, dressing gowns, etc, of man-made fibres, knitted
    6108.99 Women/girls bathrobes, dressg gowns, etc, of oth textile materials, knittd
    6109.10 T-shirts, singlets and other vests, of cotton, knitted
    6109.90 T-shirts, singlets and other vests, of other textile materials, knitted
    6110.10 Pullovers, cardigans & similar article of wool or fine animal hair, knittd
    6110.20 Pullovers, cardigans and similar articles of cotton, knitted
    6110.30 Pullovers, cardigans and similar articles of man-made fibres, knitted
    6110.90 Pullovers, cardigans & similar articles of oth textile materials, knittd
    6111.10 Babies garments & clothg accessories of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6111.20 Babies garments and clothing accessories of cotton, knitted
    6111.30 Babies garments and clothing accessories of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6111.90 Babies garments & clothg accessories of other textile materials, knitted
    6112.11 Track suits, of cotton, knitted
    6112.12 Track suits, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6112.19 Track suits, of other textile materials, knitted
     6112.20 Ski suits, of textile materials, knitted
    6112.31 Mens/boys swimwear, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6112.39 Mens/boys swimwear, of other textile materials, knitted
    6112.41 Womens/girls swimwear, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6112.49 Womens/girls swimwear, of other textile materials, knitted
    6113.00 Garments made up of impreg, coatd, coverd or laminatd textile knittd fab
    6114.10 Garments nes, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6114.20 Garments nes, of cotton, knitted
     6114.30 Garments nes, of man-made fibres, knitted
    6114.90 Garments nes, of other textile materials, knitted
    6115.11 Panty hose & tights, of synthetic fibre yarns <67 dtex/single yarn knittd
    6115.12 Panty hose & tights, of synthetic fib yarns >/=67 dtex/single yarn knittd
    6115.19 Panty hose and tights, of other textile materials, knitted
    6115.20 Women full-l/knee-l hosiery, of textile yarn<67 dtex/single yarn knittd
    6115.91 Hosiery nes, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
    6115.92 Hosiery nes, of cotton, knitted
    6115.93 Hosiery nes, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6115.99 Hosiery nes, of other textile materials, knitted
     6116.10 Gloves impregnated, coated or covered with plastics or rubber, knitted
     6116.91 Gloves, mittens and mitts, nes, of wool or fine animal hair, knitted
     6116.92 Gloves, mittens and mitts, nes, of cotton, knitted
    6116.93 Gloves, mittens and mitts, nes, of synthetic fibres, knitted
    6116.99 Gloves, mittens and mitts, nes, of other textile materials, knitted
    6117.10 Shawls, scarves, veils and the like, of textile materials, knitted
    6117.20 Ties, bow ties and cravats, of textile materials, knitted
    6117.80 Clothing accessories nes, of textile materials, knitted
    6117.90 Parts of garments/of clothg accessories, of textile materials, knittd
    Ch. 62 Art of apparel & clothing access, not knitted/crocheted
    6201.11 Mens/boys overcoats & similar articles of wool/fine animal hair, not knit
    6201.12 Mens/boys overcoats and similar articles of cotton, not knitted
    6201.13 Mens/boys overcoats & similar articles of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6201.19 Mens/boys overcoats & sim articles of oth textile materials, not knittd
    6201.91 Mens/boys anoraks & similar articles, of wool/fine animal hair, not knittd
    6201.92 Mens/boys anoraks and similar articles, of cotton, not knitted
    6201.93 Mens/boys anoraks and similar articles, of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6201.99 Mens/boys anoraks & similar articles, of oth textile materials, not knittd
    6202.11 Womens/girls overcoats & sim articles of wool/fine animal hair nt knit
    6202.12 Womens/girls overcoats and similar articles of cotton, not knitted
    6202.13 Womens/girls overcoats & sim articles of man-made fibres, not knittd
    6202.19 Womens/girls overcoats & similar articles of other textile mat, not knit
    6202.91 Womens/girls anoraks & similar article of wool/fine animal hair, not knit
    6202.92 Womens/girls anoraks and similar article of cotton, not knitted
    6202.93 Womens/girls anoraks & similar article of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6202.99 Womens/girls anoraks & similar article of oth textile materials, not knit
    6203.11 Mens/boys suits, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6203.12 Mens/boys suits, of synthetic fibres, not knitted
     6203.19 Mens/boys suits, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6203.21 Mens/boys ensembles, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6203.22 Mens/boys ensembles, of cotton, not knitted
    6203.23 Mens/boys ensembles, of synthetic fibres, not knitted
    6203.29 Mens/boys ensembles, of other textile materials, not knitted
     6203.31 Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
     6203.32 Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of cotton, not knitted
    6203.33  Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of synthetic fibres, not knitted
    6203.39 Mens/boys jackets and blazers, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6203.41 Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6203.42 Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of cotton, not knitted
    6203.43 Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of synthetic fibres, not knitted
    6203.49 Mens/boys trousers and shorts, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6204.11 Womens/girls suits, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6204.12 Womens/girls suits, of cotton, not knitted
    6204.13 Womens/girls suits, of synthetic fibres, not knitted
    6204.19 Womens/girls suits, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6204.21 Womens/girls ensembles, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6204.22 Womens/girls ensembles, of cotton, not knitted
    6204.23 Womens/girls ensembles, of synthetic fibres, not knitted
    6204.29 Womens/girls ensembles, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6204.31  Womens/girls jackets, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6204.32 Womens/girls jackets, of cotton, not knitted
    6204.33 Womens/girls jackets, of synthetic fibres, not knitted
    6204.39 Womens/girls jackets, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6204.41 Womens/girls dresses, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6204.42 Womens/girls dresses, of cotton, not knitted
    6204.43 Womens/girls dresses, of synthetic fibres, not knitted
    6204.44 Womens/girls dresses, of artificial fibres, not knitted
    6204.49 Womens/girls dresses, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6204.51 Womens/girls skirts, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
     6204.52 Womens/girls skirts, of cotton, not knitted
    6204.53 Womens/girls skirts, of synthetic fibres, not knitted
    6204.59 Womens/girls skirts, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6204.61 Womens/girls trousers & shorts, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6204.62 Womens/girls trousers and shorts, of cotton, not knitted
    6204.63 Womens/girls trousers and shorts, of synthetic fibres, not knitted
    6204.69 Womens/girls trousers & shorts, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6205.10 Mens/boys shirts, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6205.20 Mens/boys shirts, of cotton, not knitted
    6205.30 Mens/boys shirts, of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6205.90 Mens/boys shirts, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6206.10 Womens/girls blouses and shirts, of silk or silk waste, not knitted
    6206.20 Womens/girls blouses & shirts, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6206.30 Womens/girls blouses and shirts, of cotton, not knitted
    6206.40 Womens/girls blouses and shirts, of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6206.90 Womens/girls blouses and shirts, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6207.11 Mens/boys underpants and briefs, of cotton, not knitted
    6207.19 Mens/boys underpants and briefs, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6207.21 Mens/boys nightshirts and pyjamas, of cotton, not knitted
    6207.22 Mens/boys nightshirts and pyjamas, of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6207.29 Mens/boys nightshirts & pyjamas, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6207.91 Mens/boys bathrobes, dressing gowns, etc of cotton, not knitted
    6207.92 Mens/boys bathrobes, dressing gowns, etc of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6207.99 Mens/boys bathrobes, dressg gowns, etc of oth textile materials, not knit
    6208.11 Womens/girls slips and petticoats, of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6208.19 Womens/girls slips & petticoats, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6208.21 Womens/girls nightdresses and pyjamas, of cotton, not knitted
    6208.22 Womens/girls nightdresses and pyjamas, of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6208.29 Womens/girls nightdresses & pyjamas, of oth textile materials, not knitted
    6208.91 Womens/girls panties, bathrobes, etc, of cotton, not knitted
    6208.92 Womens/girls panties, bathrobes, etc, of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6208.99 Womens/girls panties, bathrobes, etc, of oth textile materials, not knittd
    6209.10 Babies garments & clothg accessories of wool o fine animal hair, not knit
    6209.20 Babies garments and clothing accessories of cotton, not knitted
    6209.30 Babies garments & clothing accessories of synthetic fibres, not knitted
    6209.90 Babies garments & clothg accessories of oth textile materials, not knittd
    6210.10 Garments made up of textile felts and of nonwoven textile fabrics
    6210.20 Mens/boys overcoats & similar articles of impreg, ctd, cov etc, tex wov fab
    6210.30 Womens/girls overcoats & sim articles, of impreg, ctd, etc, tex wov fab
    6210.40 Mens/boys garments nes, made up of impreg, ctd, cov, etc, textile woven fab
    6210.50 Womens/girls garments nes, of impregnatd, ctd, cov, etc, textile woven fab
    6211.11 Mens/boys swimwear, of textile materials not knitted
    6211.12 Womens/girls swimwear, of textile materials, not knitted
    6211.20 Ski suits, of textile materials, not knitted
    6211.31 Mens/boys garments nes, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6211.32 Mens/boys garments nes, of cotton, not knitted
    6211.33 Mens/boys garments nes, of man-made fibres, not knitted
     6211.39 Mens/boys garments nes, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6211.41 Womens/girls garments nes, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6211.42 Womens/girls garments nes, of cotton, not knitted
    6211.43 Womens/girls garments nes, of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6211.49 Womens/girls garments nes, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6212.10 Brassieres and parts thereof, of textile materials
    6212.20 Girdles, panty girdles and parts thereof, of textile materials
    6212.30 Corselettes and parts thereof, of textile materials
    6212.90 Corsets, braces & similar articles & parts thereof, of textile materials
    6213.10 Handkerchiefs, of silk or silk waste, not knitted
    6213.20 Handkerchiefs, of cotton, not knitted
    6213.90 Handkerchiefs, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6214.10 Shawls, scarves, veils and the like, of silk or silk waste, not knitted
    6214.20 Shawls, scarves, veils & the like, of wool or fine animal hair, not knitted
    6214.30 Shawls, scarves, veils and the like, of synthetic fibres, not knitted
    6214.40 Shawls, scarves, veils and the like, of artificial fibres, not knitted
    6214.90 Shawls, scarves, veils & the like, of other textile materials, not knitted
     6215.10 Ties, bow ties and cravats, of silk or silk waste, not knitted
    6215.20 Ties, bow ties and cravats, of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6215.90 Ties, bow ties and cravats, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6216.00 Gloves, mittens and mitts, of textile materials, not knitted
    6217.10 Clothing accessories nes, of textile materials, not knitted
    6217.90 Parts of garments or of clothg accessories nes, of tex mat, not knittd.
    Ch. 63 Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing etc.
    6301.10 Electric blankets, of textile materials
    6301.20 Blankets (other than electric) & travelling rugs, of wool or fine animal hair
    6301.30 Blankets (other than electric) and travelling rugs, of cotton
    6301.40 Blankets (other than electric) and travelling rugs, of synthetic fibres
    6301.90 Blankets (other than electric) and travelling rugs, of other textile materials
    6302.10 Bed linen, of textile knitted or crocheted materials
    6302.21 Bed linen, of cotton, printed, not knitted
    6302.22 Bed linen, of man-made fibres, printed, not knitted
    6302.29  Bed linen, of other textile materials, printed, not knitted
    6302.31 Bed linen, of cotton, nes
    6302.32 Bed linen, of man-made fibres, nes
    6302.39 Bed linen, of other textile materials, nes
    6302.40 Table linen, of textile knitted or crocheted materials
    6302.51 Table linen, of cotton, not knitted
    6302.52 Table linen, of flax, not knitted
    6302.53 Table linen, of man-made fibres, not knitted
    6302.59  Table linen, of other textile materials, not knitted
    6302.60 Toilet & kitchen linen, of terry towellg or similar terry fab, of cotton
    6302.91 Toilet and kitchen linen, of cotton, nes
    6302.92 Toilet and kitchen linen, of flax
    6302.93 Toilet and kitchen linen, of man-made fibres
    6302.99 Toilet and kitchen linen, of other textile materials
    6303.11 Curtains, drapes, interior blinds & curtain or bed valances, of cotton, knit
    6303.12 Curtains, drapes, interior blinds & curtain/bd valances, of syn fib, knittd
    6303.19 Curtains, drapes, interior blinds & curtain/bd valances, oth tex mat, knit
    6303.91 Curtains/drapes/interior blinds & curtain/bd valances, of cotton, not knit
    6303.92 Curtains/drapes/interior blinds curtain/bd valances, of syn fib, nt knit
    6303.99 Curtain/drape/interior blind curtain/bd valance, of oth tex mat, nt knit
    6304.11 Bedspreads of textile materials, nes, knitted or crocheted
    6304.19 Bedspreads of textile materials, nes, not knitted or crocheted
     6304.91 Furnishing articles nes, of textile materials, knitted or crocheted
     6304.92 Furnishing articles nes, of cotton, not knitted or crocheted
    6304.93 Furnishing articles nes, of synthetic fibres, not knitted or crocheted
    6304.99 Furnishg articles nes, of oth textile materials, not knittd o crochetd
    6305.10 Sacks & bags, for packg of goods, of jute or of other textile bast fibres
    6305.20 Sacks and bags, for packing of goods, of cotton
    6305.31 Sacks & bags, for packg of goods, of polyethylene or polypropylene strips
    6305.39 Sacks & bags, for packing of goods, of other man-made textile materials
    6305.90 Sacks and bags, for packing of goods, of other textile materials
    6306.11 Tarpaulins, awnings and sunblinds, of cotton
    6306.12 Tarpaulins, awnings and sunblinds, of synthetic fibres
    6306.19 Tarpaulins, awnings and sunblinds, of other textile materials
    6306.21 Tents, of cotton
    6306.22 Tents, of synthetic fibres
    6306.29 Tents, of other textile materials
    6306.31 Sails, of synthetic fibres
    6306.39 Sails, of other textile materials
    6306.41 Pneumatic mattresses, of cotton
     6306.49 Pneumatic mattresses, of other textile materials
    6306.91 Camping goods nes, of cotton
    6306.99 Camping goods nes, of other textile materials
    6307.10 Floor-cloths, dish-cloths, dusters & similar cleaning cloths, of tex mat
    6307.20 Life jackets and life belts, of textile materials
    6307.90 Made up articles, of textile materials, nes, including dress patterns
    6308.00 Sets consistg of woven fab & yarn, for makg up into rugs, tapestries etc
    6309.00 Worn clothing and other worn articles

    Textile and clothing products in Chapters 30‑49, 64‑96

     

    HS No.

     

    Product Description
    3005.90 Wadding, gauze, bandages and the like
    ex 3921.12}

    ex 3921.13}

    ex 3921.90}

    {

    { Woven, knitted or non-woven fabrics coated, covered or laminated with plastics

    {

    ex 4202.12}

    ex 4202.22}

    ex 4202.32}

    ex 4202.92}

    {

    {Luggage, handbags and flatgoods with an outer surface predominantly of textile {materials

    {

    ex 6405.20 Footwear with soles and uppers of wool felt
    ex 6406.10 Footwear uppers of which 50% or more of the external surface area is textile material
    ex 6406.99 Leg warmers and gaiters of textile material
    6501.00 Hat-forms, hat bodies and hoods of felt; plateaux and manchons of felt
    6502.00 Hat-shapes, plaited or made by assembling strips of any material
    6503.00 Felt hats and other felt headgear
    6504.00 Hats & other headgear, plaited or made by assembling strips of any material
    6505.90 Hats & other headgear, knitted or made up from lace, or other textile material
     6601.10 Umbrellas and sun umbrellas, garden type
    6601.91 Other umbrella types, telescopic shaft
    6601.99 Other umbrellas
    ex 7019.10 Yarns of fibre glass
    ex 7019.20 Woven fabrics of fibre glass
    8708.21 Safety seat belts for motor vehicles
    8804.00 Parachutes; their parts and accessories
    9113.90 Watch straps, bands and bracelets of textile materials
    ex 9404.90 Pillow and cushions of cotton; quilts; eiderdowns; comforters and similar articles of textile materials
    9502.91 Garments for dolls
    ex 9612.10 Woven ribbons, of man-made fibres, other than those measuring less than 30 mm in width and permanently put up in cartridges

    AGREEMENT ON TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE

    Members,

                Having regard to the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations;

                Desiring to further the objectives of GATT 1994;

                Recognizing the important contribution that international standards and conformity assessment systems can make in this regard by improving efficiency of production and facilitating the conduct of international trade;

                Desiring therefore to encourage the development of such international standards and conformity assessment systems;

                Desiring however to ensure that technical regulations and standards, including packaging, marking and labelling requirements, and procedures for assessment of conformity with technical regulations and standards do not create unnecessary obstacles to international trade;

                Recognizing that no country should be prevented from taking measures necessary to ensure the quality of its exports, or for the protection of human, animal or plant life or health, of the environment, or for the prevention of deceptive practices, at the levels it considers appropriate, subject to the requirement that they are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail or a disguised restriction on international trade, and are otherwise in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement;

                Recognizing that no country should be prevented from taking measures necessary for the protection of its essential security interest;

                Recognizing the contribution which international standardization can make to the transfer of technology from developed to developing countries;

                Recognizing that developing countries may encounter special difficulties in the formulation and application of technical regulations and standards and procedures for assessment of conformity with technical regulations and standards, and desiring to assist them in their endeavours in this regard;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    Article 1

    General Provisions

    1.1       General terms for standardization and procedures for assessment of conformity shall normally have the meaning given to them by definitions adopted within the United Nations system and by international standardizing bodies taking into account their context and in the light of the object and purpose of this Agreement.

    1.2       However, for the purposes of this Agreement the meaning of the terms given in Annex 1 applies.

    1.3       All products, including industrial and agricultural products, shall be subject to the provisions of this Agreement.

    1.4       Purchasing specifications prepared by governmental bodies for production or consumption requirements of governmental bodies are not subject to the provisions of this Agreement but are addressed in the Agreement on Government Procurement, according to its coverage.

    1.5       The provisions of this Agreement do not apply to sanitary and phytosanitary measures as defined in Annex A of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    1.6       All references in this Agreement to technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures shall be construed to include any amendments thereto and any additions to the rules or the product coverage thereof, except amendments and additions of an insignificant nature.

    TECHNICAL REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS

    Article 2

    Preparation, Adoption and Application of Technical Regulations by Central Government Bodies

                With respect to their central government bodies:

    2.1       Members shall ensure that in respect of technical regulations, products imported from the territory of any Member shall be accorded treatment no less favourable than that accorded to like products of national origin and to like products originating in any other country.

    2.2       Members shall ensure that technical regulations are not prepared, adopted or applied with a view to or with the effect of creating unnecessary obstacles to international trade.  For this purpose, technical regulations shall not be more trade-restrictive than necessary to fulfil a legitimate objective, taking account of the risks non-fulfilment would create.  Such legitimate objectives are, inter alia:  national security requirements;  the prevention of deceptive practices;  protection of human health or safety, animal or plant life or health, or the environment.  In assessing such risks, relevant elements of consideration are, inter alia:  available scientific and technical information, related processing technology or intended end-uses of products.

    2.3       Technical regulations shall not be maintained if the circumstances or objectives giving rise to their adoption no longer exist or if the changed circumstances or objectives can be addressed in a less trade-restrictive manner.

    2.4       Where technical regulations are required and relevant international standards exist or their completion is imminent, Members shall use them, or the relevant parts of them, as a basis for their technical regulations except when such international standards or relevant parts would be an ineffective or inappropriate means for the fulfilment of the legitimate objectives pursued, for instance because of fundamental climatic or geographical factors or fundamental technological problems.

    2.5       A Member preparing, adopting or applying a technical regulation which may have a significant effect on trade of other Members shall, upon the request of another Member, explain the justification for that technical regulation in terms of the provisions of paragraphs 2 to 4.  Whenever a technical regulation is prepared, adopted or applied for one of the legitimate objectives explicitly mentioned in paragraph 2, and is in accordance with relevant international standards, it shall be rebuttably presumed not to create an unnecessary obstacle to international trade.

    2.6       With a view to harmonizing technical regulations on as wide a basis as possible, Members shall play a full part, within the limits of their resources, in the preparation by appropriate international standardizing bodies of international standards for products for which they either have adopted, or expect to adopt, technical regulations.

    2.7       Members shall give positive consideration to accepting as equivalent technical regulations of other Members, even if these regulations differ from their own, provided they are satisfied that these regulations adequately fulfil the objectives of their own regulations.

    2.8       Wherever appropriate, Members shall specify technical regulations based on product requirements in terms of performance rather than design or descriptive characteristics.

    2.9       Whenever a relevant international standard does not exist or the technical content of a proposed technical regulation is not in accordance with the technical content of relevant international standards, and if the technical regulation may have a significant effect on trade of other Members, Members shall:

                2.9.1   publish a notice in a publication at an early appropriate stage, in such a manner as to enable interested parties in other Members to become acquainted with it, that they propose to introduce a particular technical regulation;

                2.9.2   notify other Members through the Secretariat of the products to be covered by the proposed technical regulation, together with a brief indication of its objective and rationale.  Such notifications shall take place at an early appropriate stage, when amendments can still be introduced and comments taken into account;

                2.9.3   upon request, provide to other Members particulars or copies of the proposed technical regulation and, whenever possible, identify the parts which in substance deviate from relevant international standards;

                2.9.4   without discrimination, allow reasonable time for other Members to make comments in writing, discuss these comments upon request, and take these written comments and the results of these discussions into account.

    2.10     Subject to the provisions in the lead-in to paragraph 9, where urgent problems of safety, health, environmental protection or national security arise or threaten to arise for a Member, that Member may omit such of the steps enumerated in paragraph 9 as it finds necessary, provided that the Member, upon adoption of a technical regulation, shall:

                2.10.1   notify immediately other Members through the Secretariat of the particular technical regulation and the products covered, with a brief indication of the objective and the rationale of the technical regulation, including the nature of the urgent problems;

                2.10.2   upon request, provide other Members with copies of the technical regulation;

                2.10.3   without discrimination, allow other Members to present their comments in writing, discuss these comments upon request, and take these written comments and the results of these discussions into account.

    2.11     Members shall ensure that all technical regulations which have been adopted are published promptly or otherwise made available in such a manner as to enable interested parties in other Members to become acquainted with them.

    2.12     Except in those urgent circumstances referred to in paragraph 10, Members shall allow a reasonable interval between the publication of technical regulations and their entry into force in order to allow time for producers in exporting Members, and particularly in developing country Members, to adapt their products or methods of production to the requirements of the importing Member.

    Article 3

    Preparation, Adoption and Application of Technical Regulations by Local Government Bodies and Non-Governmental Bodies

                With respect to their local government and non-governmental bodies within their territories:

    3.1       Members shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure compliance by such bodies with the provisions of Article 2, with the exception of the obligation to notify as referred to in paragraphs 9.2 and 10.1 of Article 2.

    3.2       Members shall ensure that the technical regulations of local governments on the level directly below that of the central government in Members are notified in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 9.2 and 10.1 of Article 2, noting that notification shall not be required for technical regulations the technical content of which is substantially the same as that of previously notified technical regulations of central government bodies of the Member concerned.

    3.3       Members may require contact with other Members, including the notifications, provision of information, comments and discussions referred to in paragraphs 9 and 10 of Article 2, to take place through the central government.

    3.4       Members shall not take measures which require or encourage local government bodies or non-governmental bodies within their territories to act in a manner inconsistent with the provisions of Article 2.

    3.5       Members are fully responsible under this Agreement for the observance of all provisions of Article 2.  Members shall formulate and implement positive measures and mechanisms in support of the observance of the provisions of Article 2 by other than central government bodies.

    Article 4

    Preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards

    4.1       Members shall ensure that their central government standardizing bodies accept and comply with the Code of Good Practice for the Preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards in Annex 3 to this Agreement (referred to in this Agreement as the "Code of Good Practice").  They shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure that local government and non-governmental standardizing bodies within their territories, as well as regional standardizing bodies of which they or one or more bodies within their territories are members, accept and comply with this Code of Good Practice.  In addition, Members shall not take measures which have the effect of, directly or indirectly, requiring or encouraging such standardizing bodies to act in a manner inconsistent with the Code of Good Practice.  The obligations of Members with respect to compliance of standardizing bodies with the provisions of the Code of Good Practice shall apply irrespective of whether or not a standardizing body has accepted the Code of Good Practice.

    4.2       Standardizing bodies that have accepted and are complying with the Code of Good Practice shall be acknowledged by the Members as complying with the principles of this Agreement.

    CONFORMITY WITH TECHNICAL REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS

    Article 5

    Procedures for Assessment of Conformity by Central Government Bodies

    5.1       Members shall ensure that, in cases where a positive assurance of conformity with technical regulations or standards is required, their central government bodies apply the following provisions to products originating in the territories of other Members:

                5.1.1   conformity assessment procedures are prepared, adopted and applied so as to grant access for suppliers of like products originating in the territories of other Members under conditions no less favourable than those accorded to suppliers of like products of national origin or originating in any other country, in a comparable situation; access entails suppliers' right to an assessment of conformity under the rules of the procedure, including, when foreseen by this procedure, the possibility to have conformity assessment activities undertaken at the site of facilities and to receive the mark of the system;

                5.1.2   conformity assessment procedures are not prepared, adopted or applied with a view to or with the effect of creating unnecessary obstacles to international trade.  This means, inter alia, that conformity assessment procedures shall not be more strict or be applied more strictly than is necessary to give the importing Member adequate confidence that products conform with the applicable technical regulations or standards, taking account of the risks non-conformity would create.

    5.2       When implementing the provisions of paragraph 1, Members shall ensure that:

                5.2.1   conformity assessment procedures are undertaken and completed as expeditiously as possible and in a no less favourable order for products originating in the territories of other Members than for like domestic products;

                5.2.2   the standard processing period of each conformity assessment procedure is published or that the anticipated processing period is communicated to the applicant upon request;  when receiving an application, the competent body promptly examines the completeness of the documentation and informs the applicant in a precise and complete manner of all deficiencies;  the competent body transmits as soon as possible the results of the assessment in a precise and complete manner to the applicant so that corrective action may be taken if necessary;  even when the application has deficiencies, the competent body proceeds as far as practicable with the conformity assessment if the applicant so requests;  and that, upon request, the applicant is informed of the stage of the procedure, with any delay being explained;

                5.2.3   information requirements are limited to what is necessary to assess conformity and determine fees;

                5.2.4   the confidentiality of information about products originating in the territories of other Members arising from or supplied in connection with such conformity assessment procedures is respected in the same way as for domestic products and in such a manner that legitimate commercial interests are protected;

                5.2.5   any fees imposed for assessing the conformity of products originating in the territories of other Members are equitable in relation to any fees chargeable for assessing the conformity of like products of national origin or originating in any other country, taking into account communication, transportation and other costs arising from differences between location of facilities of the applicant and the conformity assessment body;

                5.2.6   the siting of facilities used in conformity assessment procedures and the selection of samples are not such as to cause unnecessary inconvenience to applicants or their agents;

                5.2.7   whenever specifications of a product are changed subsequent to the determination of its conformity to the applicable technical regulations or standards, the conformity assessment procedure for the modified product is limited to what is necessary to determine whether adequate confidence exists that the product still meets the technical regulations or standards concerned;

                5.2.8   a procedure exists to review complaints concerning the operation of a conformity assessment procedure and to take corrective action when a complaint is justified.

    5.3       Nothing in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall prevent Members from carrying out reasonable spot checks within their territories.

    5.4       In cases where a positive assurance is required that products conform with technical regulations or standards, and relevant guides or recommendations issued by international standardizing bodies exist or their completion is imminent,  Members shall ensure that central government bodies use them, or the relevant parts of them, as a basis for their conformity assessment procedures, except where, as duly explained upon request, such guides or recommendations or relevant parts are inappropriate for the Members concerned, for, inter alia, such reasons as:  national security requirements;  the prevention of deceptive practices;  protection of human health or safety, animal or plant life or health, or the environment;  fundamental climatic or other geographical factors;  fundamental technological or infrastructural problems.

    5.5       With a view to harmonizing conformity assessment procedures on as wide a basis as possible, Members shall play a full part, within the limits of their resources, in the preparation by appropriate international standardizing bodies of guides and recommendations for conformity assessment procedures.

    5.6       Whenever a relevant guide or recommendation issued by an international standardizing body does not exist or the technical content of a proposed conformity assessment procedure is not in accordance with relevant guides and recommendations issued by international standardizing bodies, and if the conformity assessment procedure may have a significant effect on trade of other Members, Members shall:

                5.6.1   publish a notice in a publication at an early appropriate stage, in such a manner as to enable interested parties in other Members to become acquainted with it, that they propose to introduce a particular conformity assessment procedure;

                5.6.2   notify other Members through the Secretariat of the products to be covered by the proposed conformity assessment procedure, together with a brief indication of its objective and rationale.  Such notifications shall take place at an early appropriate stage, when amendments can still be introduced and comments taken into account;

                5.6.3   upon request, provide to other Members particulars or copies of the proposed procedure and, whenever possible, identify the parts which in substance deviate from relevant guides or recommendations issued by international standardizing bodies;

                5.6.4   without discrimination, allow reasonable time for other Members to make comments in writing, discuss these comments upon request, and take these written comments and the results of these discussions into account.

    5.7       Subject to the provisions in the lead-in to paragraph 6, where urgent problems of safety, health, environmental protection or national security arise or threaten to arise for a Member, that Member may omit such of the steps enumerated in paragraph 6 as it finds necessary, provided that the Member, upon adoption of the procedure, shall:

                5.7.1   notify immediately other Members through the Secretariat of the particular procedure and the products covered, with a brief indication of the objective and the rationale of the procedure, including the nature of the urgent problems;

                5.7.2   upon request, provide other Members with copies of the rules of the procedure;

                5.7.3   without discrimination, allow other Members to present their comments in writing, discuss these comments upon request, and take these written comments and the results of these discussions into account.

    5.8       Members shall ensure that all conformity assessment procedures which have been adopted are published promptly or otherwise made available in such a manner as to enable interested parties in other Members to become acquainted with them.

    5.9       Except in those urgent circumstances referred to in paragraph 7, Members shall allow a reasonable interval between the publication of requirements concerning conformity assessment procedures and their entry into force in order to allow time for producers in exporting Members, and particularly in developing country Members, to adapt their products or methods of production to the requirements of the importing Member.

    Article 6

    Recognition of Conformity Assessment by Central Government Bodies

                With respect to their central government bodies:

    6.1       Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4, Members shall ensure, whenever possible, that results of conformity assessment procedures in other Members are accepted, even when those procedures differ from their own, provided they are satisfied that those procedures offer an assurance of conformity with applicable technical regulations or standards equivalent to their own procedures.  It is recognized that prior consultations may be necessary in order to arrive at a mutually satisfactory understanding regarding, in particular:

                6.1.1   adequate and enduring technical competence of the relevant conformity assessment bodies in the exporting Member, so that confidence in the continued reliability of their conformity assessment results can exist;  in this regard, verified compliance, for instance through accreditation, with relevant guides or recommendations issued by international standardizing bodies shall be taken into account as an indication of adequate technical competence;

                6.1.2   limitation of the acceptance of conformity assessment results to those produced by designated bodies in the exporting Member.

    6.2       Members shall ensure that their conformity assessment procedures permit, as far as practicable, the implementation of the provisions in paragraph 1.

    6.3       Members are encouraged, at the request of other Members, to be willing to enter into negotiations for the conclusion of agreements for the mutual recognition of results of each other's conformity assessment procedures.  Members may require that such agreements fulfil the criteria of paragraph 1 and give mutual satisfaction regarding their potential for facilitating trade in the products concerned.

    6.4       Members are encouraged to permit participation of conformity assessment bodies located in the territories of other Members in their conformity assessment procedures under conditions no less favourable than those accorded to bodies located within their territory or the territory of any other country.

    Article 7

    Procedures for Assessment of Conformity by Local Government Bodies

                With respect to their local government bodies within their territories:

    7.1       Members shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure compliance by such bodies with the provisions of Articles 5 and 6, with the exception of the obligation to notify as referred to in paragraphs 6.2 and 7.1 of Article 5.

    7.2       Members shall ensure that the conformity assessment procedures of local governments on the level directly below that of the central government in Members are notified in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 6.2 and 7.1 of Article 5, noting that notifications shall not be required for conformity assessment procedures the technical content of which is substantially the same as that of previously notified conformity assessment procedures of central government bodies of the Members concerned.

    7.3       Members may require contact with other Members, including the notifications, provision of information, comments and discussions referred to in paragraphs 6 and 7 of Article 5, to take place through the central government.

    7.4       Members shall not take measures which require or encourage local government bodies within their territories to act in a manner inconsistent with the provisions of Articles 5 and 6.

    7.5       Members are fully responsible under this Agreement for the observance of all provisions of Articles 5 and 6.  Members shall formulate and implement positive measures and mechanisms in support of the observance of the provisions of Articles 5 and 6 by other than central government bodies.

    Article 8

    Procedures for Assessment of Conformity by Non-Governmental Bodies

    8.1       Members shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure that non-governmental bodies within their territories which operate conformity assessment procedures comply with the provisions of Articles 5 and 6, with the exception of the obligation to notify proposed conformity assessment procedures.  In addition, Members shall not take measures which have the effect of, directly or indirectly, requiring or encouraging such bodies to act in a manner inconsistent with the provisions of Articles 5 and 6.

    8.2       Members shall ensure that their central government bodies rely on conformity assessment procedures operated by non-governmental bodies only if these latter bodies comply with the provisions of Articles 5 and 6, with the exception of the obligation to notify proposed conformity assessment procedures.

    Article 9

    International and Regional Systems

    9.1       Where a positive assurance of conformity with a technical regulation or standard is required, Members shall, wherever practicable, formulate and adopt international systems for conformity assessment and become members thereof or participate therein.

    9.2       Members shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure that international and regional systems for conformity assessment in which relevant bodies within their territories are members or participants comply with the provisions of Articles 5 and 6.  In addition, Members shall not take any measures which have the effect of, directly or indirectly, requiring or encouraging such systems to act in a manner inconsistent with any of the provisions of Articles 5 and 6.

    9.3       Members shall ensure that their central government bodies rely on international or regional conformity assessment systems only to the extent that these systems comply with the provisions of Articles 5 and 6, as applicable.

    INFORMATION AND ASSISTANCE

    Article 10

    Information About Technical Regulations, Standards and Conformity Assessment Procedures

    10.1     Each Member shall ensure that an enquiry point exists which is able to answer all reasonable enquiries from other Members and interested parties in other Members as well as to provide the relevant documents regarding:

                10.1.1   any technical regulations adopted or proposed within its territory by central or local government bodies, by non-governmental bodies which have legal power to enforce a technical regulation, or by regional standardizing bodies of which such bodies are members or participants;

                10.1.2   any standards adopted or proposed within its territory by central or local government bodies, or by regional standardizing bodies of which such bodies are members or participants;

                10.1.3   any conformity assessment procedures, or proposed conformity assessment procedures, which are operated within its territory by central or local government bodies, or by non-governmental bodies which have legal power to enforce a technical regulation, or by regional bodies of which such bodies are members or participants;

                10.1.4   the membership and participation of the Member, or of relevant central or local government bodies within its territory, in international and regional standardizing bodies and conformity assessment systems, as well as in bilateral and multilateral arrangements within the scope of this Agreement; it shall also be able to provide reasonable information on the provisions of such systems and arrangements;

                10.1.5   the location of notices published pursuant to this Agreement, or the provision of information as to where such information can be obtained;  and

                10.1.6   the location of the enquiry points mentioned in paragraph 3.

    10.2     If, however, for legal or administrative reasons more than one enquiry point is established by a Member, that Member shall provide to the other Members complete and unambiguous information on the scope of responsibility of each of these enquiry points.  In addition, that Member shall ensure that any enquiries addressed to an incorrect enquiry point shall promptly be conveyed to the correct enquiry point.

    10.3     Each Member shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to it to ensure that one or more enquiry points exist which are able to answer all reasonable enquiries from other Members and interested parties in other Members as well as to provide the relevant documents or information as to where they can be obtained regarding:

                10.3.1   any standards adopted or proposed within its territory by non-governmental standardizing bodies, or by regional standardizing bodies of which such bodies are members or participants; and

                10.3.2   any conformity assessment procedures, or proposed conformity assessment procedures, which are operated within its territory by non-governmental bodies, or by regional bodies of which such bodies are members or participants;

                10.3.3   the membership and participation of relevant non-governmental bodies within its territory in international and regional standardizing bodies and conformity assessment systems, as well as in bilateral and multilateral arrangements within the scope of this Agreement; they shall also be able to provide reasonable information on the provisions of such systems and arrangements.

    10.4     Members shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure that where copies of documents are requested by other Members or by interested parties in other Members, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, they are supplied at an equitable price (if any) which shall, apart from the real cost of delivery, be the same for the nationals[27] of the Member concerned or of any other Member.

    10.5     Developed country Members shall, if requested by other Members, provide, in English, French or Spanish, translations of the documents covered by a specific notification or, in case of voluminous documents, of summaries of such documents.

    10.6     The Secretariat shall, when it receives notifications in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, circulate copies of the notifications to all Members and interested international standardizing and conformity assessment bodies, and draw the attention of developing country Members to any notifications relating to products of particular interest to them.

    10.7     Whenever a Member has reached an agreement with any other country or countries on issues related to technical regulations, standards or conformity assessment procedures which may have a significant effect on trade, at least one Member party to the agreement shall notify other Members through the Secretariat of the products to be covered by the agreement and include a brief description of the agreement.  Members concerned are encouraged to enter, upon request, into consultations with other Members for the purposes of concluding similar agreements or of arranging for their participation in such agreements.

    10.8     Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring:

                10.8.1   the publication of texts other than in the language of the Member;

                10.8.2   the provision of particulars or copies of drafts other than in the language of the Member except as stated in paragraph 5; or

                10.8.3   Members to furnish any information, the disclosure of which they consider contrary to their essential security interests.

    10.9     Notifications to the Secretariat shall be in English, French or Spanish.

    10.10   Members shall designate a single central government authority that is responsible for the implementation on the national level of the provisions concerning notification procedures under this Agreement except those included in Annex 3.

    10.11   If, however, for legal or administrative reasons the responsibility for notification procedures is divided among two or more central government authorities, the Member concerned shall provide to the other Members complete and unambiguous information on the scope of responsibility of each of these authorities.

    Article 11

    Technical Assistance to Other Members

    11.1     Members shall, if requested, advise other Members, especially the developing country Members, on the preparation of technical regulations.

    11.2     Members shall, if requested, advise other Members, especially the developing country Members, and shall grant them technical assistance on mutually agreed terms and conditions regarding the establishment of national standardizing bodies, and participation in the international standardizing bodies, and shall encourage their national standardizing bodies to do likewise.

    11.3     Members shall, if requested, take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to arrange for the regulatory bodies within their territories to advise other Members, especially the developing country Members, and shall grant them technical assistance on mutually agreed terms and conditions regarding:

                11.3.1   the establishment of regulatory bodies, or bodies for the assessment of conformity with technical regulations; and

                11.3.2   the methods by which their technical regulations can best be met.

    11.4     Members shall, if requested, take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to arrange for advice to be given to other Members, especially the developing country Members, and shall grant them technical assistance on mutually agreed terms and conditions regarding the establishment of bodies for the assessment of conformity with standards adopted within the territory of the requesting Member.

    11.5     Members shall, if requested, advise other Members, especially the developing country Members, and shall grant them technical assistance on mutually agreed terms and conditions regarding the steps that should be taken by their producers if they wish to have access to systems for conformity assessment operated by governmental or non-governmental bodies within the territory of the Member receiving the request.

    11.6     Members which are members or participants of international or regional systems for conformity assessment shall, if requested, advise other Members, especially the developing country Members, and shall grant them technical assistance on mutually agreed terms and conditions regarding the establishment of the institutions and legal framework which would enable them to fulfil the obligations of membership or participation in such systems.

    11.7     Members shall, if so requested, encourage bodies within their territories which are members or participants of international or regional systems for conformity assessment to advise other Members, especially the developing country Members, and should consider requests for technical assistance from them regarding the establishment of the institutions which would enable the relevant bodies within their territories to fulfil the obligations of membership or participation.

    11.8     In providing advice and technical assistance to other Members in terms of paragraphs 1 to 7, Members shall give priority to the needs of the least-developed country Members.

    Article 12

    Special and Differential Treatment of Developing Country Members

    12.1     Members shall provide differential and more favourable treatment to developing country Members to this Agreement, through the following provisions as well as through the relevant provisions of other Articles of this Agreement.

    12.2     Members shall give particular attention to the provisions of this Agreement concerning developing country Members' rights and obligations and shall take into account the special development, financial and trade needs of developing country Members in the implementation of this Agreement, both nationally and in the operation of this Agreement's institutional arrangements.

    12.3     Members shall, in the preparation and application of technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures, take account of the special development, financial and trade needs of developing country Members, with a view to ensuring that such technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures do not create unnecessary obstacles to exports from developing country Members.

    12.4     Members recognize that, although international standards, guides or recommendations may exist, in their particular technological and socio-economic conditions, developing country Members adopt certain technical regulations, standards or conformity assessment procedures aimed at preserving indigenous technology and production methods and processes compatible with their development needs.  Members therefore recognize that developing country Members should not be expected to use international standards as a basis for their technical regulations or standards, including test methods, which are not appropriate to their development, financial and trade needs.

    12.5     Members shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure that international standardizing bodies and international systems for conformity assessment are organized and operated in a way which facilitates active and representative participation of relevant bodies in all Members, taking into account the special problems of developing country Members.

    12.6     Members shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure that international standardizing bodies, upon request of developing country Members, examine the possibility of, and, if practicable, prepare international standards concerning products of special interest to developing country Members.

    12.7     Members shall, in accordance with the provisions of Article 11, provide technical assistance to developing country Members to ensure that the preparation and application of technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures do not create unnecessary obstacles to the expansion and diversification of exports from developing country Members.  In determining the terms and conditions of the technical assistance, account shall be taken of the stage of development of the requesting Members and in particular of the least-developed country Members.

    12.8     It is recognized that developing country Members may face special problems, including institutional and infrastructural problems, in the field of preparation and application of technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures. It is further recognized that the special development and trade needs of developing country Members, as well as their stage of technological development, may hinder their ability to discharge fully their obligations under this Agreement.  Members, therefore, shall take this fact fully into account.  Accordingly, with a view to ensuring that developing country Members are able to comply with this Agreement, the Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade provided for in Article 13 (referred to in this Agreement as the "Committee") is enabled to grant, upon request, specified, time-limited exceptions in whole or in part from obligations under this Agreement.  When considering such requests the Committee shall take into account the special problems, in the field of preparation and application of technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures, and the special development and trade needs of the developing country Member, as well as its stage of technological development, which may hinder its ability to discharge fully its obligations under this Agreement.  The Committee shall, in particular, take into account the special problems of the least-developed country Members.

    12.9     During consultations, developed country Members shall bear in mind the special difficulties experienced by developing country Members in formulating and implementing standards and technical regulations and conformity assessment procedures, and in their desire to assist developing country Members with their efforts in this direction, developed country Members shall take account of the special needs of the former in regard to financing, trade and development.

    12.10  The Committee shall examine periodically the special and differential treatment, as laid down in this Agreement, granted to developing country Members on national and international levels.

    INSTITUTIONS, CONSULTATION AND DISPUTE SETTLEMENT

    Article 13

    The Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade

    13.1     A Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade is hereby established, and shall be composed of representatives from each of the Members.  The Committee shall elect its own Chairman and shall meet as necessary, but no less than once a year, for the purpose of affording Members the opportunity of consulting on any matters relating to the operation of this Agreement or the furtherance of its objectives, and shall carry out such responsibilities as assigned to it under this Agreement or by the Members.

    13.2     The Committee shall establish working parties or other bodies as may be appropriate, which shall carry out such responsibilities as may be assigned to them by the Committee in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Agreement.

    13.3     It is understood that unnecessary duplication should be avoided between the work under this Agreement and that of governments in other technical bodies.  The Committee shall examine this problem with a view to minimizing such duplication.

    Article 14

    Consultation and Dispute Settlement

    14.1     Consultations and the settlement of disputes with respect to any matter affecting the operation of this Agreement shall take place under the auspices of the Dispute Settlement Body and shall follow, mutatis mutandis, the provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994, as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding.

    14.2     At the request of a party to a dispute, or at its own initiative, a panel may establish a technical expert group to assist in questions of a technical nature, requiring detailed consideration by experts.

    14.3     Technical expert groups shall be governed by the procedures of Annex 2.

    14.4     The dispute settlement provisions set out above can be invoked in cases where a Member considers that another Member has not achieved satisfactory results under Articles 3, 4, 7, 8 and 9 and its trade interests are significantly affected.  In this respect, such results shall be equivalent to those as if the body in question were a Member.

    FINAL PROVISIONS

    Article 15

    Final Provisions

    Reservations

    15.1     Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the other Members.

    Review

    15.2     Each Member shall, promptly after the date on which the WTO Agreement enters into force for it, inform the Committee of measures in existence or taken to ensure the implementation and administration of this Agreement.  Any changes of such measures thereafter shall also be notified to the Committee.

    15.3     The Committee shall review annually the implementation and operation of this Agreement taking into account the objectives thereof.

    15.4     Not later than the end of the third year from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement and at the end of each three-year period thereafter, the Committee shall review the operation and implementation of this Agreement, including the provisions relating to transparency, with a view to recommending an adjustment of the rights and obligations of this Agreement where necessary to ensure mutual economic advantage and balance of rights and obligations, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 12.  Having regard, inter alia, to the experience gained in the implementation of the Agreement, the Committee shall, where appropriate, submit proposals for amendments to the text of this Agreement to the Council for Trade in Goods.

    Annexes

    15.5     The annexes to this Agreement constitute an integral part thereof.

    ANNEX 1

    TERMS AND THEIR DEFINITIONS FOR THE

    PURPOSE OF THIS AGREEMENT

                The terms presented in the sixth edition of the ISO/IEC Guide 2:  1991, General Terms and Their Definitions Concerning Standardization and Related Activities, shall, when used in this Agreement, have the same meaning as given in the definitions in the said Guide taking into account that services are excluded from the coverage of this Agreement.

                For the purpose of this Agreement, however, the following definitions shall apply:

    1.         Technical regulation

                Document which lays down product characteristics or their related processes and production methods, including the applicable administrative provisions, with which compliance is mandatory.  It may also include or deal exclusively with terminology, symbols, packaging, marking or labelling requirements as they apply to a product, process or production method.

                Explanatory note

    The definition in ISO/IEC Guide 2 is not self-contained, but based on the so-called "building block" system.

    2.         Standard

                Document approved by a recognized body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for products or related processes and production methods, with which compliance is not mandatory.  It may also include or deal exclusively with terminology, symbols, packaging, marking or labelling requirements as they apply to a product, process or production method.

                Explanatory note

    The terms as defined in ISO/IEC Guide 2 cover products, processes and services.  This Agreement deals only with technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures related to products or processes and production methods.  Standards as defined by ISO/IEC Guide 2 may be mandatory or voluntary.  For the purpose of this Agreement standards are defined as voluntary and technical regulations as mandatory documents.  Standards prepared by the international standardization community are based on consensus. This Agreement covers also documents that are not based on consensus.

    3.         Conformity assessment procedures

                Any procedure used, directly or indirectly, to determine that relevant requirements in technical regulations or standards are fulfilled.

    Explanatory note

    Conformity assessment procedures include, inter alia, procedures for sampling, testing and inspection;  evaluation, verification and assurance of conformity;  registration, accreditation and approval as well as their combinations.

    4.         International body or system

                Body or system whose membership is open to the relevant bodies of at least all Members.

    5.         Regional body or system

                Body or system whose membership is open to the relevant bodies of only some of the Members.

    6.         Central government body

                Central government, its ministries and departments or any body subject to the control of the central government in respect of the activity in question.

    Explanatory note:

    In the case of the European Communities the provisions governing central government bodies apply.  However, regional bodies or conformity assessment systems may be established within the European Communities, and in such cases would be subject to the provisions of this Agreement on regional bodies or conformity assessment systems.

    7.         Local government body

                Government other than a central government (e.g. states, provinces, Länder, cantons, municipalities, etc.), its ministries or departments or any body subject to the control of such a government in respect of the activity in question.

    8.         Non-governmental body

                Body other than a central government body or a local government body, including a non-governmental body which has legal power to enforce a technical regulation.

    ANNEX 2

    TECHNICAL EXPERT GROUPS

                The following procedures shall apply to technical expert groups established in accordance with the provisions of Article 14.

    1.         Technical expert groups are under the panel's authority.  Their terms of reference and detailed working procedures shall be decided by the panel, and they shall report to the panel.

    2.         Participation in technical expert groups shall be restricted to persons of professional standing and experience in the field in question.

    3.         Citizens of parties to the dispute shall not serve on a technical expert group without the joint agreement of the parties to the dispute, except in exceptional circumstances when the panel considers that the need for specialized scientific expertise cannot be fulfilled otherwise. Government officials of parties to the dispute shall not serve on a technical expert group.  Members of technical expert groups shall serve in their individual capacities and not as government representatives, nor as representatives of any organization.  Governments or organizations shall therefore not give them instructions with regard to matters before a technical expert group.

    4.         Technical expert groups may consult and seek information and technical advice from any source they deem appropriate.  Before a technical expert group seeks such information or advice from a source within the jurisdiction of a Member, it shall inform the government of that Member.  Any Member shall respond promptly and fully to any request by a technical expert group for such information as the technical expert group considers necessary and appropriate.

    5.         The parties to a dispute shall have access to all relevant information provided to a technical expert group, unless it is of a confidential nature.  Confidential information provided to the technical expert group shall not be released without formal authorization from the government, organization or person providing the information.  Where such information is requested from the technical expert group but release of such information by the technical expert group is not authorized, a non-confidential summary of the information will be provided by the government, organization or person supplying the information.

    6.         The technical expert group shall submit a draft report to the Members concerned with a view to obtaining their comments, and taking them into account, as appropriate, in the final report, which shall also be circulated to the Members concerned when it is submitted to the panel.

    ANNEX 3

    CODE OF GOOD PRACTICE FOR THE PREPARATION, ADOPTION AND APPLICATION OF STANDARDS

    General Provisions

    A.        For the purposes of this Code the definitions in Annex 1 of this Agreement shall apply.

    B.         This Code is open to acceptance by any standardizing body within the territory of a Member of the WTO, whether a central government body, a local government body, or a non-governmental body; to any governmental regional standardizing body one or more members of which are Members of the WTO; and to any non-governmental regional standardizing body one or more members of which are situated within the territory of a Member of the WTO (referred to in this Code collectively as "standardizing bodies" and individually as "the standardizing body").

    C.         Standardizing bodies that have accepted or withdrawn from this Code shall notify this fact to the ISO/IEC Information Centre in Geneva.  The notification shall include the name and address of the body concerned and the scope of its current and expected standardization activities.  The notification may be sent either directly to the ISO/IEC Information Centre, or through the national member body of ISO/IEC or, preferably, through the relevant national member or international affiliate of ISONET, as appropriate.

    SUBSTANTIVE PROVISIONS

    D.        In respect of standards, the standardizing body shall accord treatment to products originating in the territory of any other Member of the WTO no less favourable than that accorded to like products of national origin and to like products originating in any other country.

    E.         The standardizing body shall ensure that standards are not prepared, adopted or applied with a view to, or with the effect of, creating unnecessary obstacles to international trade.

    F.         Where international standards exist or their completion is imminent, the standardizing body shall use them, or the relevant parts of them, as a basis for the standards it develops, except where such international standards or relevant parts would be ineffective or inappropriate, for instance, because of an insufficient level of protection or fundamental climatic or geographical factors or fundamental technological problems.

    G.        With a view to harmonizing standards on as wide a basis as possible, the standardizing body shall, in an appropriate way, play a full part, within the limits of its resources, in the preparation by relevant international standardizing bodies of international standards regarding subject matter for which it either has adopted, or expects to adopt, standards.  For standardizing bodies within the territory of a Member, participation in a particular international standardization activity shall, whenever possible, take place through one delegation representing all standardizing bodies in the territory that have adopted, or expect to adopt, standards for the subject matter to which the international standardization activity relates.

    H.        The standardizing body within the territory of a Member shall make every effort to avoid duplication of, or overlap with, the work of other standardizing bodies in the national territory or with the work of relevant international or regional standardizing bodies.  They shall also make every effort to achieve a national consensus on the standards they develop.  Likewise the regional standardizing body shall make every effort to avoid duplication of, or overlap with, the work of relevant international standardizing bodies.

    I.          Wherever appropriate, the standardizing body shall specify standards based on product requirements in terms of performance rather than design or descriptive characteristics.

    J.          At least once every six months, the standardizing body shall publish a work programme containing its name and address, the standards it is currently preparing and the standards which it has adopted in the preceding period.  A standard is under preparation from the moment a decision has been taken to develop a standard until that standard has been adopted.  The titles of specific draft standards shall, upon request, be provided in English, French or Spanish.  A notice of the existence of the work programme shall be published in a national or, as the case may be, regional publication of standardization activities.

                The work programme shall for each standard indicate, in accordance with any ISONET rules, the classification relevant to the subject matter, the stage attained in the standard's development, and the references of any international standards taken as a basis.  No later than at the time of publication of its work programme, the standardizing body shall notify the existence thereof to the ISO/IEC Information Centre in Geneva.

                The notification shall contain the name and address of the standardizing body, the name and issue of the publication in which the work programme is published, the period to which the work programme applies, its price (if any), and how and where it can be obtained.  The notification may be sent directly to the ISO/IEC Information Centre, or, preferably, through the relevant national member or international affiliate of ISONET, as appropriate.

    K.        The national member of ISO/IEC shall make every effort to become a member of ISONET or to appoint another body to become a member as well as to acquire the most advanced membership type possible for the ISONET member. Other standardizing bodies shall make every effort to associate themselves with the ISONET member.

    L.         Before adopting a standard, the standardizing body shall allow a period of at least 60 days for the submission of comments on the draft standard by interested parties within the territory of a Member of the WTO.  This period may, however, be shortened in cases where urgent problems of safety, health or environment arise or threaten to arise.  No later than at the start of the comment period, the standardizing body shall publish a notice announcing the period for commenting in the publication referred to in paragraph J.  Such notification shall include, as far as practicable, whether the draft standard deviates from relevant international standards.

    M.        On the request of any interested party within the territory of a Member of the WTO, the standardizing body shall promptly provide, or arrange to provide, a copy of a draft standard which it has submitted for comments.  Any fees charged for this service shall, apart from the real cost of delivery, be the same for foreign and domestic parties.

    N.        The standardizing body shall take into account, in the further processing of the standard, the comments received during the period for commenting.  Comments received through standardizing bodies that have accepted this Code of Good Practice shall, if so requested, be replied to as promptly as possible.  The reply shall include an explanation why a deviation from relevant international standards is necessary.

    O.        Once the standard has been adopted, it shall be promptly published.

    P.         On the request of any interested party within the territory of a Member of the WTO, the standardizing body shall promptly provide, or arrange to provide, a copy of its most recent work programme or of a standard which it produced.  Any fees charged for this service shall, apart from the real cost of delivery, be the same for foreign and domestic parties.

    Q.        The standardizing body shall afford sympathetic consideration to, and adequate opportunity for, consultation regarding representations with respect to the operation of this Code presented by standardizing bodies that have accepted this Code of Good Practice.  It shall make an objective effort to solve any complaints.

    AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED INVESTMENT MEASURES

    Members,

                Considering that Ministers agreed in the Punta del Este Declaration that "Following an examination of the operation of GATT Articles related to the trade restrictive and distorting effects of investment measures, negotiations should elaborate, as appropriate, further provisions that may be necessary to avoid such adverse effects on trade";

                Desiring to promote the expansion and progressive liberalisation of world trade and to facilitate investment across international frontiers so as to increase the economic growth of all trading partners, particularly developing country Members, while ensuring free competition;

                Taking into account the particular trade, development and financial needs of developing country Members, particularly those of the least-developed country Members;

                Recognizing that certain investment measures can cause trade-restrictive and distorting effects;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    Article 1

    Coverage

                This Agreement applies to investment measures related to trade in goods only (referred to in this Agreement as "TRIMs").

    Article 2

    National Treatment and Quantitative Restrictions

    1.         Without prejudice to other rights and obligations under GATT 1994, no Member shall apply any TRIM that is inconsistent with the provisions of Article III or Article XI of GATT 1994.

    2.         An illustrative list of TRIMs that are inconsistent with the obligation of national treatment provided for in paragraph 4 of Article III of GATT 1994 and the obligation of general elimination of quantitative restrictions provided for in paragraph 1 of Article XI of GATT 1994 is contained in the Annex to this Agreement.

    Article 3

    Exceptions

                All exceptions under GATT 1994 shall apply, as appropriate, to the provisions of this Agreement.

    Article 4

    Developing Country Members

                A developing country Member shall be free to deviate temporarily from the provisions of Article 2 to the extent and in such a manner as Article XVIII of GATT 1994, the Understanding on the Balance-of-Payments Provisions of GATT 1994, and the Declaration on Trade Measures Taken for Balance-of-Payments Purposes adopted on 28 November 1979 (BISD 26S/205-209) permit the Member to deviate from the provisions of Articles III and XI of GATT 1994.

    Article 5 

    Notification and Transitional Arrangements

    1.         Members, within 90 days of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, shall notify the Council for Trade in Goods of all TRIMs they are applying that are not in conformity with the provisions of this Agreement.  Such TRIMs of general or specific application shall be notified, along with their principal features.[28]

    2.         Each Member shall eliminate all TRIMs which are notified under paragraph 1 within two years of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement in the case of a developed country Member, within five years in the case of a developing country Member, and within seven years in the case of a least-developed country Member. 

    3.         On request, the Council for Trade in Goods may extend the transition period for the elimination of TRIMs notified under paragraph 1 for a developing country Member, including a least-developed country Member, which demonstrates particular difficulties in implementing the provisions of this Agreement.  In considering such a request, the Council for Trade in Goods shall take into account the individual development, financial and trade needs of the Member in question.

    4.         During the transition period, a Member shall not modify the terms of any TRIM which it notifies under paragraph 1 from those prevailing at the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement so as to increase the degree of inconsistency with the provisions of Article 2.  TRIMs introduced less than 180 days before the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement shall not benefit from the transitional arrangements provided in paragraph 2.

    5.         Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 2, a Member, in order not to disadvantage established enterprises which are subject to a TRIM notified under paragraph 1, may apply during the transition period the same TRIM to a new investment (i) where the products of such investment are like products to those of the established enterprises, and (ii ) where necessary to avoid distorting the conditions of competition between the new investment and the established enterprises.  Any TRIM so applied to a new investment shall be notified to the Council for Trade in Goods.  The terms of such a TRIM shall be equivalent in their competitive effect to those applicable to the established enterprises, and it shall be terminated at the same time.

    Article 6

    Transparency

    1.         Members reaffirm, with respect to TRIMs, their commitment to obligations on transparency and notification in Article X of GATT 1994, in the undertaking on "Notification" contained in the Understanding Regarding Notification, Consultation, Dispute Settlement and Surveillance adopted on 28 November 1979 and in the Ministerial Decision on Notification Procedures adopted on 15 April 1994.

    2.         Each Member shall notify the Secretariat of the publications in which TRIMs may be found, including those applied by regional and local governments and authorities within their territories.

    3.         Each Member shall accord sympathetic consideration to requests for information, and afford adequate opportunity for consultation, on any matter arising from this Agreement raised by another Member.  In conformity with Article X of GATT 1994 no Member is required to disclose information the disclosure of which would impede law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises, public or private.

    Article 7

    Committee on Trade-Related Investment Measures

    1.         A Committee on Trade-Related Investment Measures (referred to in this Agreement as the "Committee") is hereby established, and shall be open to all Members.  The Committee shall elect its own Chairman and Vice-Chairman, and shall meet not less than once a year and otherwise at the request of any Member. 

    2.         The Committee shall carry out responsibilities assigned to it by the Council for Trade in Goods and shall afford Members the opportunity to consult on any matters relating to the operation and implementation of this Agreement.

    3.         The Committee shall monitor the operation and implementation of this Agreement and shall report thereon annually to the Council for Trade in Goods. 

    Article 8

    Consultation and Dispute Settlement

                The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994, as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding, shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement.

    Article 9

    Review by the Council for Trade in Goods

                Not later than five years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, the Council for Trade in Goods shall review the operation of this Agreement and, as appropriate, propose to the Ministerial Conference amendments to its text.  In the course of this review, the Council for Trade in Goods shall consider whether the Agreement should be complemented with provisions on investment policy and competition policy.

    ANNEX

    Illustrative List

    1.         TRIMs that are inconsistent with the obligation of national treatment provided for in paragraph 4 of Article III of GATT 1994 include those which are mandatory or enforceable under domestic law or under administrative rulings, or compliance with which is necessary to obtain an advantage, and which require:

                (a)        the purchase or use by an enterprise of products of domestic origin or from any domestic source, whether specified in terms of particular products, in terms of volume or value of products, or in terms of a proportion of volume or value of its local production;  or

                (b)        that an enterprise's purchases or use of imported products be limited to an amount related to the volume or value of local products that it exports.

    2.         TRIMs that are inconsistent with the obligation of general elimination of quantitative restrictions provided for in paragraph 1 of Article XI of GATT 1994 include those which are mandatory or enforceable under domestic law or under administrative rulings, or compliance with which is necessary to obtain an advantage, and which restrict:

                (a)        the importation by an enterprise of products used in or related to its local production, generally or to an amount related to the volume or value of local production that it exports;

                (b)        the importation by an enterprise of products used in or related to its local production by restricting its access to foreign exchange to an amount related to the foreign exchange inflows attributable to the enterprise;  or

                (c)        the exportation or sale for export by an enterprise of products, whether specified in terms of particular products, in terms of volume or value of products, or in terms of a proportion of volume or value of its local production.

    AGREEMENT ON IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE VI OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994

    Members hereby agree as follows:

    PART I

    Article 1

    Principles

                An anti‑dumping measure shall be applied only under the circumstances provided for in Article VI of  GATT 1994 and pursuant to investigations initiated[29] and conducted in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.  The following provisions govern the application of Article VI of GATT 1994 in so far as action is taken under anti‑dumping legislation or regulations.

    Article 2

    Determination of Dumping

    2.1       For the purpose of this Agreement, a product is to be considered as being dumped, i.e.  introduced into the commerce of another country at less than its normal value, if the export price of the product exported from one country to another is less than the comparable price, in the ordinary course of trade, for the like product when destined for consumption in the exporting country.

    2.2       When there are no sales of the like product in the ordinary course of trade in the domestic market of the exporting country or when, because of the particular market situation or the low volume of the sales in the domestic market of the exporting country[30], such sales do not permit a proper comparison, the margin of dumping shall be determined by comparison with a comparable price of the like product when exported to an appropriate third country, provided that this price is representative, or with the cost of production in the country of origin plus a reasonable amount for administrative, selling and general costs and for profits.

                2.2.1   Sales of the like product in the domestic market of the exporting country or sales to a third country at prices below per unit (fixed and variable) costs of production plus  administrative, selling and general costs may be treated as not being in the ordinary course of trade by reason of price and may be disregarded in determining normal value only if the authorities[31] determine that such sales are made within an extended period of time[32] in substantial quantities[33] and are at prices which do not provide for the recovery of all costs within a reasonable period of time.  If prices which are below per unit costs at the time of sale are above weighted average per unit costs for the period of investigation, such prices shall be considered to provide for recovery of costs within a reasonable period of time.

                            2.2.1.1   For the purpose of paragraph 2, costs shall normally be calculated on the basis of records kept by the exporter or producer under investigation, provided that such records are in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles of the exporting country and reasonably reflect the costs associated with the production and sale of the product under consideration.  Authorities shall consider all available evidence on the proper allocation of costs, including that which is made available by the exporter or producer in the course of  the investigation provided that such allocations have been historically utilized by the exporter or  producer, in particular in relation to establishing appropriate amortization and depreciation periods and  allowances for capital expenditures and other development costs.  Unless already reflected in the cost allocations under this sub‑paragraph, costs shall be adjusted appropriately for those non‑recurring items of cost which benefit future and/or current production, or for circumstances in which costs during the period of investigation are affected by start‑up operations.[34]

                2.2.2   For the purpose of paragraph 2, the amounts for administrative, selling and general costs and for profits shall be based on actual data pertaining to production and sales in the ordinary course of trade of the like product by the exporter or producer under investigation.  When such amounts cannot be determined on this basis, the amounts may be determined on the basis of:

                            (i)   the actual amounts incurred and realized by the exporter or producer in question in respect of production and sales in the domestic market of the country of origin of the same general category of products; 

                            (ii)   the weighted average of the actual amounts incurred and realized by other exporters or producers subject to investigation in respect of production and sales of the like product in the domestic market of the country of origin; 

                            (iii)   any other reasonable method, provided that the amount for profit so established shall not exceed the profit normally realized by other exporters or producers on sales of products of the same general category in the domestic market of the country of origin.

    2.3       In cases where there is no export price or where it appears to the authorities concerned that the export price is unreliable because of association or a compensatory arrangement between the exporter and the importer or a third party, the export price may be constructed on the basis of the price at which the imported products are first resold to an independent buyer, or if the products are not resold to an independent buyer, or not resold in the condition as imported, on such reasonable basis as the authorities may determine.

    2.4       A fair comparison shall be made between the export price and the normal value.  This comparison shall be made at the same level of trade, normally at the ex‑factory level, and in respect of sales made at as nearly as possible the same time.  Due allowance shall be made in each case, on its merits, for  differences which affect price comparability, including differences in conditions and terms of sale, taxation, levels of trade, quantities, physical characteristics, and any other differences which are also demonstrated to affect price comparability.[35]  In the cases referred to in paragraph 3, allowances for costs, including duties and taxes, incurred between importation and resale, and for profits accruing, should also be made.  If in these cases price comparability has been affected, the authorities shall establish the normal value at a level of trade equivalent to the level of trade of the constructed export price, or shall make due allowance as warranted under this paragraph.  The authorities shall indicate to the parties in question what information is necessary to ensure a fair comparison and shall not impose an unreasonable burden of proof on those parties.

                2.4.1   When the comparison under paragraph 4 requires a conversion of currencies, such  conversion should be made using the rate of exchange on the date of sale[36], provided that when a sale of foreign currency on forward markets is directly linked to the export sale involved, the rate of exchange in the forward sale shall be used.  Fluctuations in exchange rates shall be ignored and in an investigation the authorities shall allow exporters at least 60 days to have adjusted their export prices to reflect sustained movements in exchange rates during the period of investigation.

                2.4.2   Subject to the provisions governing fair comparison in paragraph 4, the existence of margins of dumping during the investigation phase shall normally be established on the basis of a comparison of a weighted average normal value with a weighted average of prices of all comparable export transactions or by a comparison of normal value and export prices on a transaction‑to‑transaction basis.  A normal value established on a weighted average basis may be compared to prices of individual export transactions if the authorities find a pattern of export prices which differ significantly among different purchasers, regions or time periods, and if an explanation is provided as to why such  differences cannot be taken into account appropriately by the use of a weighted average‑to‑weighted average or transaction‑to‑transaction comparison.

    2.5       In the case where products are not imported directly from the country of origin but are exported to the importing Member from an intermediate country, the price at which the products are sold from the country of export to the importing Member shall normally be compared with the comparable price in the country of export.  However, comparison may be made with the price in the country of origin, if, for example, the products are merely transshipped through the country of export, or such products are not produced in the country of export, or there is no comparable price for them in the country of export.

    2.6       Throughout this Agreement the term "like product" ("produit similaire") shall be interpreted to mean a product which is identical, i.e. alike in all respects to the product under consideration, or in the absence of such a product, another product which, although not alike in all respects, has characteristics closely resembling those of the product under consideration.

    2.7       This Article is without prejudice to the second Supplementary Provision to paragraph 1 of Article VI in Annex I to GATT 1994.

    Article 3

    Determination of Injury[37]

    3.1       A determination of injury for purposes of Article VI of GATT 1994 shall be based on positive evidence and involve an objective examination of both (a) the volume of the dumped imports and the effect of the dumped imports on prices in the domestic market for like products, and (b) the consequent impact of these imports on domestic producers of such products.

    3.2       With regard to the volume of the dumped imports, the investigating authorities shall consider whether there has been a significant increase in dumped imports, either in absolute terms or relative to production or consumption in the importing Member.   With regard to the effect of the dumped  imports on prices, the investigating authorities shall consider whether there has been a significant price undercutting by the dumped imports as compared with the price of a like product of the importing Member, or whether the effect of such imports is otherwise to depress prices to a significant degree  or prevent price increases, which otherwise would have occurred, to a significant degree.  No one or several of these factors can necessarily give decisive guidance.

    3.3       Where imports of a product from more than one country are simultaneously subject to anti‑dumping investigations, the investigating authorities may cumulatively assess the effects of such imports only if they determine that (a) the margin of dumping established in relation to the imports from each country is more than de minimis  as defined in paragraph 8 of Article 5 and the volume of imports from each country is not negligible and (b) a cumulative assessment of the effects of the imports is appropriate in light of the conditions of competition between the imported products and the conditions of competition between the imported products and the like domestic product.

    3.4       The examination of the impact of the dumped imports on the domestic industry concerned shall include an evaluation of all relevant economic factors and indices having a bearing on the state of the industry, including actual and potential decline in sales, profits, output, market share, productivity, return on investments, or utilization of capacity;  factors affecting domestic prices;  the magnitude of the margin of dumping;  actual and potential negative effects on cash flow, inventories, employment, wages, growth, ability to raise capital or investments.  This list is not exhaustive, nor can one or several of these factors necessarily give decisive guidance.

    3.5       It must be demonstrated that the dumped imports are, through the effects of dumping, as set forth in paragraphs 2 and 4, causing injury within the meaning of this Agreement.  The demonstration of a causal relationship between the dumped imports and the injury to the domestic industry shall be based on an examination of all relevant evidence before the authorities.  The authorities shall also examine any known factors other than the dumped imports which at the same time are injuring the domestic industry, and the injuries caused by these other factors must not be attributed to the dumped imports.  Factors which may be relevant in this respect include,  inter alia, the volume and prices of imports not sold at dumping prices, contraction in demand or changes in the patterns of consumption, trade restrictive practices of and competition between the foreign and domestic producers, developments in technology and the export performance and productivity of the domestic industry.

    3.6       The effect of the dumped imports shall be assessed in relation to the domestic production of the like product when available data permit the separate identification of that production on the basis of such criteria as the production process, producers' sales and profits.  If such separate identification of that production is not possible, the effects of the dumped imports shall be assessed by the examination of the production of the narrowest group or range of products, which includes the like product, for which the necessary information can be provided.

    3.7       A determination of a threat of material injury shall be based on facts and not merely on allegation, conjecture or remote possibility.  The change in circumstances which would create a situation in which the dumping would cause injury must be clearly foreseen and imminent.[38]  In making a determination  regarding the existence of a threat of material injury, the authorities should consider, inter alia, such factors as:

                (i)         a significant rate of increase of dumped imports into the domestic market indicating the likelihood of substantially increased importation;

                (ii)        sufficient freely disposable, or an imminent, substantial increase in, capacity of the exporter indicating the likelihood of substantially increased dumped exports to the importing Member's market, taking into account the availability of other export markets to absorb any additional exports;

                (iii)       whether imports are entering at prices that will have a significant depressing or  suppressing effect on domestic prices, and would likely increase demand for further imports;  and

                (iv)       inventories of the product being investigated.

    No one of these factors by itself can necessarily give decisive guidance but the totality of the factors considered must lead to the conclusion that further dumped exports are imminent and that, unless protective action is taken, material injury would occur.

    3.8       With respect to cases where injury is threatened by dumped imports, the application of anti‑dumping measures shall be considered and decided with special care.

    Article 4

    Definition of Domestic Industry

    4.1       For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "domestic industry" shall be interpreted as referring to the domestic producers as a whole of the like products or to those of them whose collective output of the products constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of those products, except that:

                (i)         when producers are related[39] to the exporters or importers or are themselves importers of the allegedly dumped product, the term "domestic industry" may be interpreted as referring to the rest of the producers;

                (ii)        in exceptional circumstances the territory of a Member may, for the production in question, be divided into two or more competitive markets and the producers within each market may be regarded as a separate industry if (a) the producers within such market sell all or almost all of their production of the product in question in that market, and (b) the demand in that market is not to any substantial degree supplied by producers of the product in question located elsewhere in the territory.  In such circumstances, injury may be found to exist even where a major portion of the total domestic industry is not injured, provided there is a concentration of dumped imports into such an isolated market and provided further that the dumped imports are causing injury to the producers of all or almost all of the production within such market.

    4.2       When the domestic industry has been interpreted as referring to the producers in a certain area, i.e. a market as defined in paragraph 1(ii), anti‑dumping duties shall be levied[40] only on the products in question consigned for final consumption to that area.  When the constitutional law of the importing Member does not permit the levying of anti‑dumping duties on such a basis, the importing Member may levy the anti‑dumping duties without limitation only if (a) the exporters shall have been given an opportunity to cease exporting at dumped prices to the area concerned or otherwise give assurances pursuant to Article 8 and adequate assurances in this regard have not been promptly given, and (b) such duties cannot be levied only on products of specific producers which supply the area in question.

    4.3       Where two or more countries have reached under the provisions of paragraph 8(a) of Article XXIV of GATT 1994 such a level of integration that they have the characteristics of a single, unified market, the industry in the entire area of integration shall be taken to be the domestic industry referred to in paragraph 1.

    4.4       The provisions of paragraph 6 of Article 3 shall be applicable to this Article.

    Article 5

    Initiation and Subsequent Investigation

    5.1       Except as provided for in paragraph 6, an investigation to determine the existence, degree and effect of any alleged dumping shall be initiated upon a written application by or on behalf of the domestic industry.

    5.2       An application under paragraph 1 shall include evidence of (a) dumping, (b) injury within the meaning of Article VI of GATT 1994 as interpreted by this Agreement and (c) a causal link between the dumped imports and the alleged injury.  Simple assertion, unsubstantiated by relevant evidence, cannot be considered sufficient to meet the requirements of this paragraph.  The application shall contain such information as is reasonably available to the applicant on the following:

                (i)         the identity of the applicant and a description of the volume and value of the domestic production of the like product by the applicant.  Where a written application is made on behalf of the domestic industry, the application shall identify the industry on behalf of which the application is made by a list of all known domestic producers of the like product (or associations of domestic producers of the like product) and, to the extent possible, a description of the volume and value of domestic production of the like product accounted for by such producers;

                (ii)        a complete description of the allegedly dumped product, the names of the country or countries of origin or export in question, the identity of each known exporter or foreign producer and a list of known persons importing the product in question;

                (iii)       information on prices at which the product in question is sold when destined for consumption in the domestic markets of the country or countries of origin or export (or, where appropriate, information on the prices at which the product is sold from the country or countries of origin or export to a third country or countries, or on the constructed value of the product) and information on export prices or, where appropriate, on the prices at which the product is first resold to an independent buyer in the territory of the importing Member;

                (iv)       information on the evolution of the volume of the allegedly dumped imports, the effect of these imports on prices of the like product in the domestic market and the consequent impact of the imports on the domestic industry, as demonstrated by relevant factors and indices having a bearing on the state of the domestic industry, such as those listed in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 3.

    5.3       The authorities shall examine the accuracy and adequacy of the evidence provided in the application to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to justify the initiation of an investigation.

    5.4       An investigation shall not be initiated pursuant to paragraph 1 unless the authorities have determined, on the basis of an examination of the degree of support for, or opposition to, the application expressed[41] by domestic producers of the like product, that the application has been made by or on behalf of the domestic industry.[42]    The application shall be considered to have been made "by or on behalf of the domestic industry" if it is supported by those domestic producers whose collective output constitutes more than 50 per cent of the total production of the like product produced by that portion of the domestic industry expressing either support for or opposition to the application.  However, no investigation shall be initiated when domestic producers expressly supporting the application account for less than 25 per cent of total production of the like product produced by the domestic industry.

    5.5       The authorities shall avoid, unless a decision has been made to initiate an investigation, any publicizing of the application for the initiation of an investigation.   However, after receipt of a properly documented application and before proceeding to initiate an investigation, the authorities shall notify the government of the exporting Member concerned.

    5.6       If, in special circumstances, the authorities concerned decide to initiate an investigation without having received a written application by or on behalf of a domestic industry for the initiation of such investigation, they shall proceed only if they have sufficient evidence of dumping, injury and a causal link, as described in paragraph 2, to justify the initiation of an investigation.

    5.7       The evidence of both dumping and injury shall be considered simultaneously (a) in the decision whether or not to initiate an investigation, and (b) thereafter, during the course of the investigation, starting on a date not later than the earliest date on which in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement provisional measures may be applied.

    5.8       An application under paragraph 1 shall be rejected and an investigation shall be terminated promptly as soon as the authorities concerned are satisfied that there is not sufficient evidence of either dumping or of injury to justify proceeding with the case.  There shall be immediate termination in cases where the authorities determine that the margin of dumping is  de minimis, or that the volume of dumped imports, actual or potential, or the injury, is negligible.  The margin of dumping shall be considered to be de minimis if this margin is less than 2 per cent, expressed as a percentage of the export price.  The volume of dumped imports shall normally be regarded as negligible if the volume of dumped imports from a particular country is found to account for less than 3 per cent of imports  of the like product in the importing Member, unless countries which individually account for less than 3 per cent of the imports of the like product in the importing Member collectively account for more than 7 per cent of imports of the like product in the importing Member.

    5.9       An anti‑dumping proceeding shall not hinder the procedures of customs clearance.

    5.10     Investigations shall, except in special circumstances, be concluded within one year, and in no case more than 18 months, after their initiation.

    Article 6

    Evidence

    6.1       All interested parties in an anti‑dumping investigation shall be given notice of the information which the authorities require and ample opportunity to present in writing all evidence which they consider relevant in respect of the investigation in question. 

                6.1.1   Exporters or foreign producers receiving questionnaires used in an anti‑dumping  investigation shall be given at least 30 days for reply.[43]  Due consideration should be  given to any request for an extension of the 30‑day period and, upon cause shown, such an extension should be granted whenever practicable.

                6.1.2   Subject to the requirement to protect confidential information, evidence presented in  writing by one interested party shall be made available promptly to other interested parties participating in the investigation.

                6.1.3   As soon as an investigation has been initiated, the authorities shall provide the full text of the written application received under paragraph 1 of Article 5 to the known exporters[44] and to the authorities of the exporting Member and shall make it available, upon request, to other interested parties involved.  Due regard shall be paid to the requirement for the protection of confidential information, as provided for in paragraph 5.

    6.2       Throughout the anti‑dumping investigation all interested parties shall have a full opportunity for the defence of their interests.  To this end, the authorities shall, on request, provide opportunities for all interested parties to meet those parties with adverse interests, so that opposing views may be  presented and rebuttal arguments offered.  Provision of such opportunities must take account of the need to preserve confidentiality and of the convenience to the parties.  There shall be no obligation on any party to attend a meeting, and failure to do so shall not be prejudicial to that party's case.   Interested parties shall also have the right, on justification, to present other information orally.

    6.3       Oral information provided under paragraph 2 shall be taken into account by the authorities only in so far as it is subsequently reproduced in writing and made available to other interested parties, as provided for in subparagraph 1.2.

    6.4       The authorities shall whenever practicable provide timely opportunities for all interested parties to see all information that is relevant to the presentation of their cases, that is not confidential as defined in paragraph 5, and that is used by the authorities in an anti‑dumping investigation, and to prepare presentations on the basis of this information.

    6.5       Any information which is by nature confidential (for example, because its disclosure would be of significant competitive advantage to a competitor or because its disclosure would have a significantly adverse effect upon a person supplying the information or upon a person from whom that person acquired the information), or which is provided on a confidential basis by parties to an investigation shall, upon good cause shown, be treated as such by the authorities.  Such information shall not be disclosed without specific permission of the party submitting it.[45]

                6.5.1   The authorities shall require interested parties providing confidential information to furnish non‑confidential summaries thereof.  These summaries shall be in sufficient detail to permit a reasonable understanding of the substance of the information submitted in confidence.  In exceptional circumstances, such parties may indicate that such information is not susceptible of summary.  In such exceptional circumstances, a statement of the reasons why summarization is not possible must be provided.

                6.5.2   If the authorities find that a request for confidentiality is not warranted and if the  supplier of the information is either unwilling to make the information public or to authorize its disclosure in generalized or summary form, the authorities may disregard such information unless it can be demonstrated to their satisfaction from appropriate sources that the information is correct.[46]

    6.6       Except in circumstances provided for in paragraph 8, the authorities shall during the course of an investigation satisfy themselves as to the accuracy of the information supplied by interested parties upon which their findings are based.

    6.7       In order to verify information provided or to obtain further details, the authorities may carry out investigations in the territory of other Members as required, provided they obtain the agreement of the firms concerned and notify the representatives of the government of the Member in question, and unless that Member objects to the investigation.  The procedures described in Annex I shall apply to investigations carried out in the territory of other Members.  Subject to the requirement to protect confidential information, the authorities shall make the results of any such investigations available, or shall provide disclosure thereof pursuant to paragraph 9, to the firms to which they pertain and may make such results available to the applicants.

    6.8       In cases in which any interested party refuses access to, or otherwise does not provide, necessary information within a reasonable period or significantly impedes the investigation, preliminary and final determinations, affirmative or negative, may be made on the basis of the facts available.  The provisions of Annex II shall be observed in the application of this paragraph.

    6.9       The authorities shall, before a final determination is made, inform all interested parties of the essential facts under consideration which form the basis for the decision whether to apply definitive measures.  Such disclosure should take place in sufficient time for the parties to defend their interests.

    6.10     The authorities shall, as a rule, determine an individual margin of dumping for each known exporter or producer concerned of the product under investigation.  In cases where the number of exporters, producers, importers or types of products involved is so large as to make such a determination impracticable, the authorities may limit their examination either to a reasonable number of interested parties or products by using samples which are statistically valid on the basis of information available to the authorities at the time of the selection, or to the largest percentage of the volume of the exports from the country in question which can reasonably be investigated.

                6.10.1   Any selection of exporters, producers, importers or types of products made under this paragraph shall preferably be chosen in consultation with and with the consent of the exporters, producers or importers concerned.

                6.10.2   In cases where the authorities have limited their examination, as provided for in this paragraph, they shall nevertheless determine an individual margin of dumping for any exporter or producer not initially selected who submits the necessary information in time for that information to be considered during the course of the investigation, except where the number of exporters or producers is so large that individual examinations would be unduly burdensome to the authorities and prevent the timely completion of the investigation.  Voluntary responses shall not be discouraged.

    6.11     For the purposes of this Agreement, "interested parties" shall include:

                (i)         an exporter or foreign producer or the importer of a product subject to investigation, or a trade or business association a majority of the members of which are producers, exporters or importers of such product;

                (ii)        the government of the exporting Member;  and

                (iii)       a producer of the like product in the importing Member or a trade and business  association a majority of the members of which produce the like product in the territory of the importing Member.

    This list shall not preclude Members from allowing domestic or foreign parties other than those mentioned above to be included as interested parties.

    6.12     The authorities shall provide opportunities for industrial users of the product under investigation, and for representative consumer organizations in cases where the product is commonly sold at the retail level, to provide information which is relevant to the investigation regarding dumping, injury and causality.

    6.13     The authorities shall take due account of any difficulties experienced by interested parties, in particular small companies, in supplying information requested, and shall provide any assistance practicable.

    6.14     The procedures set out above are not intended to prevent the authorities of a Member from proceeding expeditiously with regard to initiating an investigation, reaching preliminary or final determinations, whether affirmative or negative, or from applying provisional or final measures, in accordance with relevant provisions of this Agreement.

    Article 7

    Provisional Measures

    7.1       Provisional measures may be applied only if:

                (i)         an investigation has been initiated in accordance with the provisions of Article 5, a public notice has been given to that effect and interested parties have been given adequate opportunities to submit information and make comments;

                (ii)        a preliminary affirmative determination has been made of dumping and consequent injury to a domestic industry;  and

                (iii)       the authorities concerned judge such measures necessary to prevent injury being caused during the investigation.

    7.2       Provisional measures may take the form of a provisional duty or, preferably, a security ‑ by cash deposit or bond ‑ equal to the amount of the anti‑dumping duty provisionally estimated, being not greater than the provisionally estimated margin of dumping.  Withholding of appraisement is an  appropriate provisional measure, provided that the normal duty and the estimated amount of the anti‑dumping duty be indicated and as long as the withholding of appraisement is subject to the same conditions as other provisional measures.

    7.3       Provisional measures shall not be applied sooner than 60 days from the date of initiation of the investigation.

    7.4       The application of provisional measures shall be limited to as short a period as possible, not exceeding four months or, on decision of the authorities concerned, upon request by exporters representing a significant percentage of the trade involved, to a period not exceeding six months.  When authorities, in the course of an investigation, examine whether a duty lower than the margin of dumping would be sufficient to remove injury, these periods may be six and nine months, respectively.

    7.5       The relevant provisions of Article 9 shall be followed in the application of provisional measures.

    Article 8

    Price Undertakings

    8.1       Proceedings may[47] be suspended or terminated without the imposition of provisional measures or anti‑dumping duties upon receipt of satisfactory voluntary undertakings from any exporter to revise its prices or to cease exports to the area in question at dumped prices so that the authorities are satisfied that the injurious effect of the dumping is eliminated.  Price increases under such undertakings shall not be higher than necessary to eliminate the margin of dumping.  It is desirable that the price increases be less than the margin of dumping if such increases would be adequate to remove the injury to the domestic industry.

    8.2       Price undertakings shall not be sought or accepted from exporters unless the authorities of the importing Member have made a preliminary affirmative determination of dumping and injury caused by such dumping.

    8.3       Undertakings offered need not be accepted if the authorities consider their acceptance impractical, for example, if the number of actual or potential exporters is too great, or for other reasons, including reasons of general policy.  Should the case arise and where practicable, the authorities shall provide to the exporter the reasons which have led them to consider acceptance of an undertaking as inappropriate, and shall, to the extent possible, give the exporter an opportunity to make comments thereon.

    8.4       If an undertaking is accepted, the investigation of dumping and injury shall nevertheless be  completed if the exporter so desires or the authorities so decide.  In such a case, if a negative determination of dumping or injury is made, the undertaking shall automatically lapse, except in cases where such a determination is due in large part to the existence of a price undertaking.  In such cases, the authorities may require that an undertaking be maintained for a reasonable period consistent with the provisions of this Agreement.  In the event that an affirmative determination of dumping and injury is made, the undertaking shall continue consistent with its terms and the provisions of this Agreement.

    8.5       Price undertakings may be suggested by the authorities of the importing Member, but no exporter shall be forced to enter into such undertakings.  The fact that exporters do not offer such undertakings, or do not accept an invitation to do so, shall in no way prejudice the consideration of the case.  However, the authorities are free to determine that a threat of injury is more likely to be realized if the dumped imports continue.

    8.6       Authorities of an importing Member may require any exporter from whom an undertaking has been accepted to provide periodically information relevant to the fulfilment of such an undertaking and to permit verification of pertinent data.  In case of violation of an undertaking, the authorities of the importing Member may take, under this Agreement in conformity with its provisions, expeditious actions which may constitute immediate application of provisional measures using the best information available.  In such cases, definitive duties may be levied in accordance with this Agreement on products  entered for consumption not more than 90 days before the application of such provisional measures, except that any such retroactive assessment shall not apply to imports entered before the violation of the undertaking.

    Article 9

    Imposition and Collection of Anti‑Dumping Duties

    9.1       The decision whether or not to impose an anti‑dumping duty in cases where all requirements for the imposition have been fulfilled, and the decision whether the amount of the anti‑dumping duty to be imposed shall be the full margin of dumping or less, are decisions to be made by the authorities of the importing Member.  It is desirable that the imposition be permissive in the territory of all Members, and that the duty be less than the margin if such lesser duty would be adequate to remove the injury to the domestic industry.

    9.2       When an anti‑dumping duty is imposed in respect of any product, such anti‑dumping duty shall be collected in the appropriate amounts in each case, on a non‑discriminatory basis on imports of such product from all sources found to be dumped and causing injury, except as to imports from those sources from which price undertakings under the terms of this Agreement have been accepted.  The authorities shall name the supplier or suppliers of the product concerned.  If, however, several suppliers from the same country are involved, and it is impracticable to name all these suppliers, the authorities may  name the supplying country concerned.  If several suppliers from more than one country are involved, the authorities may name either all the suppliers involved, or, if this is impracticable, all the supplying countries involved.

    9.3       The amount of the anti‑dumping duty shall not exceed the margin of dumping as established under Article 2.

                9.3.1   When the amount of the anti‑dumping duty is assessed on a retrospective basis, the  determination of the final liability for payment of anti‑dumping duties shall take place as soon as possible, normally within 12 months, and in no case more than 18 months, after the date on which a request for a final assessment of the amount of the anti‑dumping duty has been made.[48]  Any refund shall be made promptly and normally in not more  than 90 days following the determination of final liability made pursuant to this sub‑paragraph.  In any case, where a refund is not made within 90 days, the authorities shall provide an explanation if so requested.

                9.3.2   When the amount of the anti‑dumping duty is assessed on a prospective basis, provision shall be made for a prompt refund, upon request, of any duty paid in excess of the margin of dumping.  A refund of any such duty paid in excess of the actual margin of dumping shall normally take place within 12 months, and in no case more than  18 months, after the date on which a request for a refund, duly supported by evidence, has been made by an importer of the product subject to the anti‑dumping duty.  The refund authorized should normally be made within 90 days of the above‑noted  decision.

                9.3.3   In determining whether and to what extent a reimbursement should be made when the export price is constructed in accordance with paragraph 3 of Article 2, authorities should take account of any change in normal value, any change in costs incurred between importation and resale, and any movement in the resale price which is duly reflected in subsequent selling prices, and should calculate the export price with no deduction for the amount of anti‑dumping duties paid when conclusive evidence of the above is provided.

    9.4       When the authorities have limited their examination in accordance with the second sentence of paragraph 10 of Article 6, any anti‑dumping duty applied to imports from exporters or producers not included in the examination shall not exceed:

                (i)         the weighted average margin of dumping established with respect to the selected exporters or producers or,

                (ii)        where the liability for payment of anti‑dumping duties is calculated on the basis of a prospective normal value, the difference between the weighted average normal value of the selected exporters or producers and the export prices of exporters or producers not individually examined,

    provided that the authorities shall disregard for the purpose of this paragraph any zero and de minimis margins and margins established under the circumstances referred to in paragraph 8 of Article 6.  The authorities shall apply individual duties or normal values to imports from any exporter or producer not included in the examination who has provided the necessary information during the course of the investigation, as provided for in subparagraph 10.2 of Article 6.

    9.5       If a product is subject to anti‑dumping duties in an importing Member, the authorities shall promptly carry out a review for the purpose of determining individual margins of dumping for any exporters or producers in the exporting country in question who have not exported the product to the importing Member during the period of investigation, provided that these exporters or producers can show that they are not related to any of the exporters or producers in the exporting country who are  subject to the anti‑dumping duties on the product.  Such a review shall be initiated and carried out on an accelerated basis, compared to normal duty assessment and review proceedings in the importing Member.  No anti‑dumping duties shall be levied on imports from such exporters or producers while the review is being carried out.  The authorities may, however, withhold appraisement and/or request guarantees to ensure that, should such a review result in a determination of dumping in respect of such producers or exporters, anti‑dumping duties can be levied retroactively to the date of the initiation of the review.

    Article 10

    Retroactivity

    10.1     Provisional measures and anti‑dumping duties shall only be applied to products which enter for consumption after the time when the decision taken under paragraph 1 of Article 7 and paragraph 1 of Article 9, respectively, enters into force, subject to the exceptions set out in this Article.

    10.2     Where a final determination of injury (but not of a threat thereof or of a material retardation of the establishment of an industry) is made or, in the case of a final determination of a threat of injury, where the effect of the dumped imports would, in the absence of the provisional measures, have led to a determination of injury, anti‑dumping duties may be levied retroactively for the period for which provisional measures, if any, have been applied.

    10.3     If the definitive anti‑dumping duty is higher than the provisional duty paid or payable, or the amount estimated for the purpose of the security, the difference shall not be collected.  If the definitive duty is lower than the provisional duty paid or payable, or the amount estimated for the purpose of the security, the difference shall be reimbursed or the duty recalculated, as the case may be.

    10.4     Except as provided in paragraph 2, where a determination of threat of injury or material retardation is made (but no injury has yet occurred) a definitive anti‑dumping duty may be imposed only from the date of the determination of threat of injury or material retardation, and any cash deposit  made during the period of the application of provisional measures shall be refunded and any bonds released in an expeditious manner.

    10.5     Where a final determination is negative, any cash deposit made during the period of the application of provisional measures shall be refunded and any bonds released in an expeditious manner.

    10.6     A definitive anti‑dumping duty may be levied on products which were entered for consumption not more than 90 days prior to the date of application of provisional measures, when the authorities determine for the dumped product in question that:

                (i)         there is a history of dumping which caused injury or that the importer was, or should have been, aware that the exporter practises dumping and that such dumping would cause injury, and

                (ii)        the injury is caused by massive dumped imports of a product in a relatively short time which in light of the timing and the volume of the dumped imports and other circumstances (such as a rapid build‑up of inventories of the imported product) is likely to seriously undermine the remedial effect of the definitive anti‑dumping duty to be applied, provided that the importers concerned have been given an opportunity to comment.

    10.7     The authorities may, after initiating an investigation, take such measures as the withholding of appraisement or assessment as may be necessary to collect anti‑dumping duties retroactively, as provided for in paragraph 6, once they have sufficient evidence that the conditions set forth in that paragraph are satisfied.

    10.8     No duties shall be levied retroactively pursuant to paragraph 6 on products entered for consumption prior to the date of initiation of the investigation.

    Article 11

    Duration and Review of Anti‑Dumping Duties and Price Undertakings

    11.1     An anti‑dumping duty shall remain in force only as long as and to the extent necessary to counteract dumping which is causing injury.

    11.2     The authorities shall review the need for the continued imposition of the duty, where warranted, on their own initiative or, provided that a reasonable period of time has elapsed since the imposition of the definitive anti‑dumping duty, upon request by any interested party which submits positive information substantiating the need for a review.[49]  Interested parties shall have the right to request the authorities to examine whether the continued imposition of the duty is necessary to offset dumping, whether the injury would be likely to continue or recur if the duty were removed or varied, or both.  If, as a result of the review under this paragraph, the authorities determine that the anti‑dumping duty is no longer warranted, it shall be terminated immediately.

    11.3     Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, any definitive anti‑dumping duty shall be terminated on a date not later than five years from its imposition (or from the date of the most recent review under paragraph 2 if that review has covered both dumping and injury, or under this paragraph),  unless the authorities determine, in a review initiated before that date on their own initiative or upon a duly substantiated request made by or on behalf of the domestic industry within a reasonable period of time prior to that date, that the expiry of the duty would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence  of dumping and injury.[50]  The duty may remain in force pending the outcome of such a review.

    11.4     The provisions of Article 6 regarding evidence and procedure shall apply to any review carried out under this Article.  Any such review shall be carried out expeditiously and shall normally be concluded within 12 months of the date of initiation of the review.

    11.5     The provisions of this Article shall apply mutatis mutandis to price undertakings accepted under Article 8.

    Article 12

    Public Notice and Explanation of Determinations

    12.1     When the authorities are satisfied that there is sufficient evidence to justify the initiation of an anti‑dumping investigation pursuant to Article 5, the Member or Members the products of which are subject to such investigation and other interested parties known to the investigating authorities to have an interest therein shall be notified and a public notice shall be given.

                12.1.1  A public notice of the initiation of an investigation shall contain, or otherwise make available through a separate report[51], adequate information on the following:

                            (i)         the name of the exporting country or countries and the product involved;

                            (ii)        the date of initiation of the investigation;

                            (iii)       the basis on which dumping is alleged in the application;

                            (iv)       a summary of the factors on which the allegation of injury is based;

                            (v)        the address to which representations by interested parties should be directed;

                            (vi)       the time‑limits allowed to interested parties for making their views known.

    12.2     Public notice shall be given of any preliminary or final determination, whether affirmative or negative, of any decision to accept an undertaking pursuant to Article 8, of the termination of such an undertaking, and of the termination of a definitive anti‑dumping duty.  Each such notice shall set forth, or otherwise make available through a separate report, in sufficient detail the findings and conclusions reached on all issues of fact and law considered material by the investigating authorities.  All such notices and reports shall be forwarded to the Member or Members the products of which are subject to such determination or undertaking and to other interested parties known to have an interest therein.

                12.2.1  A public notice of the imposition of provisional measures shall set forth, or otherwise make available through a separate report, sufficiently detailed explanations for the preliminary determinations on dumping and injury and shall refer to the matters of fact and law which have led to arguments being accepted or rejected.  Such a notice or report shall, due regard being paid to the requirement for the protection of confidential information, contain in particular:

                            (i)         the names of the suppliers, or when this is impracticable, the supplying countries involved;

                            (ii)        a description of the product which is sufficient for customs purposes;

                            (iii)       the margins of dumping established and a full explanation of the reasons for the methodology used in the establishment and comparison of the export price and the normal value under Article 2;

                            (iv)       considerations relevant to the injury determination as set out in Article 3;

                            (v)        the main reasons leading to the determination.

                12.2.2   A public notice of conclusion or suspension of an investigation in the case of an affirmative determination providing for the imposition of a definitive duty or the acceptance of a price undertaking shall contain, or otherwise make available through a separate report, all relevant information on the matters of fact and law and reasons which have led to the imposition of final measures or the acceptance of a price  undertaking, due regard being paid to the requirement for the protection of confidential  information.  In particular, the notice or report shall contain the information described in subparagraph 2.1, as well as the reasons for the acceptance or rejection of relevant arguments or claims made by the exporters and importers, and the basis for any decision made under subparagraph  10.2 of Article 6.

                12.2.3   A public notice of the termination or suspension of an investigation following the acceptance of an undertaking pursuant to Article 8 shall include, or otherwise make available through a separate report, the non‑confidential part of this undertaking.

    12.3     The provisions of this Article shall apply mutatis mutandis to the initiation and completion of reviews pursuant to Article 11 and to decisions under Article 10 to apply duties retroactively.

    Article 13

    Judicial Review

                Each Member  whose national legislation contains provisions on anti‑dumping measures shall maintain judicial, arbitral or administrative tribunals or procedures for the purpose, inter alia, of the prompt review of administrative actions relating to final determinations and reviews of determinations within the meaning of Article 11.  Such tribunals or procedures shall be independent of the authorities responsible for the determination or review in question.

    Article 14

    Anti‑Dumping Action on Behalf of a Third Country

    14.1     An application for anti‑dumping action on behalf of a third country shall be made by the authorities of the third country requesting action.

    14.2     Such an application shall be supported by price information to show that the imports are being dumped and by detailed information to show that the alleged dumping is causing injury to the domestic industry concerned in the third country.  The government of the third country shall afford all assistance to the authorities of the importing country to obtain any further information which the latter may require.

    14.3     In considering such an application, the authorities of the importing country shall consider the effects of the alleged dumping on the industry concerned as a whole in the third country;  that is to say, the injury shall not be assessed in relation only to the effect of the alleged dumping on the industry's exports to the importing country or even on the industry's total exports.

    14.4     The decision whether or not to proceed with a case shall rest with the importing country.  If the importing country decides that it is prepared to take action, the initiation of the approach to the Council for Trade in Goods seeking its approval for such action shall rest with the importing country.

    Article 15

    Developing Country Members

                It is recognized that special regard must be given by developed country Members to the special situation of developing country Members when considering the application of anti‑dumping measures under this Agreement.  Possibilities of constructive remedies provided for by this Agreement shall be explored before applying anti‑dumping duties where they would affect the essential interests of developing country Members.

    PART II

    Article 16

    Committee on Anti‑Dumping Practices

    16.1     There is hereby established a Committee on Anti‑Dumping Practices (referred to in this Agreement as the "Committee") composed of representatives from each of the Members.  The Committee shall elect its own Chairman and shall meet not less than twice a year and otherwise as envisaged by relevant provisions of this Agreement at the request of any Member.  The Committee shall carry out responsibilities as assigned to it under this Agreement or by the Members and it shall afford Members the opportunity of consulting on any matters relating to the operation of the Agreement or the furtherance of its objectives.  The WTO Secretariat shall act as the secretariat to the Committee.

    16.2     The Committee may set up subsidiary bodies as appropriate.

    16.3     In carrying out their functions, the Committee and any subsidiary bodies may consult with and seek information from any source they deem appropriate.  However, before the Committee or  a subsidiary body seeks such information from a source within the jurisdiction of a Member, it shall inform the Member involved.  It shall obtain the consent of the Member and any firm to be consulted.

    16.4     Members shall report without delay to the Committee all preliminary or final anti‑dumping actions taken.  Such reports shall be available in the Secretariat for inspection by other Members.  Members shall also submit, on a semi‑annual basis, reports of any anti‑dumping actions taken within the preceding six months.  The semi-annual reports shall be submitted on an agreed standard form.

    16.5     Each Member shall notify the Committee (a) which of its authorities are competent to initiate and conduct investigations referred to in Article 5 and (b) its domestic procedures governing the initiation and conduct of such investigations.

    Article 17

    Consultation and Dispute Settlement

    17.1     Except as otherwise provided herein, the Dispute Settlement Understanding is applicable to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement.

    17.2     Each Member shall afford sympathetic consideration to, and shall afford adequate opportunity for consultation regarding, representations made by another Member with respect to any matter affecting the operation of this Agreement.

    17.3     If any Member considers that any benefit accruing to it, directly or indirectly, under this Agreement is being nullified or impaired, or that the achievement of any objective is being impeded, by another Member or Members, it may, with a view to reaching a mutually satisfactory resolution of the matter, request in writing consultations with the Member or Members in question.  Each Member shall afford sympathetic consideration to any request from another Member for consultation. 

    17.4     If the Member that requested consultations considers that the consultations pursuant to paragraph 3 have failed to achieve a mutually agreed solution, and if final action has been taken by the administering authorities of the importing Member to levy definitive anti‑dumping duties or to accept price undertakings, it may refer the matter to the Dispute Settlement Body ("DSB").  When a provisional  measure has a significant impact and the Member that requested consultations considers that the measure was taken contrary to the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 7, that Member may also refer such matter to the DSB.

    17.5     The DSB shall, at the request of the complaining party, establish a panel to examine the matter based upon:

                (i)         a written statement of the Member making the request indicating how a benefit accruing to it, directly or indirectly, under this Agreement has been nullified or impaired, or that the achieving of the objectives of the Agreement is being impeded, and

                (ii)        the facts made available in conformity with appropriate domestic procedures to the authorities of the importing Member.

    17.6     In examining the matter referred to in paragraph 5:

    (i)         in its assessment of the facts of the matter, the panel shall determine whether the authorities' establishment of the facts was proper and whether their evaluation of those facts was unbiased and objective.  If the establishment of the facts was proper and the evaluation was unbiased and objective, even though the panel might have reached a different conclusion, the evaluation shall not be overturned;

    (ii)        the panel shall interpret the relevant provisions of the Agreement in accordance with customary rules of interpretation of public international law.  Where the panel finds that a relevant provision of the Agreement admits of more than one permissible interpretation, the panel shall find the authorities' measure to be in conformity with the Agreement if it rests upon one of those permissible interpretations.

    17.7     Confidential information provided to the panel shall not be disclosed without formal authorization from the person, body or authority providing such information.  Where such information is requested from the panel but release of such information by the panel is not authorized, a non‑confidential summary of the information, authorized by the person, body or authority providing the information, shall be provided.

    PART III

    Article 18

    Final Provisions

    18.1     No specific action against dumping of exports from another Member can be taken except in accordance with the provisions of  GATT 1994, as interpreted by this Agreement.[52]

    18.2     Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the other Members.

    18.3     Subject to subparagraphs 3.1 and 3.2, the provisions of this Agreement shall apply to investigations, and reviews of existing measures, initiated pursuant to applications which have been made on or after the date of entry into force for a Member of the WTO Agreement.

                18.3.1  With respect to the calculation of margins of dumping in refund procedures under paragraph 3 of Article 9, the rules used in the most recent determination or review of dumping shall apply.

                18.3.2   For the purposes of paragraph 3 of Article 11, existing anti‑dumping measures shall be deemed to be imposed on a date not later than the date of entry into force for a Member of the WTO Agreement, except  in cases in which the domestic legislation of a Member in force on that date already included a clause of the type provided for in that paragraph.

    18.4     Each Member shall take all necessary steps, of a general or particular character, to ensure, not later than the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement for it, the conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures with the provisions of this Agreement as they may apply for the Member in question.

    18.5     Each Member shall inform the Committee of any changes in its laws and regulations relevant to this Agreement and in the administration of such laws and regulations.

    18.6     The Committee shall review annually the implementation and operation of this Agreement taking into account the objectives thereof.  The Committee shall inform annually the Council for Trade in Goods of developments during the period covered by such reviews.

    18.7     The Annexes to this Agreement constitute an integral part thereof.

    ANNEX I

    PROCEDURES FOR ON‑THE‑SPOT INVESTIGATIONS PURSUANT

    TO PARAGRAPH 7 OF ARTICLE 6

    1.         Upon initiation of an investigation, the authorities of the exporting Member and the firms known to be concerned should be informed of the intention to carry out on‑the‑spot investigations.

    2.         If in exceptional circumstances it is intended to include non‑governmental experts in the investigating team, the firms and the authorities of the exporting Member should be so informed.  Such non‑governmental experts should be subject to effective sanctions for breach of confidentiality requirements.

    3.         It should be standard practice to obtain explicit agreement of the firms concerned in the exporting Member before the visit is finally scheduled.

    4.         As soon as the agreement of the firms concerned has been obtained, the investigating authorities should notify the authorities of the exporting Member of the names and addresses of the firms to be visited and the dates agreed.

    5.         Sufficient advance notice should be given to the firms in question before the visit is made.

    6.         Visits to explain the questionnaire should only be made at the request of an exporting firm.  Such a visit may only be made if (a) the authorities of the importing Member notify the representatives of the Member in question and (b) the latter do not object to the visit.

    7.         As the main purpose of the on‑the‑spot investigation is to verify information provided or to obtain further details, it should be carried out after the response to the questionnaire has been received unless the firm agrees to the contrary and the government of the exporting Member is informed by the investigating authorities of the anticipated visit and does not object to it;  further, it should be standard practice prior to the visit to advise the firms concerned of the general nature of the information to be verified and of any further information which needs to be provided, though this should not preclude requests to be made on the spot for further details to be provided in the light of information obtained.

    8.         Enquiries or questions put by the authorities or firms of the exporting Members and essential to a successful on‑the‑spot investigation should, whenever possible, be answered before the visit is made.

    ANNEX II

    BEST INFORMATION AVAILABLE IN TERMS OF PARAGRAPH 8 OF ARTICLE 6

    1.         As soon as possible after the initiation of the investigation, the investigating authorities should specify in detail the information required from any interested party, and the manner in which that information should be structured by the interested party in its response.  The authorities should also ensure that the party is aware that if information is not supplied within a reasonable time, the authorities will be free to make determinations on the basis of the facts available, including those contained in the application for the initiation of the investigation by the domestic industry.

    2.         The authorities may also request that an interested party provide its response in a particular medium (e.g. computer tape) or computer language.  Where such a request is made, the authorities should consider the reasonable ability of the interested party to respond in the preferred medium or computer language, and should not request the party to use for its response a computer system other than that used by the party.  The authority should not maintain a request for a computerized response if the interested party does not maintain computerized accounts and if presenting the response as requested would result in an unreasonable extra burden on the interested party, e.g. it would entail unreasonable additional cost and trouble.  The authorities should not maintain a request for a response in a particular medium or computer language if the interested party does not maintain its computerized accounts in such medium or computer language and if presenting the response as requested would result in an unreasonable extra burden on the interested party, e.g. it would entail unreasonable additional cost and trouble.

    3.         All information which is verifiable, which is appropriately submitted so that it can be used in the investigation without undue difficulties, which is supplied in a timely fashion, and, where applicable, which is supplied in a medium or computer language requested by the authorities, should be taken into account when determinations are made.  If a party does not respond in the preferred medium or computer language but the authorities find that the circumstances set out in paragraph 2 have been satisfied, the failure to respond in the preferred medium or computer language should not be considered to significantly impede the investigation.

    4.         Where the authorities do not have the ability to process information if provided in a particular medium (e.g. computer tape), the information should be supplied in the form of written material or any other form acceptable to the authorities.

    5.         Even though the information provided may not be ideal in all respects, this should not justify the authorities from disregarding it, provided the interested party has acted to the best of its ability.

    6.         If evidence or information is not accepted, the supplying party should be informed forthwith of the reasons  therefor, and should have an opportunity to provide further explanations within a reasonable period, due account being taken of the time‑limits of the investigation.  If the  explanations are considered by the authorities as not being satisfactory, the reasons for the rejection of such evidence or information should be given in any published determinations.

    7.         If the authorities have to base their findings, including those with respect to normal value, on  information from a secondary source, including the information supplied in the application for the initiation of the investigation, they should do so with special circumspection.  In such cases, the authorities should, where practicable, check the information from other independent sources at their disposal, such as published price lists, official import statistics and customs returns, and from the information obtained from other interested parties during the investigation.  It is clear, however, that if an interested party does not cooperate and thus relevant information is being withheld from the authorities, this situation could lead to a result which is less favourable to the party than if the party did cooperate.

    AGREEMENT ON IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTICLE VII

    OF THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 1994

    GENERAL INTRODUCTORY COMMENTARY

    1.         The primary basis for customs value under this Agreement is "transaction value" as defined in Article 1.  Article 1 is to be read together with Article 8 which provides, inter alia, for adjustments to the price actually paid or payable in cases where certain specific elements which are considered to form a part of the value for customs purposes are incurred by the buyer but are not included in the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods.  Article 8 also provides for the inclusion in the transaction value of certain considerations which may pass from the buyer to the seller in the form of specified goods or services rather than in the form of money.  Articles 2 through 7 provide methods of determining the customs value whenever it cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1.

    2.         Where the customs value cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1 there should normally be a process of consultation between the customs administration and importer with a view to arriving at a basis of value under the provisions of Article 2 or 3.  It may occur, for example, that the importer has information about the customs value of identical or similar imported goods which is not immediately available to the customs administration in the port of importation.  On the other hand, the customs administration may have information about the customs value of identical or similar imported goods which is not readily available to the importer.  A process of consultation between the two parties will enable information to be exchanged, subject to the requirements of commercial confidentiality, with a view to determining a proper basis of value for customs purposes.

    3.         Articles 5 and 6 provide two bases for determining the customs value where it cannot be determined on the basis of the transaction value of the imported goods or of identical or similar imported goods.  Under paragraph 1 of Article 5 the customs value is determined on the basis of the price at which the goods are sold in the condition as imported to an unrelated buyer in the country of importation.  The importer also has the right to have goods which are further processed after importation valued under the provisions of Article 5 if the importer so requests.  Under Article 6 the customs value is determined on the basis of the computed value.  Both these methods present certain difficulties and because of this the importer is given the right, under the provisions of Article 4, to choose the order of application of the two methods.

    4.         Article 7 sets out how to determine the customs value in cases where it cannot be determined under the provisions of any of the preceding Articles.

    Members,

                Having regard to the Multilateral Trade Negotiations;

                Desiring to further the objectives of GATT 1994 and to secure additional benefits for the international trade of developing countries;

                Recognizing the importance of the provisions of Article VII of GATT 1994 and desiring to elaborate rules for their application in order to provide greater uniformity and certainty in their implementation;

                Recognizing the need for a fair, uniform and neutral system for the valuation of goods for customs purposes that precludes the use of arbitrary or fictitious customs values;

                Recognizing that the basis for valuation of goods for customs purposes should, to the greatest extent possible, be the transaction value of the goods being valued;

                Recognizing that customs value should be based on simple and equitable criteria consistent with commercial practices and that valuation procedures should be of general application without distinction between sources of supply;

                Recognizing that valuation procedures should not be used to combat dumping;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    PART I

    RULES ON CUSTOMS VALUATION

    Article 1

    1.         The customs value of imported goods shall be the transaction value, that is the price actually paid or payable for the goods when sold for export to the country of importation adjusted in accordance with the provisions of Article 8, provided:

                (a)        that there are no restrictions as to the disposition or use of the goods by the buyer other than restrictions which:

                            (i)         are imposed or required by law or by the public authorities in the country of importation;

                            (ii)        limit the geographical area in which the goods may be resold;  or

                            (iii)       do not substantially affect the value of the goods;

                (b)        that the sale or price is not subject to some condition or consideration for which a value cannot be determined with respect to the goods being valued;

                (c)        that no part of the proceeds of any subsequent resale, disposal or use of the goods by the buyer will accrue directly or indirectly to the seller, unless an appropriate adjustment can be made in accordance with the provisions of Article 8;  and

                (d)        that the buyer and seller are not related, or where the buyer and seller are related, that the transaction value is acceptable for customs purposes under the provisions of paragraph 2.

    2.         (a)        In determining whether the transaction value is acceptable for the purposes of paragraph 1, the fact that the buyer and the seller are related within the meaning of Article 15 shall not in itself be grounds for regarding the transaction value as unacceptable.  In such case the circumstances surrounding the sale shall be examined and the transaction value shall be accepted provided that the relationship did not influence the price.  If, in the light of information provided by the importer or otherwise, the customs administration has grounds for considering that the relationship influenced the price, it shall communicate its grounds to the importer and the importer shall be given a reasonable opportunity to respond.  If the importer so requests, the communication of the grounds shall be in writing.

                (b)        In a sale between related persons, the transaction value shall be accepted and the goods valued in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 whenever the importer demonstrates that such value closely approximates to one of the following occurring at or about the same time:

                            (i)         the transaction value in sales to unrelated buyers of identical or similar goods for export to the same country of importation;

                            (ii)        the customs value of identical or similar goods as determined under the provisions of Article 5;

                            (iii)       the customs value of identical or similar goods as determined under the provisions of Article 6;

    In applying the foregoing tests, due account shall be taken of demonstrated differences in commercial levels, quantity levels, the elements enumerated in Article 8 and costs incurred by the seller in sales in which the seller and the buyer are not related that are not incurred by the seller in sales in which the seller and the buyer are related.

                (c)        The tests set forth in paragraph 2(b) are to be used at the initiative of the importer and only for comparison purposes.  Substitute values may not be established under the provisions of paragraph 2(b).

    Article 2

    1.         (a)        If the customs value of the imported goods cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1, the customs value shall be the transaction value of identical goods sold for export to the same country of importation and exported at or about the same time as the goods being valued.

                (b)        In applying this Article, the transaction value of identical goods in a sale at the same commercial level and in substantially the same quantity as the goods being valued shall be used to determine the customs value.  Where no such sale is found, the transaction value of identical goods sold at a different commercial level and/or in different quantities, adjusted to take account of differences attributable to commercial level and/or to quantity, shall be used, provided that such adjustments can be made on the basis of demonstrated evidence which clearly establishes the reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustment, whether the adjustment leads to an increase or a decrease in the value.

    2.         Where the costs and charges referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 8 are included in the transaction value, an adjustment shall be made to take account of significant differences in such costs and charges between the imported goods and the identical goods in question arising from differences in distances and modes of transport.

    3.         If, in applying this Article, more than one transaction value of identical goods is found, the lowest such value shall be used to determine the customs value of the imported goods.

    Article 3

    1.         (a)        If the customs value of the imported goods cannot be determined under the provisions of Articles 1 and 2, the customs value shall be the transaction value of similar goods sold for export to the same country of importation and exported at or about the same time as the goods being valued.

                (b)        In applying this Article, the transaction value of similar goods in a sale at the same commercial level and in substantially the same quantity as the goods being valued shall be used to determine the customs value.  Where no such sale is found, the transaction value of similar goods sold at a different commercial level and/or in different quantities, adjusted to take account of differences attributable to commercial level and/or to quantity, shall be used, provided that such adjustments can be made on the basis of demonstrated evidence which clearly establishes the reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustment, whether the adjustment leads to an increase or a decrease in the value.

    2.         Where the costs and charges referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 8 are included in the transaction value, an adjustment shall be made to take account of significant differences in such costs and charges between the imported goods and the similar goods in question arising from differences in distances and modes of transport.

    3.         If, in applying this Article, more than one transaction value of similar goods is found, the lowest such value shall be used to determine the customs value of the imported goods.

    Article 4

                If the customs value of the imported goods cannot be determined under the provisions of Articles 1, 2 and 3, the customs value shall be determined under the provisions of Article 5 or, when the customs value cannot be determined under that Article, under the provisions of Article 6 except that, at the request of the importer, the order of application of Articles 5 and 6 shall be reversed.

    Article 5

    1.         (a)        If the imported goods or identical or similar imported goods are sold in the country of importation in the condition as imported, the customs value of the imported goods under the provisions of this Article shall be based on the unit price at which the imported goods or identical or similar imported goods are so sold in the greatest aggregate quantity, at or about the time of the importation of the goods being valued, to persons who are not related to the persons from whom they buy such goods, subject to deductions for the following:

                            (i)         either the commissions usually paid or agreed to be paid or the additions usually made for profit and general expenses in connection with sales in such country of imported goods of the same class or kind;

                            (ii)        the usual costs of transport and insurance and associated costs incurred within the country of importation;

                            (iii)       where appropriate, the costs and charges referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 8;  and

                            (iv)       the customs duties and other national taxes payable in the country of importation by reason of the importation or sale of the goods.

                (b)        If neither the imported goods nor identical nor similar imported goods are sold at or about the time of importation of the goods being valued, the customs value shall, subject otherwise to the provisions of paragraph 1(a), be based on the unit price at which the imported goods or identical or similar imported goods are sold in the country of importation in the condition as imported at the earliest date after the importation of the goods being valued but before the expiration of 90 days after such importation.

    2.         If neither the imported goods nor identical nor similar imported goods are sold in the country of importation in the condition as imported, then, if the importer so requests, the customs value shall be based on the unit price at which the imported goods, after further processing, are sold in the greatest aggregate quantity to persons in the country of importation who are not related to the persons from whom they buy such goods, due allowance being made for the value added by such processing and the deductions provided for in paragraph 1(a).

    Article 6

    1.         The customs value of imported goods under the provisions of this Article shall be based on a computed value.  Computed value shall consist of the sum of:

                (a)        the cost or value of materials and fabrication or other processing employed in producing the imported goods;

                (b)        an amount for profit and general expenses equal to that usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind as the goods being valued which are made by producers in the country of exportation for export to the country of importation;

                (c)        the cost or value of all other expenses necessary to reflect the valuation option chosen by the Member under paragraph 2 of Article 8 .

    2.         No Member may require or compel any person not resident in its own territory to produce for examination, or to allow access to, any account or other record for the purposes of determining a computed value.  However, information supplied by the producer of the goods for the purposes of determining the customs value under the provisions of this Article may be verified in another country by the authorities of the country of importation with the agreement of the producer and provided they give sufficient advance notice to the government of the country in question and the latter does not object to the investigation.

    Article 7

    1.         If the customs value of the imported goods cannot be determined under the provisions of Articles 1 through 6, inclusive, the customs value shall be determined using reasonable means consistent with the principles and general provisions of this Agreement and of Article VII of GATT 1994 and on the basis of data available in the country of importation.

    2.         No customs value shall be determined under the provisions of this Article on the basis of:

                (a)        the selling price in the country of importation of goods produced in such country;

                (b)        a system which provides for the acceptance for customs purposes of the higher of two alternative values;

                (c)        the price of goods on the domestic market of the country of exportation;

                (d)        the cost of production other than computed values which have been determined for identical or similar goods in accordance with the provisions of Article 6;

                (e)        the price of the goods for export to a country other than the country of importation;

                (f)        minimum customs values;  or

                (g)        arbitrary or fictitious values.

    3.         If the importer so requests, the importer shall be informed in writing of the customs value determined under the provisions of this Article and the method used to determine such value.

    Article 8

    1.         In determining the customs value under the provisions of Article 1, there shall be added to the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods:

                (a)        the following, to the extent that they are incurred by the buyer but are not included in the price actually paid or payable for the goods:

                            (i)         commissions and brokerage, except buying commissions;

                            (ii)        the cost of containers which are treated as being one for customs purposes with the goods in question;

                            (iii)       the cost of packing whether for labour or materials;

                (b)        the value, apportioned as appropriate, of the following goods and services where supplied directly or indirectly by the buyer free of charge or at reduced cost for use in connection with the production and sale for export of the imported goods, to the extent that such value has not been included in the price actually paid or payable:

                            (i)         materials, components, parts and similar items incorporated in the imported goods;

                            (ii)        tools, dies, moulds and similar items used in the production of the imported goods;

                            (iii)       materials consumed in the production of the imported goods;

                            (iv)       engineering, development, artwork, design work, and plans and sketches undertaken elsewhere than in the country of importation and necessary for the production of the imported goods;

                (c)        royalties and licence fees related to the goods being valued that the buyer must pay, either directly or indirectly, as a condition of sale of the goods being valued, to the extent that such royalties and fees are not included in the price actually paid or payable;

                (d)        the value of any part of the proceeds of any subsequent resale, disposal or use of the imported goods that accrues directly or indirectly to the seller.

    2.         In framing its legislation, each Member shall provide for the inclusion in or the exclusion from the customs value, in whole or in part, of the following:

                (a)        the cost of transport of the imported goods to the port or place of importation;

                (b)        loading, unloading and handling charges associated with the transport of the imported goods to the port or place of importation;  and

                (c)        the cost of insurance.

    3.         Additions to the price actually paid or payable shall be made under this Article only on the basis of objective and quantifiable data.

    4.         No additions shall be made to the price actually paid or payable in determining the customs value except as provided in this Article.

    Article 9

    1.         Where the conversion of currency is necessary for the determination of the customs value, the rate of exchange to be used shall be that duly published by the competent authorities of the country of importation concerned and shall reflect as effectively as possible, in respect of the period covered by each such document of publication, the current value of such currency in commercial transactions in terms of the currency of the country of importation.

    2.         The conversion rate to be used shall be that in effect at the time of exportation or the time of importation, as provided by each Member.

    Article 10

                All information which is by nature confidential or which is provided on a confidential basis for the purposes of customs valuation shall be treated as strictly confidential by the authorities concerned who shall not disclose it without the specific permission of the person or government providing such information, except to the extent that it may be required to be disclosed in the context of judicial proceedings.

    Article 11

    1.         The legislation of each Member shall provide in regard to a determination of customs value for the right of appeal, without penalty, by the importer or any other person liable for the payment of the duty.

    2.         An initial right of appeal without penalty may be to an authority within the customs administration or to an independent body, but the legislation of each Member shall provide for the right of appeal without penalty to a judicial authority.

    3.         Notice of the decision on appeal shall be given to the appellant and the reasons for such decision shall be provided in writing.   The appellant shall also be informed of any rights of further appeal.

    Article 12

                Laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application giving effect to this Agreement shall be published in conformity with Article X of GATT 1994 by the country of importation concerned.

    Article 13

                If, in the course of determining the customs value of imported goods, it becomes necessary to delay the final determination of such customs value, the importer of the goods shall nevertheless be able to withdraw them from customs if, where so required, the importer provides sufficient guarantee in the form of a surety, a deposit or some other appropriate instrument, covering the ultimate payment of customs duties for which the goods may be liable.  The legislation of each Member shall make provisions for such circumstances.

    Article 14

                The notes at Annex I to this Agreement form an integral part of this Agreement and the Articles of this Agreement are to be read and applied in conjunction with their respective notes.  Annexes II and III also form an integral part of this Agreement.

    Article 15

    1.         In this Agreement:

                (a)        "customs value of imported goods" means the value of goods for the purposes of levying ad valorem duties of customs on imported goods;

                (b)        "country of importation" means country or customs territory of importation;  and

                (c)        "produced" includes grown, manufactured and mined.

    2.         In this Agreement:

                (a)        "identical goods" means goods which are the same in all respects, including physical characteristics, quality and reputation.  Minor differences in appearance would not preclude goods otherwise conforming to the definition from being regarded as identical;

                (b)        "similar goods" means goods which, although not alike in all respects, have like characteristics and like component materials which enable them to perform the same functions and to be commercially interchangeable.  The quality of the goods, their reputation and the existence of a trademark are among the factors to be considered in determining whether goods are similar;

                (c)        the terms "identical goods" and "similar goods" do not include, as the case may be, goods which incorporate or reflect engineering, development, artwork, design work, and plans and sketches for which no adjustment has been made under  paragraph 1(b)(iv) of Article 8 because such elements were undertaken in the country of importation;

                (d)        goods shall not be regarded as "identical goods" or "similar goods" unless they were produced in the same country as the goods being valued;

                (e)        goods produced by a different person shall be taken into account only when there are no identical goods or similar goods, as the case may be, produced by the same person as the goods being valued.

    3.         In this Agreement "goods of the same class or kind" means goods which fall within a group or range of goods produced by a particular industry or industry sector, and includes identical or similar goods.

    4.         For the purposes of this Agreement, persons shall be deemed to be related only if:

                (a)        they are officers or directors of one another's businesses;

                (b)        they are legally recognized partners in business;

                (c)        they are employer and employee;

                (d)        any person directly or indirectly owns, controls or holds 5 per cent or more of the outstanding voting stock or shares of both of them;

                (e)        one of them directly or indirectly controls the other;

                (f)        both of them are directly or indirectly controlled by a third person;

                (g)        together they directly or indirectly control a third person;  or

                (h)        they are members of the same family.

    5.         Persons who are associated in business with one another in that one is the sole agent, sole distributor or sole concessionaire, however described, of the other shall be deemed to be related for the purposes of this Agreement if they fall within the criteria of paragraph 4.

    Article 16

                Upon written request, the importer shall have the right to an explanation in writing from the customs administration of the country of importation as to how the customs value of the importer’s goods was determined.

    Article 17

                Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as restricting or calling into question the rights of customs administrations to satisfy themselves as to the truth or accuracy of any statement, document or declaration presented for customs valuation purposes.

    PART II

    ADMINISTRATION, CONSULTATIONS AND DISPUTE SETTLEMENT

    Article 18

    Institutions

    1.         There is hereby established a Committee on Customs Valuation (referred to in this Agreement as "the Committee") composed of representatives from each of the Members.  The Committee shall elect its own Chairman and shall normally meet once a year, or as is otherwise envisaged by the relevant provisions of this Agreement, for the purpose of affording Members the opportunity to consult on matters relating to the administration of the customs valuation system by any Member as it might affect the operation of this Agreement or the furtherance of its objectives and carrying out such other responsibilities as may be assigned to it by the Members.  The WTO Secretariat shall act as the secretariat to the Committee.

    2.         There shall be established a Technical Committee on Customs Valuation (referred to in this Agreement as "the Technical Committee") under the auspices of the Customs Co-operation Council (referred to in this Agreement as "the CCC"), which shall carry out the responsibilities described in Annex II to this Agreement and shall operate in accordance with the rules of procedure contained therein.

    Article 19

    Consultations and Dispute Settlement

    1.         Except as otherwise provided herein, the Dispute Settlement Understanding is applicable to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement.

    2.         If any Member considers that any benefit accruing to it, directly or indirectly, under this Agreement is being nullified or impaired, or that the achievement of any objective of this Agreement is being impeded, as a result of the actions of another Member or of other Members, it may, with a view to reaching a mutually satisfactory solution of this matter, request consultations with the Member or Members in question.  Each Member shall afford sympathetic consideration to any request from another Member for consultations.

    3.         The Technical Committee shall provide, upon request, advice and assistance to Members engaged in consultations.

    4.         At the request of a party to the dispute, or on its own initiative, a panel established to examine a dispute relating to the provisions of this Agreement may request the Technical Committee to carry out an examination of any questions requiring technical consideration.  The panel shall determine the terms of reference of the Technical Committee for the particular dispute and set a time period for receipt of the report of the Technical Committee.  The panel shall take into consideration the report of the Technical Committee.  In the event that the Technical Committee is unable to reach consensus on a matter referred to it pursuant to this paragraph, the panel should afford the parties to the dispute an opportunity to present their views on the matter to the panel.

    5.         Confidential information provided to the panel shall not be disclosed without formal authorization from the person, body or authority providing such information.  Where such information is requested from the panel but release of such information by the panel is not authorized, a non-confidential summary of this information, authorized by the person, body or authority providing the information, shall be provided.

    PART III

    SPECIAL AND DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT

    Article 20

    1.         Developing country Members not party to the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade done on 12 April 1979 may delay application of the provisions of this Agreement for a period not exceeding five years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement for such Members.  Developing country Members who choose to delay application of this Agreement shall notify the Director-General of the WTO accordingly.

    2.         In addition to paragraph 1, developing country Members not party to the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade done on 12 April 1979 may delay application of paragraph 2(b)(iii) of Article 1 and Article 6 for a period not exceeding three years following their application of all other provisions of this Agreement.  Developing country Members that choose to delay application of the provisions specified in this paragraph shall notify the Director-General of the WTO accordingly.

    3.         Developed country Members shall furnish, on mutually agreed terms, technical assistance to developing country Members that so request.  On this basis developed country Members shall draw up programmes of technical assistance which may include, inter alia, training of personnel, assistance in preparing implementation measures, access to sources of information regarding customs valuation methodology, and advice on the application of the provisions of this Agreement.

    PART IV

    FINAL PROVISIONS

    Article 21

    Reservations

                Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the other Members.

    Article 22

    National Legislation

    1.         Each  Member shall ensure, not later than the date of application of the provisions of this Agreement for it, the conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures with the provisions of this Agreement.

    2.         Each Member shall inform the Committee of any changes in its laws and regulations relevant to this Agreement and in the administration of such laws and regulations.

    Article 23

    Review

                The Committee shall review annually the implementation and operation of this Agreement taking into account the objectives thereof.  The Committee shall annually inform the Council for Trade in Goods of developments during the period covered by such reviews.

    Article 24

    Secretariat

                This Agreement shall be serviced by the WTO Secretariat except in regard to those responsibilities specifically assigned to the Technical Committee, which will be serviced by the CCC Secretariat.

    ANNEX I

    INTERPRETATIVE NOTES

    General Note

    Sequential Application of Valuation Methods

    1.         Articles 1 through 7 define how the customs value of imported goods is to be determined under the provisions of this Agreement.  The methods of valuation are set out in a sequential order of application.  The primary method for customs valuation is defined in Article 1 and imported goods are to be valued in accordance with the provisions of this Article whenever the conditions prescribed therein are fulfilled.

    2.         Where the customs value cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1, it is to be determined by proceeding sequentially through the succeeding Articles to the first such Article under which the customs value can be determined.  Except as provided in Article 4, it is only when the customs value cannot be determined under the provisions of a particular Article that the provisions of the next Article in the sequence can be used.

    3.         If the importer does not request that the order of Articles 5 and 6 be reversed, the normal order of the sequence is to be followed.  If the importer does so request but it then proves impossible to determine the customs value under the provisions of Article 6, the customs value is to be determined under the provisions of Article 5, if it can be so determined.

    4.         Where the customs value cannot be determined under the provisions of Articles 1 through 6 it is to be determined under the provisions of Article 7.

    Use of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

    1.         "Generally accepted accounting principles" refers to the recognized consensus or substantial authoritative support within a country at a particular time as to which economic resources and obligations should be recorded as assets and liabilities, which changes in assets and liabilities should be recorded, how the assets and liabilities and changes in them should be measured, what information should be disclosed and how it should be disclosed, and which financial statements should be prepared.  These standards may be broad guidelines of general application as well as detailed practices and procedures.

    2.         For the purposes of this Agreement, the customs administration of each Member shall utilize information prepared in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles in the country which is appropriate for the Article in question.  For example, the determination of usual profit and general expenses under the provisions of Article 5 would be carried out utilizing information prepared in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles of the country of importation.  On the other hand, the determination of usual profit and general expenses under the provisions of Article 6 would be carried out utilizing information prepared in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles of the country of production.  As a further example, the determination of an element provided for in paragraph 1(b)(ii) of Article 8 undertaken in the country of importation would be carried out utilizing information in a manner consistent with the generally accepted accounting principles of that country.

    Note to Article 1

    Price Actually Paid or Payable

    1.         The price actually paid or payable is the total payment made or to be made by the buyer to or for the benefit of the seller for the imported goods.  The payment need not necessarily take the form of a transfer of money.  Payment may be made by way of letters of credit or negotiable instruments.  Payment may be made directly or indirectly.  An example of an indirect payment would be the settlement by the buyer, whether in whole or in part, of a debt owed by the seller.

    2.         Activities undertaken by the buyer on the buyer's own account, other than those for which an adjustment is provided in Article 8, are not considered to be an indirect payment to the seller, even though they might be regarded as of benefit to the seller.  The costs of such activities shall not, therefore, be added to the price actually paid or payable in determining the customs value.

    3.         The customs value shall not include the following charges or costs, provided that they are distinguished from the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods:

                (a)        charges for construction, erection, assembly, maintenance or technical assistance, undertaken after importation on imported goods such as industrial plant, machinery or equipment;

                (b)        the cost of transport after importation;

                (c)        duties and taxes of the country of importation.

    4.         The price actually paid or payable refers to the price for the imported goods.  Thus the flow of dividends or other payments from the buyer to the seller that do not relate to the imported goods are not part of the customs value.

    Paragraph 1(a)(iii)

                Among restrictions which would not render a price actually paid or payable unacceptable are restrictions which do not substantially affect the value of the goods.  An example of such restrictions would be the case where a seller requires a buyer of automobiles not to sell or exhibit them prior to a fixed date which represents the beginning of a model year.

    Paragraph 1(b)

    1.         If the sale or price is subject to some condition or consideration for which a value cannot be determined with respect to the goods being valued, the transaction value shall not be acceptable for customs purposes.  Some examples of this include:

                (a)        the seller establishes the price of the imported goods on condition that the buyer will also buy other goods in specified quantities;

                (b)        the price of the imported goods is dependent upon the price or prices at which the buyer of the imported goods sells other goods to the seller of the imported goods;

                (c)        the price is established on the basis of a form of payment extraneous to the imported goods, such as where the imported goods are semi-finished goods which have been provided by the seller on condition that the seller will receive a specified quantity of the finished goods.

    2.         However, conditions or considerations relating to the production or marketing of the imported goods shall not result in rejection of the transaction value.  For example, the fact that the buyer furnishes the seller with engineering and plans undertaken in the country of importation shall not result in rejection of the transaction value for the purposes of Article 1.  Likewise, if the buyer undertakes on the buyer’s own account, even though by agreement with the seller, activities relating to the marketing of the imported goods, the value of these activities is not part of the customs value nor shall such activities result in rejection of the transaction value.

    Paragraph 2

    1.         Paragraphs 2(a) and 2(b) provide different means of establishing the acceptability of a transaction value.

    2.         Paragraph 2(a) provides that where the buyer and the seller are related, the circumstances surrounding the sale shall be examined and the transaction value shall be accepted as the customs value provided that the relationship did not influence the price.  It is not intended that there should be an examination of the circumstances in all cases where the buyer and the seller are related.  Such examination will only be required where there are doubts about the acceptability of the price.  Where the customs administration have no doubts about the acceptability of the price, it should be accepted without requesting further information from the importer.  For example, the customs administration may have previously examined the relationship, or it may already have detailed information concerning the buyer and the seller, and may already be satisfied from such examination or information that the relationship did not influence the price.

    3.         Where the customs administration is unable to accept the transaction value without further inquiry, it should give the importer an opportunity to supply such further detailed information as may be necessary to enable it to examine the circumstances surrounding the sale.  In this context, the customs administration should be prepared to examine relevant aspects of the transaction, including the way in which the buyer and seller organize their commercial relations and the way in which the price in question was arrived at, in order to determine whether the relationship influenced the price.  Where it can be shown that the buyer and seller, although related under the provisions of Article 15, buy from and sell to each other as if they were not related, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced by the relationship.  As an example of this, if the price had been settled in a manner consistent with the normal pricing practices of the industry in question or with the way the seller settles prices for sales to buyers who are not related to the seller, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced by the relationship.  As a further example, where it is shown that the price is adequate to ensure recovery of all costs plus a profit which is representative of the firm's overall profit realized over a representative period of time (e.g. on an annual basis) in sales of goods of the same class or kind, this would demonstrate that the price had not been influenced.

    4.         Paragraph 2(b) provides an opportunity for the importer to demonstrate that the transaction value closely approximates to a "test" value previously accepted by the customs administration and is therefore acceptable under the provisions of Article 1.  Where a test under paragraph 2(b) is met, it is not necessary to examine the question of influence under paragraph 2(a).  If the customs administration has already sufficient information to be satisfied, without further detailed inquiries, that one of the tests provided in paragraph 2(b) has been met, there is no reason for it to require the importer to demonstrate that the test can be met.  In paragraph 2(b) the term "unrelated buyers" means buyers who are not related to the seller in any particular case.

    Paragraph 2(b)

                A number of factors must be taken into consideration in determining whether one value "closely approximates" to another value.  These factors include the nature of the imported goods, the nature of the industry itself, the season in which the goods are imported, and, whether the difference in values is commercially significant.  Since these factors may vary from case to case, it would be impossible to apply a uniform standard such as a fixed percentage, in each case.  For example, a small difference in value in a case involving one type of goods could be unacceptable while a large difference in a case involving another type of goods might be acceptable in determining whether the transaction value closely approximates to the "test" values set forth in paragraph 2(b) of Article 1.

    Note to Article 2

    1.         In applying Article 2, the customs administration shall, wherever possible, use a sale of identical goods at the same commercial level and in substantially the same quantities as the goods being valued.  Where no such sale is found, a sale of identical goods that takes place under any one of the following three conditions may be used:

                (a)        a sale at the same commercial level but in different quantities;

                (b)        a sale at a different commercial level but in substantially the same quantities;  or

                (c)        a sale at a different commercial level and in different quantities.

    2.         Having found a sale under any one of these three conditions adjustments will then be made, as the case may be, for:

                (a)        quantity factors only;

                (b)        commercial level factors only;  or

                (c)        both commercial level and quantity factors.

    3.         The expression "and/or" allows the flexibility to use the sales and make the necessary adjustments in any one of the three conditions described above.

    4.         For the purposes of Article 2, the transaction value of identical imported goods means a customs value, adjusted as provided for in paragraphs 1(b) and 2, which has already been accepted under Article 1.

    5.         A condition for adjustment because of different commercial levels or different quantities is that such adjustment, whether it leads to an increase or a decrease in the value, be made only on the basis of demonstrated evidence that clearly establishes the reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustments, e.g. valid price lists containing prices referring to different levels or different quantities.  As an example of this, if the imported goods being valued consist of a shipment of 10 units and the only identical imported goods for which a transaction value exists involved a sale of 500 units, and it is recognized that the seller grants quantity discounts, the required adjustment may be accomplished by resorting to the seller's price list and using that price applicable to a sale of 10 units.  This does not require that a sale had to have been made in quantities of 10 as long as the price list has been established as being bona fide through sales at other quantities.  In the absence of such an objective measure, however, the determination of a customs value under the provisions of Article 2 is not appropriate.

    Note to Article 3

    1.         In applying Article 3, the customs administration shall, wherever possible, use a sale of similar goods at the same commercial level and in substantially the same quantities as the goods being valued.  Where no such sale is found, a sale of similar goods that takes place under any one of the following three conditions may be used:

                (a)        a sale at the same commercial level but in different quantities;

                (b)        a sale at a different commercial level but in substantially the same quantities;  or

                (c)        a sale at a different commercial level and in different quantities.

    2.         Having found a sale under any one of these three conditions adjustments will then be made, as the case may be, for:

                (a)        quantity factors only;

                (b)        commercial level factors only;  or

                (c)        both commercial level and quantity factors.

    3.         The expression "and/or" allows the flexibility to use the sales and make the necessary adjustments in any one of the three conditions described above.

    4.         For the purpose of Article 3, the transaction value of similar imported goods means a customs value, adjusted as provided for in paragraphs 1(b) and 2, which has already been accepted under Article 1.

    5.         A condition for adjustment because of different commercial levels or different quantities is that such adjustment, whether it leads to an increase or a decrease in the value, be made only on the basis of demonstrated evidence that clearly establishes the reasonableness and accuracy of the adjustment, e.g. valid price lists containing prices referring to different levels or different quantities.  As an example of this, if the imported goods being valued consist of a shipment of 10 units and the only similar imported goods for which a transaction value exists involved a sale of 500 units, and it is recognized that the seller grants quantity discounts, the required adjustment may be accomplished by resorting to the seller's price list and using that price applicable to a sale of 10 units.  This does not require that a sale had to have been made in quantities of 10 as long as the price list has been established as being bona fide through sales at other quantities.  In the absence of such an objective measure, however, the determination of a customs value under the provisions of Article 3 is not appropriate.

    Note to Article 5

    1.         The term "unit price at which ... goods are sold in the greatest aggregate quantity" means the price at which the greatest number of units is sold in sales to persons who are not related to the persons from whom they buy such goods at the first commercial level after importation at which such sales take place.

    2.         As an example of this, goods are sold from a price list which grants favourable unit prices for purchases made in larger quantities.

    Sale quantity

    Unit price

    Number of sales

     

    Total quantity sold at each price

    1-10 units

    100

    10 sales of 5 units
     5 sales of 3 units

    65

    11-25 units

    95

     5 sales of 11 units

    55

    over 25 units

    90

     1 sale of 30 units
     1 sale of 50 units

    80

                The greatest number of units sold at a price is 80;  therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 90.

    3.         As another example of this, two sales occur.  In the first sale 500 units are sold at a price of 95 currency units each.  In the second sale 400 units are sold at a price of 90 currency units each.  In this example, the greatest number of units sold at a particular price is 500;  therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 95.

    4.         A third example would be the following situation where various quantities are sold at various prices.

    (a)   Sales  
    Sale quantity

    Unit price

    40 units

    100

    30 units

    90

    15 units

    100

    50 units

    95

    25 units

    105

    35 units

    90

     5 units

    100

    (b) Totals  
    Total quantity sold

    Unit price

    65

    90

    50

    95

    60

    100

    25

    105

                In this example, the greatest number of units sold at a particular price is 65;  therefore, the unit price in the greatest aggregate quantity is 90.

    5.         Any sale in the importing country, as described in paragraph 1 above, to a person who supplies directly or indirectly free of charge or at reduced cost for use in connection with the production and sale for export of the imported goods any of the elements specified in paragraph 1(b) of Article 8, should not be taken into account in establishing the unit price for the purposes of Article 5.

    6.         It should be noted that "profit and general expenses" referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 5 should be taken as a whole.  The figure for the purposes of this deduction should be determined on the basis of information supplied by or on behalf of the importer unless the importer's figures are inconsistent with those obtained in sales in the country of importation of imported goods of the same class or kind. Where the importer's figures are inconsistent with such figures, the amount for profit and general expenses may be based upon relevant information other than that supplied by or on behalf of the importer.

    7.         The "general expenses" include the direct and indirect costs of marketing the goods in question.

    8.         Local taxes payable by reason of the sale of the goods for which a deduction is not made under the provisions of paragraph 1(a)(iv) of Article 5 shall be deducted under the provisions of paragraph 1(a)(i) of Article 5.

    9.         In determining either the commissions or the usual profits and general expenses under the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 5, the question whether certain goods are "of the same class or kind" as other goods must be determined on a case-by-case basis by reference to the circumstances involved.  Sales in the country of importation of the narrowest group or range of imported goods of the same class or kind, which includes the goods being valued, for which the necessary information can be provided, should be examined.  For the purposes of Article 5, "goods of the same class or kind" includes goods imported from the same country as the goods being valued as well as goods imported from other countries.

    10.       For the purposes of paragraph 1(b) of Article 5, the "earliest date" shall be the date by which sales of the imported goods or of identical or similar imported goods are made in sufficient quantity to establish the unit price.

    11.       Where the method in paragraph 2 of Article 5 is used, deductions made for the value added by further processing shall be based on objective and quantifiable data relating to the cost of such work.  Accepted industry formulas, recipes, methods of construction, and other industry practices would form the basis of the calculations.

    12.       It is recognized that the method of valuation provided for in paragraph 2 of Article 5 would normally not be applicable when, as a result of the further processing, the imported goods lose their identity. However, there can be instances where, although the identity of the imported goods is lost, the value added by the processing can be determined accurately without unreasonable difficulty.  On the other hand, there can also be instances where the imported goods maintain their identity but form such a minor element in the goods sold in the country of importation that the use of this valuation method would be unjustified.  In view of the above, each situation of this type must be considered on a case-by-case basis.

    Note to Article 6

    1.         As a general rule, customs value is determined under this Agreement on the basis of information readily available in the country of importation.  In order to determine a computed value, however, it may be necessary to examine the costs of producing the goods being valued and other information which has to be obtained from outside the country of importation.  Furthermore, in most cases the producer of the goods will be outside the jurisdiction of the authorities of the country of importation.  The use of the computed value method will generally be limited to those cases where the buyer and seller are related, and the producer is prepared to supply to the authorities of the country of importation the necessary costings and to provide facilities for any subsequent verification which may be necessary.

    2.         The "cost or value" referred to in paragraph 1(a) of Article 6 is to be determined on the basis of information relating to the production of the goods being valued supplied by or on behalf of the producer.  It is to be based upon the commercial accounts of the producer, provided that such accounts are consistent with the generally accepted accounting principles applied in the country where the goods are produced.

    3.         The "cost or value" shall include the cost of elements specified in paragraphs 1(a)(ii) and (iii) of Article 8.  It shall also include the value, apportioned as appropriate under the provisions of the relevant note to Article 8, of any element specified in paragraph 1(b) of Article 8 which has been supplied directly or indirectly by the buyer for use in connection with the production of the imported goods.  The value of the elements specified in paragraph 1(b)(iv) of Article 8 which are undertaken in the country of importation shall be included only to the extent that such elements are charged to the producer.  It is to be understood that no cost or value of the elements referred to in this paragraph shall be counted twice in determining the computed value.

    4.         The "amount for profit and general expenses" referred to in paragraph 1(b) of Article 6 is to be determined on the basis of information supplied by or on behalf of the producer unless the producer's figures are inconsistent with those usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind as the goods being valued which are made by producers in the country of exportation for export to the country of importation.

    5.         It should be noted in this context that the "amount for profit and general expenses" has to be taken as a whole.  It follows that if, in any particular case, the producer's profit figure is low and the producer's general expenses are high, the producer's profit and general expenses taken together may nevertheless be consistent with that usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind.  Such a situation might occur, for example, if a product were being launched in the country of importation and the producer accepted a nil or low profit to offset high general expenses associated with the launch.  Where the producer can demonstrate a low profit on sales of the imported goods because of particular commercial circumstances, the producer's actual profit figures should be taken into account provided that the producer has valid commercial reasons to justify them and the producer's pricing policy reflects usual pricing policies in the branch of industry concerned.  Such a situation might occur, for example, where producers have been forced to lower prices temporarily because of an unforeseeable drop in demand, or where they sell goods to complement a range of goods being produced in the country of importation and accept a low profit to maintain competitivity.  Where the producer's own figures for profit and general expenses are not consistent with those usually reflected in sales of goods of the same class or kind as the goods being valued which are made by producers in the country of exportation for export to the country of importation, the amount for profit and general expenses may be based upon relevant information other than that supplied by or on behalf of the producer of the goods.

    6.         Where information other than that supplied by or on behalf of the producer is used for the purposes of determining a computed value, the authorities of the importing country shall inform the importer, if the latter so requests, of the source of such information, the data used and the calculations based upon such data, subject to the provisions of Article 10.

    7.         The "general expenses" referred to in paragraph 1(b) of Article 6 covers the direct and indirect costs of producing and selling the goods for export which are not included under paragraph 1(a) of Article 6.

    8.         Whether certain goods are "of the same class or kind" as other goods must be determined on a case-by-case basis with reference to the circumstances involved.  In determining the usual profits and general expenses under the provisions of Article 6, sales for export to the country of importation of the narrowest group or range of goods, which includes the goods being valued, for which the necessary information can be provided, should be examined.  For the purposes of Article 6, "goods of the same class or kind" must be from the same country as the goods being valued.

    Note to Article 7

    1.         Customs values determined under the provisions of Article 7 should, to the greatest extent possible, be based on previously determined customs values.

    2.         The methods of valuation to be employed under Article 7 should be those laid down in Articles 1 through 6 but a reasonable flexibility in the application of such methods would be in conformity with the aims and provisions of Article 7.

    3.         Some examples of reasonable flexibility are as follows:

    (a)        Identical goods - the requirement that the identical goods should be exported at or about the same time as the goods being valued could be flexibly interpreted;  identical imported goods produced in a country other than the country of exportation of the goods being valued could be the basis for customs valuation;  customs values of identical imported goods already determined under the provisions of Articles 5 and 6 could be used.

    (b)        Similar goods - the requirement that the similar goods should be exported at or about the same time as the goods being valued could be flexibly interpreted;  similar imported goods produced in a country other than the country of exportation of the goods being valued could be the basis for customs valuation;  customs values of similar imported goods already determined under the provisions of Articles 5 and 6 could be used.

    (c)        Deductive method - the requirement that the goods shall have been sold in the "condition as imported" in paragraph 1(a) of Article 5 could be flexibly interpreted;  the "90 days" requirement could be administered flexibly.

    Note to Article 8

    Paragraph 1(a)(i)

                The term "buying commissions" means fees paid by an importer to the importer's agent for the service of representing the importer abroad in the purchase of the goods being valued.

    Paragraph 1(b)(ii)

    1.         There are two factors involved in the apportionment of the elements specified in paragraph 1(b)(ii) of Article 8 to the imported goods - the value of the element itself and the way in which that value is to be apportioned to the imported goods.  The apportionment of these elements should be made in a reasonable manner appropriate to the circumstances and in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

    2.         Concerning the value of the element, if the importer acquires the element from a seller not related to the importer at a given cost, the value of the element is that cost.  If the element was produced by the importer or by a person related to the importer, its value would be the cost of producing it.  If the element had been previously used by the importer, regardless of whether it had been acquired or produced by such importer, the original cost of acquisition or production would have to be adjusted downward to reflect its use in order to arrive at the value of the element.

    3.         Once a value has been determined for the element, it is necessary to apportion that value to the imported goods.  Various possibilities exist.  For example, the value might be apportioned to the first shipment if the importer wishes to pay duty on the entire value at one time.  As another example, the importer may request that the value be apportioned over the number of units produced up to the time of the first shipment.  As a further example, the importer may request that the value be apportioned over the entire anticipated production where contracts or firm commitments exist for that production.  The method of apportionment used will depend upon the documentation provided by the importer.

    4.         As an illustration of the above, an importer provides the producer with a mould to be used in the production of the imported goods and contracts with the producer to buy 10,000 units.  By the time of arrival of the first shipment of 1,000 units, the producer has already produced 4,000 units.  The importer may request the customs administration to apportion the value of the mould over 1,000 units, 4,000 units or 10,000 units.

    Paragraph 1(b)(iv)

    1.         Additions for the elements specified in paragraph 1(b)(iv) of Article 8 should be based on objective and quantifiable data.  In order to minimize the burden for both the importer and customs administration in determining the values to be added, data readily available in the buyer's commercial record system should be used in so far as possible.

    2.         For those elements supplied by the buyer which were purchased or leased by the buyer, the addition would be the cost of the purchase or the lease.  No addition shall be made for those elements available in the public domain, other than the cost of obtaining copies of them.

    3.         The ease with which it may be possible to calculate the values to be added will depend on a particular firm's structure and management practice, as well as its accounting methods.

    4.         For example, it is possible that a firm which imports a variety of products from several countries maintains the records of its design centre outside the country of importation in such a way as to show accurately the costs attributable to a given product.  In such cases, a direct adjustment may appropriately be made under the provisions of Article 8.

    5.         In another case, a firm may carry the cost of the design centre outside the country of importation as a general overhead expense without allocation to specific products.  In this instance, an appropriate adjustment could be made under the provisions of Article 8 with respect to the imported goods by apportioning total design centre costs over total production benefiting from the design centre and adding such apportioned cost on a unit basis to imports.

    6.         Variations in the above circumstances will, of course, require different factors to be considered in determining the proper method of allocation.

    7.         In cases where the production of the element in question involves a number of countries and over a period of time, the adjustment should be limited to the value actually added to that element outside the country of importation.

    Paragraph 1(c)

    1.         The royalties and licence fees referred to in paragraph 1(c) of Article 8 may include, among other things, payments in respect to patents, trade marks and copyrights.  However, the charges for the right to reproduce the imported goods in the country of importation shall not be added to the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods in determining the customs value.

    2.         Payments made by the buyer for the right to distribute or resell the imported goods shall not be added to the price actually paid or payable for the imported goods if such payments are not a condition of the sale for export to the country of importation of the imported goods.

    Paragraph 3

                Where objective and quantifiable data do not exist with regard to the additions required to be made under the provisions of Article 8, the transaction value cannot be determined under the provisions of Article 1.  As an illustration of this, a royalty is paid on the basis of the price in a sale in the importing country of a litre of a particular product that was imported by the kilogram and made up into a solution after importation.  If the royalty is based partially on the imported goods and partially on other factors which have nothing to do with the imported goods (such as when the imported goods are mixed with domestic ingredients and are no longer separately identifiable, or when the royalty cannot be distinguished from special financial arrangements between the buyer and the seller), it would be inappropriate to attempt to make an addition for the royalty.  However, if the amount of this royalty is based only on the imported goods and can be readily quantified, an addition to the price actually paid or payable can be made.

    Note to Article 9

                For the purposes of Article 9, "time of importation" may include the time of entry for customs purposes.

    Note to Article 11

    1.         Article 11 provides the importer with the right to appeal against a valuation determination made by the customs administration for the goods being valued.  Appeal may first be to a higher level in the customs administration, but the importer shall have the right in the final instance to appeal to the judiciary.

    2.         "Without penalty" means that the importer shall not be subject to a fine or threat of fine merely because the importer chose to exercise the right of appeal.  Payment of normal court costs and lawyers' fees shall not be considered to be a fine.

    3.         However, nothing in Article 11 shall prevent a Member from requiring full payment of assessed customs duties prior to an appeal.

    Note to Article 15

    Paragraph 4

                For the purposes of Article 15, the term "persons" includes a legal person, where appropriate.

    Paragraph 4(e)

                For the purposes of this Agreement, one person shall be deemed to control another when the former is legally or operationally in a position to exercise restraint or direction over the latter.

    ANNEX II

    TECHNICAL COMMITTEE ON CUSTOMS VALUATION

    1.         In accordance with Article 18 of this Agreement, the Technical Committee shall be established under the auspices of the CCC with a view to ensuring, at the technical level, uniformity in interpretation and application of this Agreement.

    2.         The responsibilities of the Technical Committee shall include the following:

                (a)        to examine specific technical problems arising in the day-to-day administration of the customs valuation system of Members and to give advisory opinions on appropriate solutions based upon the facts presented;

                (b)        to study, as requested, valuation laws, procedures and practices as they relate to this Agreement and to prepare reports on the results of such studies;

                (c)        to prepare and circulate annual reports on the technical aspects of the operation and status of this Agreement;

                (d)        to furnish such information and advice on any matters concerning the valuation of imported goods for customs purposes as may be requested by any Member or the Committee.  Such information and advice may take the form of advisory opinions, commentaries or explanatory notes;

                (e)        to facilitate, as requested, technical assistance to Members with a view to furthering the international acceptance of this Agreement; 

                (f)        to carry out an examination of a matter referred to it by a panel under Article 19 of this Agreement;  and

                (g)        to exercise such other responsibilities as the Committee may assign to it.

    General

    3.         The Technical Committee shall attempt to conclude its work on specific matters, especially those referred to it by Members, the Committee or a panel, in a reasonably short period of time.   As provided in paragraph 4 of Article 19, a panel shall set a specific time period for receipt of a report of the Technical Committee and the Technical Committee shall provide its report within that period.

    4.         The Technical Committee shall be assisted as appropriate in its activities by the CCC Secretariat.

    Representation

    5.         Each Member shall have the right to be represented on the Technical Committee.  Each Member may nominate one delegate and one or more alternates to be its representatives on the Technical Committee.  Such a Member so represented on the Technical Committee is referred to in this Annex as a "member of the Technical Committee".  Representatives of members of the Technical Committee may be assisted by advisers.  The WTO Secretariat may also attend such meetings with observer status.

    6.         Members of the CCC which are not Members of the WTO may be represented at meetings of the Technical Committee by one delegate and one or more alternates.  Such representatives shall attend meetings of the Technical Committee as observers.

    7.         Subject to the approval of the Chairman of the Technical Committee, the Secretary-General of the CCC (referred to in this Annex as "the Secretary-General") may invite representatives of governments which are neither Members of the WTO nor members of the CCC and representatives of international governmental and trade organizations to attend meetings of the Technical Committee as observers.

    8.         Nominations of delegates, alternates and advisers to meetings of the Technical Committee shall be made to the Secretary-General.

    Technical Committee Meetings

    9.         The Technical Committee shall meet as necessary but at least two times a year.  The date of each meeting shall be fixed by the Technical Committee at its preceding session.  The date of the meeting may be varied either at the request of any member of the Technical Committee concurred in by a simple majority of the members of the Technical Committee or, in cases requiring urgent attention, at the request of the Chairman.   Notwithstanding the provisions in sentence 1 of this paragraph, the Technical Committee shall meet as necessary to consider matters referred to it by a panel under the provisions of Article 19 of this Agreement.

    10.       The meetings of the Technical Committee shall be held at the headquarters of the CCC unless otherwise decided.

    11.       The Secretary-General shall inform all members of the Technical Committee and those included under paragraphs 6 and 7 at least 30 days in advance, except in urgent cases, of the opening date of each session of the Technical Committee.

    Agenda

    12.       A provisional agenda for each session shall be drawn up by the Secretary-General and circulated to the members of the Technical Committee and to those included under paragraphs 6 and 7 at least 30 days in advance of the session, except in urgent cases.  This agenda shall comprise all items whose inclusion has been approved by the Technical Committee during its preceding session, all items included by the Chairman on the Chairman's own initiative, and all items whose inclusion has been requested by the Secretary-General, by the Committee or by any member of the Technical Committee.

    13.       The Technical Committee shall determine its agenda at the opening of each session.  During the session the agenda may be altered at any time by the Technical Committee.

    Officers and Conduct of Business

    14.       The Technical Committee shall elect from among the delegates of its members a Chairman and one or more Vice-Chairmen.  The Chairman and Vice-Chairmen shall each hold office for a period of one year.  The retiring Chairman and Vice-Chairmen are eligible for re-election.  The mandate of a Chairman or Vice-Chairman who no longer represents a member of the Technical Committee shall terminate automatically.

    15.       If the Chairman is absent from any meeting or part thereof, a Vice-Chairman shall preside.  In that event, the latter shall have the same powers and duties as the Chairman.

    16.       The Chairman of the meeting shall participate in the proceedings of the Technical Committee as such and not as the representative of a member of the Technical Committee.

    17.       In addition to exercising the other powers conferred upon the Chairman by these rules, the Chairman shall declare the opening and closing of each meeting, direct the discussion, accord the right to speak, and, pursuant to these rules, have control of the proceedings.  The Chairman may also call a speaker to order if the speaker's remarks are not relevant.

    18.       During discussion of any matter a delegation may raise a point of order.  In this event, the Chairman shall immediately state a ruling.  If this ruling is challenged, the Chairman shall submit it to the meeting for decision and it shall stand unless overruled.

    19.       The Secretary-General, or officers of the CCC Secretariat designated by the Secretary-General, shall perform the secretarial work of meetings of the Technical Committee.

    Quorum and Voting

    20.       Representatives of a simple majority of the members of the Technical Committee shall constitute a quorum.

    21.       Each member of the Technical Committee shall have one vote.  A decision of the Technical Committee shall be taken by a majority comprising at least two thirds of the members present.  Regardless of the outcome of the vote on a particular matter, the Technical Committee shall be free to make a full report to the Committee and to the CCC on that matter indicating the different views expressed in the relevant discussions.  Notwithstanding the above provisions of this paragraph, on matters referred to it by a panel, the Technical Committee shall take decisions by consensus.  Where no agreement is reached in the Technical Committee on the question referred to it by a panel, the Technical Committee shall provide a report detailing the facts of the matter and indicating the views of the members.

    Languages and Records

    22.       The official languages of the Technical Committee shall be English, French and Spanish.  Speeches or statements made in any of these three languages shall be immediately translated into the other official languages unless all delegations agree to dispense with translation.  Speeches or statements made in any other language shall be translated into English, French and Spanish, subject to the same conditions, but in that event the delegation concerned shall provide the translation into English, French or Spanish.  Only English, French and Spanish shall be used for the official documents of the Technical Committee. Memoranda and correspondence for the consideration of the Technical Committee must be presented in one of the official languages.

    23.       The Technical Committee shall draw up a report of all its sessions and, if the Chairman considers it necessary, minutes or summary records of its meetings.  The Chairman or a designee of the Chairman shall report on the work of the Technical Committee at each meeting of the Committee and at each meeting of the CCC.

    ANNEX III

    1.         The five-year delay in the application of the provisions of the Agreement by developing country Members provided for in paragraph 1 of Article 20 may, in practice, be insufficient for certain developing country Members.  In such cases a developing country Member may request before the end of the period referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 20 an extension of such period, it being understood that the Members will give sympathetic consideration to such a request in cases where the developing country Member in question can show good cause.

    2.         Developing countries which currently value goods on the basis of officially established minimum values may wish to make a reservation to enable them to retain such values on a limited and transitional basis under such terms and conditions as may be agreed to by the Members.

    3.         Developing countries which consider that the reversal of the sequential order at the request of the importer provided for in Article 4 of the Agreement may give rise to real difficulties for them may wish to make a reservation to Article 4 in the following terms:

    "The Government of ............ reserves the right to provide that the relevant provision of Article 4 of the Agreement shall apply only when the customs authorities agree to the request to reverse the order of Articles 5 and 6."

    If developing countries make such a reservation, the Members shall consent to it under Article 21 of the Agreement.

    4.         Developing countries may wish to make a reservation with respect to paragraph 2 of Article 5 of the Agreement in the following terms:

    "The Government of ............ reserves the right to provide that paragraph 2 of Article 5 of the Agreement shall be applied in accordance with the provisions of the relevant note thereto whether or not the importer so requests."

    If developing countries make such a reservation, the Members shall consent to it under Article 21 of the Agreement.

    5.         Certain developing countries may have problems in the implementation of Article 1 of the Agreement insofar as it relates to importations into their countries by sole agents, sole distributors and sole concessionaires.  If such problems arise in practice in developing country Members applying the Agreement, a study of this question shall be made, at the request of such Members, with a view to finding appropriate solutions.

    6.         Article 17 recognizes that in applying the Agreement, customs administrations may need to make enquiries concerning the truth or accuracy of any statement, document or declaration presented to them for customs valuation purposes.  The Article thus acknowledges that enquiries may be made which are, for example, aimed at verifying that the elements of value declared or presented to customs in connection with a determination of customs value are complete and correct.  Members, subject to their national laws and procedures, have the right to expect the full cooperation of importers in these enquiries.

    7.         The price actually paid or payable includes all payments actually made or to be made as a condition of sale of the imported goods, by the buyer to the seller, or by the buyer to a third party to satisfy an obligation of the seller.

    AGREEMENT ON PRESHIPMENT INSPECTION

    Members,

                Noting that Ministers on 20 September 1986 agreed that the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations shall aim to "bring about further liberalization and expansion of world trade", "strengthen the role of GATT" and "increase the responsiveness of the GATT system to the evolving international economic environment";

                Noting that a number of developing country Members have recourse to preshipment inspection;

                Recognizing the need of developing countries to do so for as long and in so far as it is necessary to verify the quality, quantity or price of imported goods;

                Mindful that such programmes must be carried out without giving rise to unnecessary delays or unequal treatment;

                Noting that this inspection is by definition carried out on the territory of exporter Members;

                Recognizing the need to establish an agreed international framework of rights and obligations of both user Members and exporter Members;

                Recognizing that the principles and obligations of GATT 1994 apply to those activities of preshipment inspection entities that are mandated by governments that are Members of the WTO;

                Recognizing that it is desirable to provide transparency of the operation of preshipment inspection entities and of laws and regulations relating to preshipment inspection;

                Desiring to provide for the speedy, effective and equitable resolution of disputes between exporters and preshipment inspection entities arising under this Agreement;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    Article 1

    Coverage - Definitions

    1.         This Agreement shall apply to all preshipment inspection activities carried out on the territory of Members, whether such activities are contracted or mandated by the government, or any government body, of a Member.

    2.         The term "user Member" means a Member of which the government or any government body contracts for or mandates the use of preshipment inspection activities.

    3.         Preshipment inspection activities are all activities relating to the verification of the quality, the quantity, the price, including currency exchange rate and financial terms, and/or the customs classification of goods to be exported to the territory of the user Member.

    4.         The term "preshipment inspection entity" is any entity contracted or mandated by a Member to carry out preshipment inspection activities.[53]

    Article 2

    Obligations of User Members

    Non-discrimination

    1.        User Members shall ensure that preshipment inspection activities are carried out in a non-discriminatory manner, and that the procedures and criteria employed in the conduct of these activities are objective and are applied on an equal  basis to all exporters affected by such activities.  They shall ensure uniform performance of inspection by all the inspectors of the preshipment inspection entities contracted or mandated by them.

    Governmental Requirements

    2.         User Members shall ensure that in the course of preshipment inspection activities relating to their laws, regulations and requirements, the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article III of GATT 1994 are respected to the extent that these are relevant.

    Site of Inspection

    3.         User Members shall ensure that all preshipment inspection activities, including the issuance of a Clean Report of Findings or a note of non-issuance, are performed in the customs territory from which the goods are exported or, if the inspection cannot be carried out in that customs territory given the complex nature of the products involved, or if both parties agree, in the customs territory in which the goods are manufactured.

    Standards

    4.         User Members shall ensure that quantity and quality inspections are performed in accordance with the standards defined by the seller and the buyer in the purchase agreement and that, in the absence of such standards, relevant international standards[54] apply.

    Transparency

    5.         User Members shall ensure that preshipment inspection activities are conducted in a transparent manner.

    6.         User Members shall ensure that, when initially contacted by exporters, preshipment inspection entities provide to the exporters a list of all the information which is necessary for the exporters to comply with inspection requirements.  The preshipment inspection entities shall provide the actual information when so requested by exporters.  This information shall include a reference to the laws and regulations of user Members relating to preshipment inspection activities, and shall also include the procedures and criteria used for inspection and for price and currency exchange-rate verification purposes, the exporters' rights vis-à-vis the inspection entities, and the appeals procedures set up under paragraph 21.  Additional procedural requirements or changes in existing procedures shall not be applied to a shipment unless the exporter concerned is informed of these changes at the time the inspection date is arranged.  However, in emergency situations of the types addressed by Articles XX and XXI of GATT 1994, such additional requirements or changes may be applied to a shipment before the exporter has been informed.  This assistance shall not, however, relieve exporters from their obligations in respect of compliance with the import regulations of the user Members.

    7.         User Members shall ensure that the information referred to in paragraph 6 is made available to exporters in a convenient manner, and that the preshipment inspection offices maintained by preshipment inspection entities serve as information points where this information is available.

    8.         User Members shall publish promptly all applicable laws and regulations relating to preshipment inspection activities in such a manner as to enable other governments and traders to become acquainted with them.

    Protection of Confidential Business Information

    9.         User Members shall ensure that preshipment inspection entities treat all information received in the course of the preshipment inspection as business confidential to the extent that such information is not already published, generally available to third parties, or otherwise in the public domain.  User Members shall ensure that preshipment inspection entities maintain procedures to this end.

    10.       User Members shall provide information to Members on request on the measures they are taking to give effect to paragraph 9.  The provisions of this paragraph shall not require any Member to disclose confidential information the disclosure of which would jeopardize the effectiveness of the preshipment inspection programmes or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interest of particular enterprises, public or private.

    11.       User Members shall ensure that preshipment inspection entities do not divulge confidential business information to any third party, except that preshipment inspection entities may share this information with the government entities that have contracted or mandated them.  User Members shall ensure that confidential business information which they receive from preshipment inspection entities contracted or mandated by them is adequately safeguarded.  Preshipment inspection entities shall share confidential business information with the governments contracting or mandating them only to the extent that such information is customarily required for letters of credit or other forms of payment or for customs, import licensing or exchange control purposes.

    12.       User Members shall ensure that preshipment inspection entities do not request exporters to provide information regarding:

                (a)        manufacturing data related to patented, licensed or undisclosed processes, or to processes for which a patent is pending;

                (b)        unpublished technical data other than data necessary to demonstrate compliance with technical regulations or standards;

                (c)        internal pricing, including manufacturing costs;

                (d)        profit levels;

                (e)        the terms of contracts between exporters and their suppliers unless it is not otherwise possible for the entity to conduct the inspection in question.  In such cases, the entity shall only request the information necessary for this purpose.

    13.       The information referred to in paragraph 12, which preshipment inspection entities shall not otherwise request, may be released voluntarily by the exporter to illustrate a specific case.

    Conflicts of Interest

    14.       User Members shall ensure that preshipment inspection entities, bearing in mind also the provisions on protection of confidential business information in paragraphs 9 through 13, maintain procedures to avoid conflicts of interest:

                (a)        between preshipment inspection entities and any related entities of the preshipment inspection entities in question, including any entities in which the latter have a financial or commercial interest or any entities which have a financial interest in the preshipment inspection entities in question, and whose shipments the preshipment inspection entities are to inspect;

                (b)        between preshipment inspection entities and any other entities, including other entities subject to preshipment inspection, with the exception of the government entities contracting or mandating the inspections;

                (c)        with divisions of preshipment inspection entities engaged in activities other than those required to carry out the inspection process.

    Delays

    15.       User Members shall ensure that preshipment inspection entities avoid unreasonable delays in inspection of shipments.  User Members shall ensure that, once a preshipment inspection entity and an exporter agree on an inspection date, the preshipment inspection entity conducts the inspection on that date unless it is rescheduled on a mutually agreed basis between the exporter and the preshipment inspection entity, or the preshipment inspection entity is prevented from doing so by the exporter or by force majeure.[55]

    16.       User Members shall ensure that, following receipt of the final documents and completion of the inspection, preshipment inspection entities, within five working days, either issue a Clean Report of Findings or provide a detailed written explanation specifying the reasons for non-issuance.  User Members shall ensure that, in the latter case, preshipment inspection entities give exporters the opportunity to present their views in writing and, if exporters so request, arrange for re-inspection at the earliest mutually convenient date.

    17.       User Members shall ensure that, whenever so requested by the exporters, preshipment inspection entities undertake, prior to the date of physical inspection, a preliminary verification of price and, where applicable, of currency exchange rate, on the basis of the contract between exporter and importer, the pro forma invoice and, where applicable, the application for import authorization.  User Members shall ensure that a price or currency exchange rate that has been accepted by a preshipment inspection entity on the basis of such preliminary verification is not withdrawn, providing the goods conform to the import documentation and/or import licence.  They shall ensure that, after a preliminary verification has taken place, preshipment inspection entities immediately inform exporters in writing either of their acceptance or of their detailed reasons for non-acceptance of the price and/or currency exchange rate.

    18.       User Members shall ensure that, in order to avoid delays in payment, preshipment inspection entities send to exporters or to designated representatives of the exporters a Clean Report of Findings as expeditiously as possible.

    19.       User Members shall ensure that, in the event of a clerical error in the Clean Report of Findings, preshipment inspection entities correct the error and forward the corrected information to the appropriate parties as expeditiously as possible.

    Price Verification

    20.       User Members shall ensure that, in order to prevent over- and under-invoicing and fraud, preshipment inspection entities conduct price verification[56] according to the following guidelines:

                (a)        preshipment inspection entities shall only reject a contract price agreed between an exporter and an importer if they can demonstrate that their findings of an unsatisfactory price are based on a verification process which is in conformity with the criteria set out in subparagraphs (b) through (e);

                (b)        the preshipment inspection entity shall base its price comparison for the verification of the export price on the price(s) of identical or similar goods offered for export from the same country of exportation at or about the same time, under competitive and comparable conditions of sale, in conformity with customary commercial practices and net of any applicable standard discounts.  Such comparison shall be based on the following:

                            (i)         only prices providing a valid basis of comparison shall be used, taking into account the relevant economic factors pertaining to the country of importation and a country or countries used for price comparison;

                            (ii)        the preshipment inspection entity shall not rely upon the price of goods offered for export to different countries of importation to arbitrarily impose the lowest price upon the shipment;

                            (iii)       the preshipment inspection entity shall take into account the specific elements listed in subparagraph (c);

                            (iv)       at any stage in the process described above, the preshipment inspection entity shall provide the exporter with an opportunity to explain the price;

                (c)        when conducting price verification, preshipment inspection entities shall make appropriate allowances for the terms of the sales contract and generally applicable adjusting factors pertaining to the transaction;  these factors shall include but not be limited to the commercial level and quantity of the sale, delivery periods and conditions, price escalation clauses, quality specifications, special design features, special shipping or packing specifications, order size, spot sales, seasonal influences, licence or other intellectual property fees, and services rendered as part of the contract if these are not customarily invoiced separately;  they shall also include certain elements relating to the exporter's price, such as the contractual relationship between the exporter and importer;

                (d)        the verification of transportation charges shall relate only to the agreed price of the mode of transport in the country of exportation as indicated in the sales contract;

                (e)        the following shall not be used for price verification purposes:

                            (i)         the selling price in the country of importation of goods produced in such country;

                            (ii)        the price of goods for export from a country other than the country of exportation;

                            (iii)       the cost of production;

                            (iv)       arbitrary or fictitious prices or values.

    Appeals Procedures

    21.       User Members shall ensure that preshipment inspection entities establish procedures to receive, consider and render decisions concerning grievances raised by exporters, and that information concerning such procedures is made available to exporters in accordance with the provisions of  paragraphs 6 and 7.  User Members shall ensure that the procedures are developed and maintained in accordance with the following guidelines:

                (a)        preshipment inspection entities shall designate one or more officials who shall be available during normal business hours in each city or port in which they maintain a preshipment inspection administrative office to receive, consider and render decisions on exporters' appeals or grievances;

                (b)        exporters shall provide in writing to the designated official(s) the facts concerning the specific transaction in question, the nature of the grievance and a suggested solution;

                (c)        the designated official(s) shall afford sympathetic consideration to exporters' grievances and shall render a decision as soon as possible after receipt of the documentation referred to in subparagraph (b).

    Derogation

    22.       By derogation to the provisions of Article 2, user Members shall provide that, with the exception of part shipments, shipments whose value is less than a minimum value applicable to such shipments as defined by the user Member shall not be inspected, except in exceptional circumstances.  This minimum value shall form part of the information furnished to exporters under the provisions of paragraph 6.

    Article 3

    Obligations of Exporter Members

    Non-discrimination

    1.         Exporter Members shall ensure that their laws and regulations relating to preshipment inspection activities are applied in a non-discriminatory manner.

    Transparency

    2.         Exporter Members shall publish promptly all applicable laws and regulations relating to preshipment inspection activities in such a manner as to enable other governments and traders to become acquainted with them.

    Technical Assistance

    3.         Exporter Members shall offer to provide to user Members, if requested, technical assistance directed towards the achievement of the objectives of this Agreement on mutually agreed terms.[57]

    Article 4

    Independent Review Procedures

                Members shall encourage preshipment inspection entities and exporters mutually to resolve their disputes.  However, two working days after submission of the grievance in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 21 of Article 2, either party may refer the dispute to independent review.  Members shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure that the following procedures are established and maintained to this end:

                (a)        these procedures shall be administered by an independent entity constituted jointly by an organization representing preshipment inspection entities and an organization representing exporters for the purposes of this Agreement;

                (b)        the independent entity referred to in subparagraph (a) shall establish a list of experts as follows:

                            (i)        a section of members nominated by an organization representing preshipment inspection entities;

                            (ii)        a section of members nominated by an organization representing exporters;

                            (iii)       a section of independent trade experts, nominated by the independent entity referred to in subparagraph (a).

    The geographical distribution of the experts on this list shall be such as to enable any disputes raised under these procedures to be dealt with expeditiously.  This list shall be drawn up within two months of the entry into force of the WTO Agreement and shall be updated annually.  The list shall be publicly available.  It shall be notified to the Secretariat and circulated to all Members;

                (c)        an exporter or preshipment inspection entity wishing to raise a dispute shall contact the independent entity referred to in subparagraph (a) and request the formation of a panel.  The independent entity shall be responsible for establishing a panel.  This panel shall consist of three members.  The members of the panel shall be chosen so as to avoid unnecessary costs and delays.  The first member shall be chosen from section (i) of the above list by the preshipment inspection entity concerned, provided that this member is not affiliated to that entity.  The second member shall be chosen from section (ii) of the above list by the exporter concerned, provided that this member is not affiliated to that exporter.  The third member shall be chosen from section (iii) of the above list by the independent entity referred to in subparagraph (a).  No objections shall be made to any independent trade expert drawn from section (iii) of the above list;

    (d)        the independent trade expert drawn from section (iii) of the above list shall serve as the chairman of the panel.  The independent trade expert shall take the necessary decisions to ensure an expeditious settlement of the dispute by the panel, for instance, whether the facts of the case require the panelists to meet and, if so, where such a meeting shall take place, taking into account the site of the inspection in question;

    (e)        if the parties to the dispute so agree, one independent trade expert could be selected from section (iii) of the above list by the independent entity referred to in subparagraph (a) to review the dispute in question.  This expert shall take the necessary decisions to ensure an expeditious settlement of the dispute, for instance taking into account the site of the inspection in question;

    (f)        the object of the review shall be to establish whether, in the course of the inspection in dispute, the parties to the dispute have complied with the provisions of this Agreement.  The procedures shall be expeditious and provide the opportunity for both parties to present their views in person or in writing;  

    (g)        decisions by a three-member panel shall be taken by majority vote.  The decision on the dispute shall be rendered within eight working days of the request for independent review and be communicated to the  parties to the dispute.  This time-limit could be extended upon agreement by the parties to the dispute.  The panel or independent trade expert shall apportion the costs, based on the merits of the case;

    (h)        the decision of the panel shall be binding upon the preshipment inspection entity and the exporter which are parties to the dispute.

    Article 5

    Notification

                Members shall submit to the Secretariat copies of the laws and regulations by which they put this Agreement into force, as well as copies of any other laws and regulations relating to preshipment inspection, when the WTO Agreement enters into force with respect to the Member concerned.  No changes in the laws and regulations relating to preshipment inspection shall be enforced before such changes have been officially published.  They shall be notified to the Secretariat immediately after their publication.  The Secretariat shall inform the Members of the availability of this information.

    Article 6

    Review

                At the end of the second year from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement and every three years thereafter, the Ministerial Conference shall review the provisions, implementation and operation of this Agreement, taking into account the objectives thereof and experience gained in its operation.  As a result of such review, the Ministerial Conference may amend the provisions of the Agreement.

    Article 7

    Consultation

                Members shall consult with other Members upon request with respect to any matter affecting the operation of this Agreement.  In such cases, the provisions of Article XXII of GATT 1994, as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding, are applicable to this Agreement.

    Article 8

    Dispute Settlement

                Any disputes among Members regarding the operation of this Agreement shall be subject to the provisions of Article XXIII of GATT 1994, as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding.

    Article 9

                Final Provisions

    1.         Members shall take the necessary measures for the implementation of the present Agreement.

    2.         Members shall ensure that their laws and regulations shall not be contrary to the provisions of this Agreement.

    AGREEMENT ON RULES OF ORIGIN

    Members,

                Noting that Ministers on 20 September 1986 agreed that the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations shall aim to "bring about further liberalization and expansion of world trade", "strengthen the role of GATT" and "increase the responsiveness of the GATT system to the evolving international economic environment";

                Desiring to further the objectives of GATT 1994;

                Recognizing that clear and predictable rules of origin and their application facilitate the flow of international trade;

                Desiring to ensure that rules of origin themselves do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade;

                Desiring to ensure that rules of origin do not nullify or impair the rights of Members under GATT 1994;

                Recognizing that it is desirable to provide transparency of laws, regulations, and practices regarding rules of origin;

                Desiring to ensure that rules of origin are prepared and applied in an impartial, transparent, predictable, consistent and neutral manner;

                Recognizing the availability of a consultation mechanism and procedures for the speedy, effective and equitable resolution of disputes arising under this Agreement;

                Desiring to harmonize and clarify rules of origin;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    PART I

    DEFINITIONS AND COVERAGE

    Article 1

    Rules of Origin

    1.         For the purposes of Parts I to IV of this Agreement, rules of origin shall be defined as those laws, regulations and administrative determinations of general application applied by any Member to determine the country of origin of goods provided such rules of origin are not related to contractual or autonomous trade regimes leading to the granting of tariff preferences going beyond the application of paragraph 1 of Article I of GATT 1994.

    2.         Rules of origin referred to in paragraph 1 shall include all rules of origin used in non-preferential commercial policy instruments, such as in the application of:  most-favoured-nation treatment under Articles I, II, III, XI and XIII of GATT 1994;  anti-dumping and countervailing duties under Article VI of GATT 1994;  safeguard measures under Article XIX of GATT 1994;  origin marking requirements under Article IX of GATT 1994;  and any discriminatory quantitative restrictions or tariff quotas.  They shall also include rules of origin used for government procurement and trade statistics.[58]

    PART II

    DISCIPLINES TO GOVERN THE APPLICATION OF RULES OF ORIGIN

    Article 2

    Disciplines During the Transition Period

                Until the work programme for the harmonization of rules of origin set out in Part IV is completed, Members shall ensure that:

                (a)        when they issue administrative determinations of general application, the requirements to be fulfilled are clearly defined.  In particular:

                            (i)         in cases where the criterion of change of tariff classification is applied, such a rule of origin, and any exceptions to the rule, must clearly specify the subheadings or headings within the tariff nomenclature that are addressed by the rule;

                            (ii)        in cases where the ad valorem percentage criterion is applied, the method for calculating this percentage shall also be indicated in the rules of origin;

                            (iii)       in cases where the criterion of manufacturing or processing operation is prescribed, the operation that confers origin on the good concerned shall be precisely specified;

                (b)        notwithstanding the measure or instrument of commercial policy to which they are linked, their rules of origin are not used as instruments to pursue trade objectives directly or indirectly;

                (c)        rules of origin shall not themselves create restrictive, distorting, or disruptive effects on international trade.  They shall not pose unduly strict requirements or require the fulfilment of a certain condition not related to manufacturing or processing, as a prerequisite for the determination of the country of origin.  However, costs not directly related to manufacturing or processing may be included for the purposes of the application of an ad valorem percentage criterion consistent with subparagraph (a);

                (d)        the rules of origin that they apply to imports and exports are not more stringent than the rules of origin they apply to determine whether or not a good is domestic and shall not discriminate between other Members, irrespective of the affiliation of the manufacturers of the good concerned[59];

                (e)        their rules of origin are administered in a consistent, uniform, impartial and reasonable manner;

                (f)        their rules of origin are based on a positive standard.  Rules of origin that state what does not confer origin (negative standard) are permissible as part of a clarification of a positive standard or in individual cases where a positive determination of origin is not necessary;

                (g)        their laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application relating to rules of origin are published as if they were subject to, and in accordance with, the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article X of GATT 1994;

                (h)        upon the request of an exporter, importer or any person with a justifiable cause, assessments of the origin they would accord to a good are issued as soon as possible but no later than 150 days[60] after a request for such an assessment provided that all necessary elements have been submitted.  Requests for such assessments shall be accepted before trade in the good concerned begins and may be accepted at any later point in time.  Such assessments shall remain valid for three years provided that the facts and conditions, including the rules of origin, under which they have been made remain comparable.  Provided that the parties concerned are informed in advance, such assessments will no longer be valid when a decision contrary to the assessment is made in a review as referred to in subparagraph (j). Such assessments shall be made publicly available subject to the provisions of subparagraph (k);

                (i)         when introducing changes to their rules of origin or new rules of origin, they shall not apply such changes retroactively as defined in, and without prejudice to, their laws or regulations;

                (j)         any administrative action which they take in relation to the determination of origin is reviewable promptly by judicial, arbitral or administrative tribunals or procedures, independent of the authority issuing the determination, which can effect the modification or reversal of the determination;

                (k)        all information that is by nature confidential or that is provided on a confidential basis for the purpose of the application of rules of origin is treated as strictly confidential by the authorities concerned, which shall not disclose it without the specific permission of the person or government providing such information, except to the extent that it may be required to be disclosed in the context of judicial proceedings.

    Article 3

    Disciplines after the Transition Period

                Taking into account the aim of all Members to achieve, as a result of the harmonization work programme set out in Part IV, the establishment of harmonized rules of origin, Members shall ensure, upon the implementation of the results of the harmonization work programme, that:

                (a)        they apply rules of origin equally for all purposes as set out in Article 1;

                (b)        under their rules of origin, the country to be determined as the origin of a particular good is either the country where the good has been wholly obtained or, when more than one country is concerned in the production of the good, the country where the last substantial transformation has been carried out;

                (c)        the rules of origin that they apply to imports and exports are not more stringent than the rules of origin they apply to determine whether or not a good is domestic and shall not discriminate between other Members, irrespective of the affiliation of the manufacturers of the good concerned;

                (d)        the rules of origin are administered in a consistent, uniform, impartial and reasonable manner;

                (e)        their laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application relating to rules of origin are published as if they were subject to, and in accordance with, the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article X of GATT 1994;

                (f)        upon the request of an exporter, importer or any person with a justifiable cause, assessments of the origin they would accord to a good are issued as soon as possible but no later than 150 days after a request for such an assessment provided that all necessary elements have been submitted.  Requests for such assessments shall be accepted before trade in the good concerned begins and may be accepted at any later point in time.  Such assessments shall remain valid for three years provided that the facts and conditions, including the rules of origin, under which they have been made remain comparable.  Provided that the parties concerned are informed in advance, such assessments will no longer be valid when a decision contrary to the assessment is made in a review as referred to in subparagraph (h).  Such assessments shall be made publicly available subject to the provisions of subparagraph (i);

                (g)        when introducing changes to their rules of origin or new rules of origin, they shall not apply such changes retroactively as defined in, and without prejudice to, their laws or regulations;

                (h)        any administrative action which they take in relation to the determination of origin is reviewable promptly by judicial, arbitral or administrative tribunals or procedures, independent of the authority issuing the determination, which can effect the modification or reversal of the determination;

                (i)         all information which is by nature confidential or which is provided on a confidential basis for the purpose of the application of rules of origin is treated as strictly confidential by the authorities concerned, which shall not disclose it without the specific permission of the person or government providing such information, except to the extent that it may be required to be disclosed in the context of judicial proceedings.

    PART III

    PROCEDURAL ARRANGEMENTS ON NOTIFICATION, REVIEW, CONSULTATION AND DISPUTE SETTLEMENT

    Article 4

    Institutions

    1.         There is hereby established a Committee on Rules of Origin (referred to in this Agreement as "the Committee") composed of the representatives from each of the Members.  The Committee shall elect its own Chairman and shall meet as necessary, but not less than once a year, for the purpose of affording Members the opportunity to consult on matters relating to the operation of Parts I, II, III and IV or the furtherance of the objectives set out in these Parts and to carry out such other responsibilities assigned to it under this Agreement or by the Council for Trade in Goods.  Where appropriate, the Committee shall request information and advice from the Technical Committee referred to in paragraph 2 on matters related to this Agreement.  The Committee may also request such other work from the Technical Committee as it considers appropriate for the furtherance of the above-mentioned objectives of this Agreement.  The WTO Secretariat shall act as the secretariat to the Committee.

    2.         There shall be established a Technical Committee on Rules of Origin (referred to in this Agreement as "the Technical Committee") under the auspices of the Customs Co-operation Council (CCC) as set out in Annex I.  The Technical Committee shall carry out the technical work called for in Part IV and prescribed in Annex I.  Where appropriate, the Technical Committee shall request information and advice from the Committee on matters related to this Agreement.  The Technical Committee may also request such other work from the Committee as it considers appropriate for the furtherance of the above-mentioned objectives of the Agreement.  The CCC Secretariat shall act as the secretariat to the Technical Committee.

    Article 5

    Information and Procedures for Modification and Introduction of New Rules of Origin

    1.         Each Member shall provide to the Secretariat, within 90 days after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement for it, its rules of origin, judicial decisions, and administrative rulings of general application relating to rules of origin in effect on that date.  If by inadvertence a rule of origin has not been provided, the Member concerned shall provide it immediately after this fact becomes known.  Lists of information received and available with the Secretariat shall be circulated to the Members by the Secretariat.

    2.         During the period referred to in Article 2, Members introducing modifications, other than de minimis modifications, to their rules of origin or introducing new rules of origin, which, for the purpose of this Article, shall include any rule of origin referred to in paragraph 1 and not provided to the Secretariat, shall publish a notice to that effect at least 60 days before the entry into force of the modified or new rule in such a manner as to enable interested parties to become acquainted with the intention to modify a rule of origin or to introduce a new rule of origin, unless exceptional circumstances arise or threaten to arise for a Member.  In these exceptional cases, the Member shall publish the modified or new rule as soon as possible.

    Article 6

    Review

    1.         The Committee shall review annually the implementation and operation of Parts II and III of this Agreement having regard to its objectives.  The Committee shall annually inform the Council for Trade in Goods of developments during the period covered by such reviews.

    2.         The Committee shall review the provisions of Parts I, II and III and propose amendments as necessary to reflect the results of the harmonization work programme.

    3.         The Committee, in cooperation with the Technical Committee, shall set up a mechanism to consider and propose amendments to the results of the harmonization work programme, taking into account the objectives and principles set out in Article 9.  This may include instances where the rules need to be made more operational or need to be updated to take into account new production processes as affected by any technological change.

    Article 7

    Consultation

                The provisions of Article XXII of GATT 1994, as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding, are applicable to this Agreement.

    Article 8

    Dispute Settlement

                The provisions of Article XXIII of GATT 1994, as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding, are applicable to this Agreement.

    PART IV

    HARMONIZATION OF RULES OF ORIGIN

    Article 9

    Objectives and Principles

    1.         With the objectives of harmonizing rules of origin and, inter alia, providing more certainty in the conduct of world trade, the Ministerial Conference shall undertake the work programme set out below in conjunction with the CCC, on the basis of the following principles:

                (a)        rules of origin should be applied equally for all purposes as set out in Article 1;

                (b)        rules of origin should provide for the country to be determined as the origin of a particular good to be either the country where the good has been wholly obtained or, when more than one country is concerned in the production of the good, the country where the last substantial transformation has been carried out;

                (c)        rules of origin should be objective, understandable and predictable;

                (d)        notwithstanding the measure or instrument to which they may be linked, rules of origin should not be used as instruments to pursue trade objectives directly or indirectly.  They should not themselves create restrictive, distorting or disruptive effects on international trade.  They should not pose unduly strict requirements or require the fulfilment of a certain condition not relating to manufacturing or processing as a prerequisite for the determination of the country of origin.  However, costs not directly related to manufacturing or processing may be included for purposes of the application of an ad valorem percentage criterion;

                (e)        rules of origin should be administrable in a consistent, uniform, impartial and reasonable manner;

                (f)        rules of origin should be coherent;

                (g)        rules of origin should be based on a positive standard.  Negative standards may be used to clarify a positive standard.

    Work Programme

    2.         (a)        The work programme shall be initiated as soon after the entry into force of the WTO Agreement as possible and will be completed within three years of initiation.

                (b)        The Committee and the Technical Committee provided for in Article 4 shall be the appropriate bodies to conduct this work.

                (c)        To provide for detailed input by the CCC, the Committee shall request the Technical Committee to provide its interpretations and opinions resulting from the work described below on the basis of the principles listed in paragraph 1.  To ensure timely completion of the work programme for harmonization, such work shall be conducted on a product sector basis, as represented by various chapters or sections of the Harmonized System (HS) nomenclature.

                            (i)         Wholly Obtained and Minimal Operations or Processes

                            The Technical Committee shall develop harmonized definitions of:

                            -           the goods that are to be considered as being wholly obtained in one country.  This work shall be as detailed as possible;

                            -           minimal operations or processes that do not by themselves confer origin to a good.

                            The results of this work shall be submitted to the Committee within three months of receipt of the request from the Committee.

                            (ii)        Substantial Transformation - Change in Tariff Classification

                            -           The Technical Committee shall consider and elaborate upon, on the basis of the criterion of substantial transformation, the use of change in tariff subheading or heading when developing rules of origin for particular products or a product sector and, if appropriate, the minimum change within the nomenclature that meets this criterion.

                            -           The Technical Committee shall divide the above work on a product basis taking into account the chapters or sections of the HS nomenclature, so as to submit results of its work to the Committee at least on a quarterly basis.  The Technical Committee shall complete the above work within one year and three months from receipt of the request of the Committee.

                            (iii)       Substantial Transformation - Supplementary Criteria

                            Upon completion of the work under subparagraph (ii) for each product sector or individual product category where the exclusive use of the HS nomenclature does not allow for the expression of substantial transformation, the Technical Committee:

                            -           shall consider and elaborate upon, on the basis of the criterion of substantial transformation, the use, in a supplementary or exclusive manner, of other requirements, including ad valorem percentages[61] and/or manufacturing or processing operations[62], when developing rules of origin for particular products or a product sector;

                            -           may provide explanations for its proposals;

                            -           shall divide the above work on a product basis taking into account the chapters or sections of the HS nomenclature, so as to submit results of its work to the Committee at least on a quarterly basis.  The Technical Committee shall complete the above work within two years and three months of receipt of the request from the Committee.

    Role of the Committee

    3.         On the basis of the principles listed in paragraph 1:

                (a)        the Committee shall consider the interpretations and opinions of the Technical Committee periodically in accordance with the time-frames provided in subparagraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) of paragraph 2(c) with a view to endorsing such interpretations and opinions.  The Committee may request the Technical Committee to refine or elaborate its work and/or to develop new approaches.  To assist the Technical Committee, the Committee should provide its reasons for requests for additional work and, as appropriate, suggest alternative approaches;

                (b)        upon completion of all the work identified in subparagraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) of paragraph 2(c), the Committee shall consider the results in terms of their overall coherence.

    Results of the Harmonization Work Programme and Subsequent Work

    4.         The Ministerial Conference shall establish the results of the harmonization work programme in an annex as an integral part of this Agreement. [63]  The Ministerial Conference shall establish a time-frame for the entry into force of this annex.

    ANNEX I

    TECHNICAL COMMITTEE ON RULES OF ORIGIN

    Responsibilities

    1.         The ongoing responsibilities of the Technical Committee shall include the following:

                (a)        at the request of any member of the Technical Committee, to examine specific technical problems arising in the day-to-day administration of the rules of origin of Members and to give advisory opinions on appropriate solutions based upon the facts presented;

                (b)        to furnish information and advice on any matters concerning the origin determination of goods as may be requested by any Member or the Committee;

                (c)        to prepare and circulate periodic reports on the technical aspects of the operation and status of this Agreement;  and

                (d)        to review annually the technical aspects of the implementation and operation of Parts II and III.

    2.         The Technical Committee shall exercise such other responsibilities as the Committee may request of it.

    3.         The Technical Committee shall attempt to conclude its work on specific matters, especially those referred to it by Members or the Committee, in a reasonably short period of time.

    Representation

    4.         Each Member shall have the right to be represented on the Technical Committee.  Each Member may nominate one delegate and one or more alternates to be its representatives on the Technical Committee.  Such a Member so represented on the Technical Committee is hereinafter referred to as a "member" of the Technical Committee.  Representatives of members of the Technical Committee may be assisted by advisers at meetings of the Technical Committee.  The WTO Secretariat may also attend such meetings with observer status.

    5.         Members of the CCC which are not Members of the WTO may be represented at meetings of the Technical Committee by one delegate and one or more alternates.  Such representatives shall attend meetings of the Technical Committee as observers.

    6.         Subject to the approval of the Chairman of the Technical Committee, the Secretary-General of the CCC (referred to in this Annex as "the Secretary-General") may invite representatives of governments which are neither Members of the WTO nor members of the CCC and representatives of international governmental and trade organizations to attend meetings of the Technical Committee as observers.

    7.         Nominations of delegates, alternates and advisers to meetings of the Technical Committee shall be made to the Secretary-General.

    Meetings

    8.         The Technical Committee shall meet as necessary, but not less than once a year.

    Procedures

    9.         The Technical Committee shall elect its own Chairman and shall establish its own procedures.

    ANNEX II

    COMMON DECLARATION WITH REGARD TO PREFERENTIAL RULES OF ORIGIN

    1.         Recognizing that some Members apply preferential rules of origin, distinct from non-preferential rules of origin, the Members hereby agree as follows.

    2.         For the purposes of this Common Declaration, preferential rules of origin shall be defined as those laws, regulations and administrative determinations of general application applied by any Member to determine whether goods qualify for preferential treatment under contractual or autonomous trade regimes leading to the granting of tariff preferences going beyond the application of paragraph 1 of Article I of GATT 1994.

    3.         The Members agree to ensure that:

                (a)        when they issue administrative determinations of general application, the requirements to be fulfilled are clearly defined.  In particular:

                            (i)         in cases where the criterion of change of tariff classification is applied, such a preferential rule of origin, and any exceptions to the rule, must clearly specify the subheadings or headings within the tariff nomenclature that are addressed by the rule;

                            (ii)        in cases where the ad valorem percentage criterion is applied, the method for calculating this percentage shall also be indicated in the preferential rules of origin;

                            (iii)       in cases where the criterion of manufacturing or processing operation is prescribed, the operation that confers preferential origin shall be precisely specified;

                (b)        their preferential rules of origin are based on a positive standard.  Preferential rules of origin that state what does not confer preferential origin (negative standard) are permissible as part of a clarification of a positive standard or in individual cases where a positive determination of preferential origin is not necessary;

                (c)        their laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application relating to preferential rules of origin are published as if they were subject to, and in accordance with, the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article X of GATT 1994;

                (d)        upon request of an exporter, importer or any person with a justifiable cause, assessments of the preferential origin they would accord to a good are issued as soon as possible but no later than 150 days[64] after a request for such an assessment provided that all necessary elements have been submitted.  Requests for such assessments shall be accepted before trade in the good concerned begins and may be accepted at any later point in time.  Such assessments shall remain valid for three years provided that the facts and conditions, including the preferential rules of origin, under which they have been made remain comparable.  Provided that the parties concerned are informed in advance, such assessments will no longer be valid when a decision contrary to the assessment is made in a review as referred to in subparagraph (f). Such assessments shall be made publicly available subject to the provisions of subparagraph (g);

                (e)        when introducing changes to their preferential rules of origin or new preferential rules of origin, they shall not apply such changes retroactively as defined in, and without prejudice to, their laws or regulations;

                (f)        any administrative action which they take in relation to the determination of preferential origin is reviewable promptly by judicial, arbitral or administrative tribunals or procedures, independent of the authority issuing the determination, which can effect the modification or reversal of the determination;

                (g)        all information that is by nature confidential or that is provided on a confidential basis for the purpose of the application of preferential rules of origin is treated as strictly confidential by the authorities concerned, which shall not disclose it without the specific permission of the person or government providing such information, except to the extent  that it may be required to be disclosed in the context of judicial proceedings.

    4.         Members agree to provide to the Secretariat promptly their preferential rules of origin, including a listing of the preferential arrangements to which they apply, judicial decisions, and administrative rulings of general application relating to their preferential rules of origin in effect on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement for the Member concerned.  Furthermore, Members agree to provide any modifications to their preferential rules of origin or new preferential rules of origin as soon as possible to the Secretariat.  Lists of information received and available with the Secretariat shall be circulated to the Members by the Secretariat.

    AGREEMENT ON IMPORT LICENSING PROCEDURES

    Members,

                Having regard to the Multilateral Trade Negotiations;

                Desiring to further the objectives of GATT 1994;

                Taking into account the particular trade, development and financial needs of developing country Members;

                Recognizing the usefulness of automatic import licensing for certain purposes and that such licensing should not be used to restrict trade;

                Recognizing that import licensing may be employed to administer measures such as those adopted pursuant to the relevant provisions of GATT 1994;

                Recognizing the provisions of GATT 1994 as they apply to import licensing procedures;

                Desiring to ensure that import licensing procedures are not utilized in a manner contrary to  the principles and obligations of GATT 1994;

                Recognizing that the flow of international trade could be impeded by the inappropriate use of import licensing procedures;

                Convinced that import licensing, particularly non-automatic import licensing, should be implemented in a transparent and predictable manner;

                Recognizing that non-automatic licensing procedures should be no more administratively burdensome than absolutely necessary to administer the relevant measure;

                Desiring to simplify, and bring transparency to, the administrative procedures and practices used in international trade, and to ensure the fair and equitable application and administration of such procedures and practices;

                Desiring to provide for a consultative mechanism and the speedy, effective and equitable resolution of disputes arising under this Agreement;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    Article 1

    General Provisions

    1.         For the purpose of this Agreement, import licensing is defined as administrative procedures[65] used for the operation of import licensing regimes requiring the submission of an application or other documentation (other than that required for customs purposes) to the relevant administrative body as a prior condition for importation into the customs territory of the importing Member.

    2.         Members shall ensure that the administrative procedures used to implement import licensing regimes are in conformity with the relevant provisions of GATT 1994 including its annexes and protocols, as interpreted by this Agreement, with a view to preventing trade distortions that may arise from an inappropriate operation of those procedures, taking into account the economic development purposes and financial and trade needs of developing country Members.[66]

    3.         The rules for import licensing procedures shall be neutral in application and administered in a fair and equitable manner.

    4.         (a)        The rules and all information concerning procedures for the submission of applications, including the eligibility of persons, firms and institutions to make such applications, the administrative body(ies) to be approached, and the lists of products subject to the licensing requirement shall be published, in the sources notified to the Committee on Import Licensing provided for in Article 4 (referred to in this Agreement as "the Committee"), in such a manner as to enable governments[67] and traders to become acquainted with them.  Such publication shall take place, whenever practicable, 21 days prior to the effective date of the requirement but in all events not later than such effective date.  Any exception, derogations or changes in or from the rules concerning licensing procedures or the list of products subject to import licensing shall also be published in the same manner and within the same time periods as specified above.  Copies of these publications shall also be made available to the Secretariat.

                (b)        Members which wish to make comments in writing shall be provided the opportunity to discuss these comments upon request.  The concerned Member shall give due consideration to these comments and results of discussion.

    5.         Application forms and, where applicable, renewal forms shall be as simple as possible.  Such documents and information as are considered strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the licensing regime may be required on application.

    6.         Application procedures and, where applicable, renewal procedures shall be as simple as possible.  Applicants shall be allowed a reasonable period for the submission of licence applications.  Where there is a closing date, this period should be at least 21 days with provision for extension in circumstances where insufficient applications have been received within this period.  Applicants shall have to approach only one administrative body in connection with an application.  Where it is strictly indispensable to approach more than one administrative body, applicants shall not need to approach more than three administrative bodies.

    7.         No application shall be refused for minor documentation errors which do not alter basic data contained therein.  No penalty greater than necessary to serve merely as a warning shall be imposed in respect of any omission or mistake in documentation or procedures which is obviously made without fraudulent intent or gross negligence.

    8.         Licensed imports shall not be refused for minor variations in value, quantity or weight from the amount designated on the licence due to differences occurring during shipment, differences incidental to bulk loading and other minor differences consistent with normal commercial practice.

    9.         The foreign exchange necessary to pay for licensed imports shall be made available to licence holders on the same basis as to importers of goods not requiring import licences.

    10.       With regard to security exceptions, the provisions of Article XXI of GATT 1994 apply.

    11.       The provisions of this Agreement shall not require any Member to disclose confidential information which would impede law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises, public or private.

    Article 2

    Automatic Import Licensing[68]

    1.         Automatic import licensing is defined as import licensing where approval of the application is granted in all cases, and which is in accordance with the requirements of paragraph 2(a).

    2.         The following provisions[69], in addition to those in paragraphs 1 through 11 of Article 1 and paragraph 1 of this Article, shall apply to automatic import licensing procedures:

                (a)        automatic licensing procedures shall not be administered in such a manner as to have restricting effects on imports subject to automatic licensing.  Automatic licensing procedures shall be deemed to have trade-restricting effects unless, inter alia:

                            (i)         any person, firm or institution which fulfils the legal requirements of the importing Member for engaging in import operations involving products subject to automatic licensing is equally eligible to apply for and to obtain import licences;

                            (ii)        applications for licences may be submitted on any working day prior to the customs clearance of the goods;

                            (iii)       applications for licences when submitted in appropriate and complete form are approved immediately on receipt, to the extent administratively feasible, but within a maximum of 10 working days;

                (b)        Members recognize that automatic import licensing may be necessary whenever other appropriate procedures are not available.  Automatic import licensing may be maintained as long as the circumstances which gave rise to its introduction prevail and as long as its underlying administrative purposes cannot be achieved in a more appropriate way.

    Article 3

    Non-Automatic Import Licensing

    1.         The following provisions, in addition to those in paragraphs 1 through 11 of Article 1, shall apply to non-automatic import licensing procedures.  Non-automatic import licensing procedures are defined as import licensing not falling within the definition contained in paragraph 1 of Article 2.

    2.         Non-automatic licensing shall not have trade-restrictive or -distortive effects on imports additional to those caused by the imposition of the restriction.  Non-automatic licensing procedures shall correspond in scope and duration to the measure they are used to implement, and shall be no more administratively burdensome than absolutely necessary to administer the measure.

    3.         In the case of licensing requirements for purposes other than the implementation of quantitative restrictions, Members shall publish sufficient information for other Members and traders to know the basis for granting and/or allocating licences.

    4.         Where a Member provides the possibility for persons, firms or institutions to request exceptions or derogations from a licensing requirement, it shall include this fact in the information published under paragraph 4 of Article 1 as well as information on how to make such a request and, to the extent possible, an indication of the circumstances under which requests would be considered.

    5.         (a)        Members shall provide, upon the request of any Member having an interest in the trade in the product concerned, all relevant information concerning:

                            (i)         the administration of the restrictions;

                            (ii)        the import licences granted over a recent period;

                            (iii)       the distribution of such licences among supplying countries;

                            (iv)       where practicable, import statistics (i.e. value and/or volume) with respect to the products subject to import licensing.  Developing country Members would not be expected to take additional administrative or financial burdens on this account;

                (b)        Members administering quotas by means of licensing shall publish the overall amount of quotas to be applied by quantity and/or value, the opening and closing dates of quotas, and any change thereof, within the time periods specified in paragraph 4 of Article 1 and in such a manner as to enable governments and traders to become acquainted with them;

                (c)        in the case of quotas allocated among supplying countries, the Member applying the restrictions shall promptly inform all other Members having an interest in supplying the product concerned of the shares in the quota currently allocated, by quantity or value, to the various supplying countries and shall publish this information within the time periods specified in paragraph 4 of Article 1 and in such a manner as to enable governments and traders to become acquainted with them;

                (d)        where situations arise which make it necessary to provide for an early opening date of quotas, the information referred to in paragraph 4 of Article 1 should be published within the time-periods specified in paragraph 4 of Article 1 and in such a manner as to enable governments and traders to become acquainted with them;

                (e)        any person, firm or institution which fulfils the legal and administrative requirements of the importing Member shall be equally eligible to apply and to be considered for a licence.  If the licence application is not approved, the applicant shall, on request, be given the reason therefor and shall have a right of appeal or review in accordance with the domestic legislation or procedures of the importing Member;

                (f)        the period for processing applications shall, except when not possible for reasons outside the control of the Member, not be longer than 30 days if applications are considered as and when received, i.e. on a first-come first-served basis, and no longer than 60 days if all applications are considered simultaneously.  In the latter case, the period for processing applications shall be considered to begin on the day following the closing date of the announced application period;

                (g)        the period of licence validity shall be of reasonable duration and not be so short as to preclude imports.  The period of licence validity shall not preclude imports from distant sources, except in special cases where imports are necessary to meet unforeseen short-term requirements;

                (h)        when administering quotas, Members shall not prevent importation from being effected in accordance with the issued licences, and shall not discourage the full utilization of quotas;

                (i)         when issuing licences, Members shall take into account the desirability of issuing licences for products in economic quantities;

                (j)         in allocating licences, the Member should consider the import performance of the applicant.  In this regard, consideration should be given as to whether licences issued to applicants in the past have been fully utilized during a recent representative period.  In cases where licences have not been fully utilized, the Member shall examine the reasons for this and take these reasons into consideration when allocating new licences.  Consideration shall also be given to ensuring a reasonable distribution of licences to new importers, taking into account the desirability of issuing licences for products in economic quantities.  In this regard, special consideration should be given to those importers importing products originating in developing country Members and, in particular, the least-developed country Members;

                (k)        in the case of quotas administered through licences which are not allocated among supplying countries, licence holders[70] shall be free to choose the sources of imports.  In the case of quotas allocated among supplying countries, the licence shall clearly stipulate the country or countries;

                (l)         in applying paragraph 8 of Article 1, compensating adjustments may be made in future licence allocations where imports exceeded a previous licence level. 

    Article 4

    Institutions

                There is hereby established a Committee on Import Licensing composed of representatives from each of the Members.  The Committee shall elect its own Chairman and Vice-Chairman and shall meet as necessary for the purpose of affording Members the opportunity of consulting on any matters relating to the operation of this Agreement or the furtherance of its objectives.

    Article 5

    Notification

    1.         Members which institute licensing procedures or changes in these procedures shall notify the Committee of such within 60 days of publication.

    2.         Notifications of the institution of import licensing procedures shall include the following information:

                (a)        list of products subject to licensing procedures;

                (b)        contact point for information on eligibility;

                (c)        administrative body(ies) for submission of applications;

                (d)        date and name of publication where licensing procedures are published;

                (e)        indication of whether the licensing procedure is automatic or non-automatic according to definitions contained in Articles 2 and 3;

                (f)        in the case of automatic import licensing procedures, their administrative purpose;

                (g)        in the case of non-automatic import licensing procedures, indication of the measure being implemented through the licensing procedure; and

                (h)        expected duration of the licensing procedure if this can be estimated with some probability, and if not, reason why this information cannot be provided.

    3.         Notifications of changes in import licensing procedures shall indicate the elements mentioned above, if changes in such occur.

    4.         Members shall notify the Committee of the publication(s) in which the information required in paragraph 4 of Article 1 will be published.

    5.         Any interested Member which considers that another Member has not notified the institution of a licensing procedure or changes therein in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 1 through 3 may bring the matter to the attention of such other Member.  If notification is not made promptly thereafter, such Member may itself notify the licensing procedure or changes therein, including all relevant and available information.

    Article 6

    Consultation and Dispute Settlement

                Consultations and the settlement of disputes with respect to any matter affecting the operation of this Agreement shall be subject to the provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994, as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding.

    Article 7

    Review

    1.         The Committee shall review as necessary, but at least once every two years, the implementation and operation of this Agreement, taking into account the objectives thereof, and the rights and obligations contained therein.

    2.         As a basis for the Committee review, the Secretariat shall prepare a factual report based on information provided under Article 5, responses to the annual questionnaire on import licensing procedures[71] and other relevant reliable information which is available to it.  This report shall provide a synopsis of the aforementioned information, in particular indicating any changes or developments during the period under review, and including any other information as agreed by the Committee.

    3.         Members undertake to complete the annual questionnaire on import licensing procedures promptly and in full.

    4.         The Committee shall inform the Council for Trade in Goods of developments during the period covered by such reviews.

    Article 8

    Final Provisions

    Reservations

    1.         Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the other Members.

    Domestic Legislation

    2.         (a)        Each Member shall ensure, not later than the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement for it, the conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures with the provisions of this Agreement.

                (b)        Each  Member shall inform the Committee of any changes in its laws and regulations relevant to this Agreement and in the administration of such laws and regulations.

    AGREEMENT ON SUBSIDIES AND COUNTERVAILING MEASURES

    Members hereby agree as follows:

    PART I:  GENERAL PROVISIONS

    Article 1

    Definition of a Subsidy

    1.1       For the purpose of this Agreement, a subsidy shall be deemed to exist if:

                (a)(1)               there is a financial contribution by a government or any public body within the territory of a Member (referred to in this Agreement as "government"), i.e. where:

                            (i)         a government practice involves a direct transfer of funds (e.g. grants, loans,  and equity infusion), potential direct transfers of funds or liabilities (e.g. loan guarantees);

                            (ii)        government revenue that is otherwise due is foregone or not collected (e.g. fiscal incentives such as tax credits) [72];

                            (iii)       a government provides goods or services other than general infrastructure, or purchases goods;

                            (iv)       a government makes payments to a funding mechanism, or entrusts or directs a private body to carry out one or more of the type of functions illustrated in (i) to (iii) above which would normally be vested in the government and the practice, in no real sense, differs from practices normally followed by governments;

    or

                (a)(2)               there is any form of income or price support in the sense of Article XVI of GATT 1994;

    and

                (b)        a benefit is thereby conferred.

    1.2       A subsidy as defined in paragraph 1 shall be subject to the provisions of Part II or shall be subject to the provisions of Part III or V only if such a subsidy is specific in accordance with the provisions of Article 2.

    Article 2

    Specificity

    2.1       In order to determine whether a subsidy, as defined in paragraph 1 of Article 1, is specific to an enterprise or industry or group of enterprises or industries (referred to in this Agreement as "certain enterprises") within the jurisdiction of the granting authority, the following principles shall apply:

                (a)        Where the granting authority, or the legislation pursuant to which the granting authority operates, explicitly limits access to a subsidy to certain enterprises, such subsidy shall be specific.

                (b)        Where the granting authority, or the legislation pursuant to which the granting authority operates, establishes objective criteria or conditions[73] governing the eligibility for, and the amount of, a subsidy, specificity shall not exist, provided that the eligibility is automatic and that such criteria and conditions are strictly adhered to.  The criteria or conditions must be clearly spelled out in law, regulation, or other official document, so as to be capable of verification.

                (c)        If, notwithstanding any appearance of non‑specificity resulting from the application of the principles laid down in subparagraphs (a) and (b), there are reasons to believe that the subsidy may in fact be specific, other factors may be considered.  Such factors are:  use of a subsidy programme by a limited number of certain enterprises, predominant use by certain enterprises, the granting of disproportionately large amounts of subsidy to certain enterprises, and the manner in which discretion has been exercised by the granting authority in the decision to grant a subsidy.[74]  In applying this  subparagraph, account shall be taken of the extent of diversification of economic activities within the jurisdiction of the granting authority, as well as of the length of time during which the subsidy programme has been in operation.

    2.2       A subsidy which is limited to certain enterprises located within a designated geographical region within the jurisdiction of the granting authority shall be specific.  It is understood that the setting or change of generally applicable tax rates by all levels of government entitled to do so shall not be deemed to be a specific subsidy for the purposes of this Agreement. 

    2.3       Any subsidy falling under the provisions of Article 3 shall be deemed to be specific.

    2.4       Any determination of specificity under the provisions of this Article shall be clearly substantiated on the basis of positive evidence.

    PART II:  PROHIBITED SUBSIDIES

    Article 3

    Prohibition

    3.1       Except as provided in the Agreement on Agriculture, the following subsidies, within the meaning of Article 1, shall be prohibited:

                (a)        subsidies contingent, in law or in fact[75], whether solely or as one of several other conditions, upon export performance, including those illustrated in Annex I[76];

                (b)        subsidies contingent, whether solely or as one of several other conditions, upon the use of domestic over imported goods.

    3.2       A Member shall neither grant nor maintain subsidies referred to in paragraph 1.

    Article 4 

    Remedies

    4.1       Whenever a Member has reason to believe that a prohibited subsidy is being granted or maintained by another Member, such Member may request consultations with such other Member. 

    4.2       A request for consultations under paragraph 1 shall include a statement of available evidence with regard to the existence and nature of the subsidy in question.

    4.3       Upon request for consultations under paragraph 1, the Member believed to be granting or maintaining the subsidy in question shall enter into such consultations as quickly as possible.  The purpose of the consultations shall be to clarify the facts of the situation and to arrive at a mutually  agreed solution.

    4.4       If no mutually agreed solution has been reached within 30 days[77] of the request for consultations, any Member party to such consultations may refer the matter to the Dispute Settlement Body ("DSB") for the immediate establishment of a panel, unless the DSB decides by consensus not to establish a panel.

    4.5       Upon its establishment, the panel may request the assistance of the Permanent Group of Experts[78] (referred to in this Agreement as the "PGE") with regard to whether the measure in question is a prohibited subsidy.  If so requested, the PGE shall immediately review the evidence with regard to the existence and nature of the measure in question and shall provide an opportunity for the Member applying or maintaining the measure to demonstrate that the measure in question is not a prohibited subsidy.  The PGE shall report its conclusions to the panel within a time‑limit determined by the panel.  The PGE's conclusions on the issue of whether or not the measure in question is a prohibited subsidy shall be accepted by the panel without modification.

    4.6       The panel shall submit its final report to the parties to the dispute.  The report shall be circulated to all Members within 90 days of the date of the composition and the establishment of the panel's terms of reference.

    4.7       If the measure in question is found to be a prohibited subsidy, the panel shall recommend that the subsidizing Member withdraw the subsidy without delay.   In this regard, the panel shall specify in its recommendation the time‑period within which the measure must be withdrawn. 

    4.8       Within 30 days of the issuance of the  panel's report to all Members, the report shall be adopted by the DSB unless one of the parties to the dispute formally notifies the DSB of its decision to appeal or the DSB decides by consensus not to adopt the report.

    4.9       Where a panel report is appealed, the Appellate Body shall issue its decision within 30 days from the date when the party to the dispute formally notifies its intention to appeal.  When the Appellate Body considers that it cannot provide its report within 30 days, it shall inform the DSB in writing of the reasons for the delay together with an estimate of the period within which it will submit its report.  In no case shall the proceedings exceed 60 days.  The appellate report shall be adopted by the DSB and unconditionally accepted by the parties to the dispute unless the DSB decides by consensus not  to adopt the appellate report within 20 days following its issuance to the Members.[79]

    4.10     In the event the recommendation of the DSB is not followed within the time‑period specified by the panel, which shall commence from the date of adoption of the panel’s report or the Appellate Body’s report, the DSB shall grant authorization to the complaining Member to take appropriate[80]  countermeasures, unless the DSB decides by consensus to reject the request.

    4.11     In the event a party to the dispute requests arbitration under paragraph 6 of Article 22 of the Dispute Settlement Understanding ("DSU"), the arbitrator shall determine whether the countermeasures are appropriate.[81]

    4.12     For purposes of disputes conducted pursuant to this Article, except for time‑periods specifically prescribed in this Article, time‑periods applicable under the DSU for the conduct of such disputes shall be half the time prescribed therein. 

    PART III:  ACTIONABLE SUBSIDIES

    Article 5 

    Adverse Effects

                No Member should cause, through the use of any subsidy referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article 1, adverse effects to the interests of other Members, i.e.:

                (a)        injury to the domestic industry of another Member[82];

                (b)        nullification or impairment of benefits accruing directly or indirectly to other Members under GATT 1994 in particular the benefits of concessions bound under Article II of GATT 1994[83];

                (c)        serious prejudice to the interests of another Member.[84]

    This Article does not apply to subsidies maintained on agricultural products as provided in Article 13 of the Agreement on Agriculture.

    Article 6

    Serious Prejudice

    6.1       Serious prejudice in the sense of paragraph (c) of Article 5 shall be deemed to exist in the case of:

                (a)        the total ad valorem subsidization[85] of a product exceeding 5 per cent[86];

                (b)        subsidies to cover operating losses sustained by an industry;

                (c)        subsidies to cover operating losses sustained by an enterprise, other than one‑time measures which are non‑recurrent and cannot be repeated for that enterprise and which are given merely to provide time for the development of long‑term solutions and to avoid acute social problems;

                (d)        direct forgiveness of debt, i.e. forgiveness of government‑held debt, and grants to cover debt repayment.[87]

    6.2       Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, serious prejudice shall not be found if the subsidizing Member demonstrates that the subsidy in question has not resulted in any of the effects enumerated in paragraph 3.

    6.3       Serious prejudice in the sense of paragraph (c) of Article 5 may arise in any case where one or several of the following apply:

                (a)        the effect of the subsidy is to displace or impede the imports of a like product of another Member into the market of the subsidizing Member;

                (b)        the effect of the subsidy is to displace or impede the exports of a like product of another  Member from a third country market;

                (c)        the effect of the subsidy is a significant price undercutting by the subsidized product as compared with the price of a like product of another Member in the same market or significant price suppression, price depression or lost sales in the same market;

                (d)        the effect of the subsidy is an increase in the world market share of the subsidizing Member in a particular subsidized primary product or commodity[88] as compared to the average share it had during the previous period of three years and this increase follows a consistent trend over a period when subsidies have been granted.

    6.4       For the purpose of paragraph 3(b), the displacement or impeding of exports shall include any case in which, subject to the provisions of paragraph 7, it has been demonstrated that there has been a change in relative shares of the market to the disadvantage of the non‑subsidized like product (over an appropriately representative period sufficient to demonstrate clear trends in the development of the market for the product concerned, which, in normal circumstances, shall be at least one year).  "Change in relative shares of the market" shall include any of the following situations:  (a) there is an increase in the market share of the subsidized product;  (b) the market share of the subsidized product remains constant in circumstances in which, in the absence of the subsidy, it would have declined;  (c) the  market share of the subsidized product declines, but at a slower rate than would have been the case in the absence of the subsidy.

    6.5       For the purpose of paragraph 3(c), price undercutting shall include any case in which such price undercutting has been demonstrated through a comparison of prices of the subsidized product with prices of a non‑subsidized like product supplied to the same market.  The comparison shall be made at the same level of trade and at comparable times, due account being taken of any other factor affecting price comparability.  However, if such a direct comparison is not possible, the existence of price undercutting may be demonstrated on the basis of export unit values.

    6.6       Each Member in the market of which serious prejudice is alleged to have arisen shall, subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 of Annex V, make available to the parties to a dispute arising under Article 7, and to the panel established pursuant to paragraph 4 of Article 7, all relevant information that can be obtained as to the changes in market shares of the parties to the dispute as well as concerning prices of the products involved.

    6.7       Displacement or impediment resulting in serious prejudice shall not arise under paragraph 3 where any of the following circumstances exist[89] during the relevant period:

                (a)        prohibition or restriction on exports of the like product from the complaining Member or on imports from the complaining Member into the third country market concerned;

                (b)        decision by an importing government operating a monopoly of trade or state trading in the product concerned to shift, for non‑commercial reasons, imports from the complaining Member to another country or countries;

                (c)        natural disasters, strikes, transport disruptions or other force majeure substantially affecting production, qualities, quantities or prices of the product available for export from the complaining Member;

                (d)        existence of arrangements limiting exports from the complaining Member;

                (e)        voluntary decrease in the availability for export of the product concerned from the complaining Member (including, inter alia, a situation where firms in the complaining Member have been autonomously reallocating exports of this product to new markets);

                (f)        failure to conform to standards and other regulatory requirements in the importing country.

    6.8       In the absence of circumstances referred to in paragraph 7, the existence of serious prejudice should be determined on the basis of the information submitted to or obtained by the panel, including information submitted in accordance with the provisions of Annex V.

    6.9       This Article does not apply to subsidies maintained on agricultural products as provided in Article 13 of the Agreement on Agriculture.

    Article 7

    Remedies

    7.1       Except as provided in Article 13 of the Agreement on Agriculture, whenever a Member has reason to believe that any subsidy referred to in Article 1, granted or maintained by another Member, results in injury to its domestic industry, nullification or impairment or serious prejudice, such Member may request consultations with such other Member.

    7.2       A request for consultations under paragraph 1 shall include a statement of available evidence with regard to (a) the existence and nature of the subsidy in question, and (b) the injury caused to the domestic industry, or the nullification or impairment, or serious prejudice[90] caused to the interests of the Member requesting consultations.

    7.3       Upon request for consultations under paragraph 1, the Member believed to be granting or maintaining the subsidy practice in question shall enter into such consultations as quickly as possible.  The purpose of the consultations shall be to clarify the facts of the situation and to arrive at a mutually agreed solution.

    7.4       If consultations do not result in a mutually agreed solution within 60 days[91], any Member party to such consultations may refer the matter to the DSB for the establishment of a panel, unless the DSB decides by consensus not to establish a panel.  The composition of the panel and its terms of reference shall be established within 15 days from the date when it is established.

    7.5       The panel shall review the matter and shall submit its final report to the parties to the dispute.  The report shall be circulated to all Members within 120 days of the date of the composition and establishment of the panel’s terms of reference.

    7.6       Within 30 days of the issuance of the panel’s report to all Members, the report shall be adopted by the DSB[92] unless one of the parties to the dispute formally notifies the DSB of its decision to appeal or the DSB decides by consensus not to adopt the report.

    7.7       Where a panel report is appealed, the Appellate Body shall issue its decision within 60 days from the date when the party to the dispute formally notifies its intention to appeal.  When the Appellate Body considers that it cannot provide its report within 60 days, it shall inform the DSB in writing of the reasons for the delay together with an estimate of the period within which it will submit its report.  In no case shall the proceedings exceed 90 days.  The appellate report shall be adopted by the DSB and unconditionally accepted by the parties to the dispute unless the DSB decides by consensus not  to adopt the appellate report within 20 days following its issuance to the Members.[93]

    7.8       Where a panel report or an Appellate Body report is adopted in which it is determined that any subsidy has resulted in adverse effects to the interests of another Member within the meaning of Article 5, the Member granting or maintaining such subsidy shall take appropriate steps to remove the adverse effects or shall withdraw the subsidy.

    7.9       In the event the Member has not taken appropriate steps to remove the adverse effects of the subsidy or withdraw the subsidy within six months from the date when the DSB adopts the panel report or the Appellate Body report, and in the absence of agreement on compensation, the DSB shall grant authorization to the complaining Member to take countermeasures, commensurate with the degree and nature of the adverse effects determined to exist, unless the DSB decides by consensus to reject the request.

    7.10     In the event that a party to the dispute requests arbitration under paragraph 6 of Article 22 of the DSU, the arbitrator shall determine whether the countermeasures are commensurate with the degree and nature of the adverse effects determined to exist.

    PART IV:  NON‑ACTIONABLE SUBSIDIES

    Article 8

    Identification of Non‑Actionable Subsidies

    8.1       The following subsidies shall be considered as non‑actionable[94]:

                (a)        subsidies which are not specific within the meaning of Article 2;

                (b)        subsidies which are specific within the meaning of Article 2 but which meet all of the conditions provided for in paragraphs 2(a), 2(b) or 2(c) below.

    8.2       Notwithstanding the provisions of Parts III and V, the following subsidies shall be non‑actionable:

                (a)        assistance for research activities conducted by firms or by higher education or research establishments on a contract basis with firms if:[95] ,[96] ,[97]

    the assistance covers[98] not more than 75 per cent of the costs of industrial research[99] or 50 per cent of the costs of pre‑competitive development activity[100], [101]; and provided that such assistance is limited exclusively to:

                            (i)         costs of personnel (researchers, technicians and other supporting staff employed exclusively in the research activity);

                            (ii)        costs of instruments, equipment, land and buildings used exclusively and permanently (except when disposed of on a commercial basis) for the research activity;

                            (iii)       costs of consultancy and equivalent services used exclusively for the research activity, including bought‑in research, technical knowledge, patents, etc.;           

                            (iv)       additional overhead costs incurred directly as a result of the research activity;

                            (v)        other running costs (such as those of materials, supplies and the like), incurred directly as a result of the research activity.

                (b)        assistance to disadvantaged regions within the territory of a Member given pursuant to a general framework of regional development [102] and non‑specific (within the meaning of Article 2) within eligible regions provided that:

                            (i)         each disadvantaged region must be a clearly designated contiguous geographical area with a definable economic and administrative identity;

                            (ii)        the region is considered as disadvantaged on the basis of neutral and objective criteria[103], indicating that the region's difficulties arise out of more than temporary circumstances;  such criteria must be clearly spelled out in law, regulation, or other official document, so as to be capable of verification;

                            (iii)       the criteria shall include a measurement of economic development which shall be based on at least one of the following factors:

    ‑           one of either income per capita or household income per capita, or GDP per capita, which must not be above 85 per cent of the average for the territory concerned;

    ‑           unemployment rate, which must be at least 110 per cent of the average for the territory concerned;

    as measured over a three‑year period;  such measurement, however, may be a composite one and may include other factors.

                (c)        assistance to promote adaptation of existing facilities[104] to new environmental requirements imposed by law and/or regulations which result in greater constraints and financial burden on firms, provided that the assistance:

                            (i)         is a one‑time non‑recurring measure;  and

                            (ii)        is limited to 20 per cent of the cost of adaptation;  and

                            (iii)       does not cover the cost of replacing and operating the assisted investment, which must be fully borne by firms;  and

                            (iv)       is directly linked to and proportionate to a firm's planned reduction of nuisances and pollution, and does not cover any manufacturing cost savings which may be achieved;  and

                            (v)        is available to all firms which can adopt the new equipment and/or production processes.

    8.3       A subsidy programme for which the provisions of paragraph 2 are invoked shall be notified in advance of its implementation to the Committee in accordance with the provisions of Part VII.  Any such notification shall be sufficiently precise to enable other Members to evaluate the consistency of the programme with the conditions and criteria provided for in the relevant provisions of paragraph 2.  Members shall also provide the Committee with yearly updates of such notifications, in particular by supplying information on global expenditure for each programme, and on any modification of the programme.  Other Members shall have the right to request information about individual cases of subsidization under a notified programme.[105]

    8.4       Upon request of a Member, the Secretariat shall review a notification made pursuant to paragraph 3 and, where necessary, may require additional information from the subsidizing Member concerning the notified programme under review.  The Secretariat shall report its findings to the Committee.  The Committee shall, upon request, promptly review the findings of the Secretariat (or, if a review by the Secretariat has not been requested, the notification itself), with a view to determining whether the conditions and criteria laid down in paragraph 2 have not been met.  The procedure provided for in this paragraph shall be completed at the latest at the first regular meeting of the Committee following the notification of a subsidy programme, provided that at least two months have elapsed between such notification and the regular meeting of the Committee.  The review procedure described in this paragraph shall also apply, upon request, to substantial modifications of a programme notified in the yearly updates referred to in paragraph 3.

    8.5       Upon the request of a Member, the determination by the Committee referred to in paragraph 4, or a failure by the Committee to make such a determination, as well as the violation, in individual cases, of the conditions set out in a notified programme, shall be submitted to binding arbitration.   The arbitration body shall present its conclusions to the Members within 120 days from the date when the matter was referred to the arbitration body.  Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the DSU shall apply to arbitrations conducted under this paragraph.

    Article 9

    Consultations and Authorized Remedies

    9.1       If, in the course of implementation of a programme referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 8, notwithstanding the fact that the programme is consistent with the criteria laid down in  that paragraph, a Member has reasons to believe that this programme has resulted in serious adverse effects to the domestic industry of that Member, such as to cause damage which would be difficult to repair, such Member may request consultations with the Member granting or maintaining the subsidy.

    9.2       Upon request for consultations under paragraph 1, the Member granting or maintaining the subsidy programme in question shall enter into such consultations as quickly as possible.  The purpose of the consultations shall be to clarify the facts of the situation and to arrive at a mutually acceptable solution.

    9.3       If no mutually acceptable solution has been reached in consultations under paragraph 2 within 60 days of the request for such consultations, the requesting Member may refer the matter to the Committee.

    9.4       Where a matter is referred to the Committee, the Committee shall immediately review the facts involved and the evidence of the effects referred to in paragraph 1.  If the Committee determines that such effects exist, it may recommend to the subsidizing Member to modify this programme in such a way as to remove these effects.  The Committee shall present its conclusions within 120 days from the date when the matter is referred to it under paragraph 3.  In the event the recommendation is not followed within six months, the Committee shall authorize the requesting Member to take appropriate countermeasures commensurate with the nature and degree of the effects determined to exist.

    PART V:  COUNTERVAILING MEASURES

    Article 10

    Application of Article VI of GATT 1994[106]

                Members shall take all necessary steps to ensure that the imposition of a countervailing duty[107] on any product of the territory of any Member imported into the territory of another Member is in accordance with the provisions of Article VI of GATT 1994 and the terms of this Agreement.  Countervailing duties may only be imposed pursuant to investigations initiated[108]  and conducted in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement and the Agreement on Agriculture.

    Article 11

    Initiation and Subsequent Investigation

    11.1     Except as provided in paragraph 6, an investigation to determine the existence, degree and effect of any alleged subsidy shall be initiated upon a written application by or on behalf of the domestic industry.

    11.2     An application under paragraph 1 shall include sufficient evidence of the existence of (a) a subsidy and, if possible, its amount, (b) injury within the meaning of Article VI of GATT 1994 as interpreted by this Agreement, and (c) a causal link between the subsidized imports and the alleged injury.  Simple assertion, unsubstantiated by relevant evidence, cannot be considered sufficient to meet the requirements of this paragraph.  The application shall contain such information as is reasonably available to the applicant on the following:

                (i)         the identity of the applicant and a description of the volume and value of the domestic production of the like product by the applicant.  Where a written application is made on behalf of the domestic industry, the application shall identify the industry on behalf of which the application is made by a list of all known domestic producers of the like product (or associations of domestic producers of the like product) and, to the extent possible, a description of the volume and value of domestic production of the like product accounted for by such producers;

                (ii)        a complete description of the allegedly subsidized product, the names of the country or countries of origin or export in question, the identity of each known exporter or foreign producer and a list of known persons importing the product in question;

                (iii)       evidence with regard to the existence, amount and nature of the subsidy in question;

                (iv)       evidence that alleged injury to a domestic industry is caused by subsidized imports through the effects of the subsidies;  this evidence includes information on the evolution of the volume of the allegedly subsidized imports, the effect of these imports on prices of the like product in the domestic market and the consequent impact of the imports on the domestic industry, as demonstrated by relevant factors and indices having a bearing on the state of the domestic industry, such as those listed in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 15.

    11.3     The authorities shall review the accuracy and adequacy of the evidence provided in the  application to determine whether the evidence is sufficient to justify the initiation of an investigation.

    11.4     An investigation shall not be initiated pursuant to paragraph 1 unless the authorities have determined, on the basis of an examination of the degree of support for, or opposition to, the application expressed[109] by domestic producers of the like product, that the application has been made by or on behalf of the domestic industry.[110]  The application shall be considered to have been made "by or on behalf of the domestic industry" if it is supported by those domestic producers whose collective output constitutes more than 50 per cent of the total production of the like product produced by that portion of the domestic industry expressing either support for or opposition to the application.  However, no investigation shall be initiated when domestic producers expressly supporting the application account for less than 25 per cent of total production of the like product produced by the domestic industry.

    11.5     The authorities shall avoid, unless a decision has been made to initiate an investigation,  any publicizing of the application for the initiation of  an investigation.

    11.6     If, in special circumstances, the authorities concerned decide to initiate an investigation without having received a written application by or on behalf of a domestic industry for the initiation of such investigation, they shall proceed only if they have sufficient evidence of the existence of a subsidy, injury and causal link, as described in paragraph 2, to justify the initiation of an investigation.

    11.7     The evidence of both subsidy and injury shall be considered simultaneously (a) in the decision whether or not to initiate an investigation and (b) thereafter, during the course of the investigation, starting on a date not later than the earliest date on which in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement provisional measures may be applied.

    11.8     In cases where products are not imported directly from the country of origin but are exported to the importing Member from an intermediate country, the provisions of this Agreement shall be fully applicable and the transaction or transactions shall, for the purposes of this Agreement, be regarded as having taken place between the country of origin and the importing Member.

    11.9     An application under paragraph 1 shall be rejected and an investigation shall be terminated promptly as soon as the authorities concerned are satisfied that there is not sufficient evidence of either subsidization or of injury to justify proceeding with the case.  There shall be immediate termination  in cases where the amount of a subsidy is de minimis , or where the volume of subsidized imports, actual or potential, or the injury, is negligible.  For the purpose of this paragraph, the amount of the subsidy shall be considered to be de minimis if the subsidy is less than 1 per cent ad valorem.

    11.10   An investigation shall not hinder the procedures of customs clearance.

    11.11   Investigations shall, except in special circumstances, be concluded within one year, and in no case more than 18 months, after their initiation.

    Article 12

    Evidence

    12.1     Interested Members and all interested parties in a countervailing duty investigation shall be given notice of the information which the authorities require and ample opportunity to present in writing all evidence which they consider relevant in respect of the investigation in question.

                12.1.1   Exporters, foreign producers or interested Members receiving questionnaires used in a countervailing duty investigation shall be given at least 30 days for reply.[111]  Due consideration should be given to any request for an extension of the 30‑day period and, upon cause shown, such an extension should be granted whenever practicable.

                12.1.2   Subject to the requirement to protect confidential information, evidence presented in writing by one interested Member or interested party shall be made available promptly to other interested Members or interested parties participating in the investigation.

                12.1.3   As soon as an investigation has been initiated, the authorities shall provide the full text  of the written application received under paragraph 1 of Article 11 to the known exporters[112] and to the authorities of the exporting Member and shall make it available, upon request, to other  interested parties involved.  Due regard shall be paid to the protection of confidential information, as provided for in paragraph 4.

    12.2.    Interested Members and interested parties also shall have the right, upon justification, to present information orally.  Where such information is provided orally, the interested Members and interested parties subsequently shall be required to reduce such submissions to writing.  Any decision of the  investigating authorities can only be based on such information and arguments as were on the written record of this authority and which were available to interested Members and interested parties participating in the investigation, due account having been given to the need to protect confidential information.

    12.3     The authorities shall whenever practicable provide timely opportunities for all interested Members and interested parties to see all information that is relevant to the presentation of their cases, that is not confidential as defined in paragraph 4, and that is used by the authorities in a countervailing duty investigation, and to prepare presentations on the basis of this information.

    12.4     Any information which is by nature confidential (for example, because its disclosure would be of significant competitive advantage to a competitor or because its disclosure would have a significantly adverse effect upon a person supplying the information or upon a person from whom the  supplier acquired the information), or which is provided on a confidential basis by parties to an investigation shall, upon good cause shown, be treated as such by the authorities.   Such information shall not be disclosed without specific permission of the party submitting it.[113]

                12.4.1   The authorities shall require interested Members or interested parties providing confidential information to furnish non‑confidential summaries thereof.  These summaries shall be in sufficient detail to permit a reasonable understanding of the substance of the information submitted in confidence.  In exceptional circumstances, such Members or parties may indicate that such information is not susceptible of summary.  In such exceptional circumstances, a statement of the reasons why summarization is not possible must be provided.

                12.4.2   If the authorities find that a request for confidentiality is not warranted and if the supplier of the information is either unwilling to make the information public or to authorize its disclosure in generalized or summary form, the authorities may disregard such information unless it can be demonstrated to their satisfaction from appropriate sources that the information is correct.[114]

    12.5     Except in circumstances provided for in paragraph 7, the authorities shall during the course of an investigation satisfy themselves as to the accuracy of the information supplied by interested Members or interested parties upon which their findings are based.

    12.6     The investigating authorities may carry out investigations in the territory of other Members as required, provided that they have notified in good time the Member in question and unless that Member objects to the investigation.   Further, the investigating authorities may carry out investigations on the premises of a firm and may examine the records of a firm if (a) the firm so agrees and (b) the Member in question is notified and does not object.   The procedures set forth in Annex VI shall apply to investigations on the premises of a firm.  Subject to the requirement to protect confidential information, the authorities shall make the results of any such investigations available, or shall provide disclosure thereof pursuant to paragraph 8, to the firms to which they pertain and may make such results available to the applicants.

    12.7     In cases in which any interested Member or interested party refuses access to, or otherwise does not provide, necessary information within a reasonable period or significantly impedes the investigation, preliminary and final determinations, affirmative or negative, may be made on the basis of the facts available.

    12.8     The authorities shall, before a final determination is made, inform all interested Members and interested parties of the essential facts under consideration which form the basis for the decision whether to apply definitive measures.   Such disclosure should take place in sufficient time for the parties to defend their interests.

    12.9     For the purposes of this Agreement, "interested parties" shall include:

                (i)         an exporter or foreign producer or the importer of a product subject to investigation, or a trade or business association a majority of the members of which are producers, exporters or importers of such product;  and

                (ii)        a producer of the like product in the importing Member or a trade and business association a majority of the members of which produce the like product in the territory of the importing Member.

    This list shall not preclude Members from allowing domestic or foreign parties other than those mentioned above to be included as interested parties.

    12.10   The authorities shall provide opportunities for industrial users of the product under investigation, and for representative consumer organizations in cases where the product is commonly sold at the retail level, to provide information which is relevant to the investigation regarding subsidization, injury and causality.

    12.11   The authorities shall take due account of any difficulties experienced by interested parties, in particular small companies, in supplying information requested, and shall provide any assistance practicable.

    12.12   The procedures set out above are not intended to prevent the authorities of a Member from proceeding expeditiously with regard to initiating an investigation, reaching preliminary or final determinations, whether affirmative or negative, or from applying provisional or final measures, in accordance with relevant provisions of this Agreement.

    Article 13

    Consultations

    13.1     As soon as possible after an application under Article 11 is accepted, and in any event before the initiation of any investigation, Members the products of which may be subject to such investigation shall be invited for consultations with the aim of clarifying the situation as to the matters referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 11 and arriving at a mutually agreed solution.

    13.2     Furthermore, throughout the period of investigation, Members the products of which are the subject of the investigation shall be afforded a reasonable opportunity to continue consultations, with a view to clarifying the factual situation and to arriving at a mutually agreed solution.[115]

    13.3     Without prejudice to the obligation to afford reasonable opportunity for consultation, these provisions regarding consultations are not intended to prevent the authorities of a Member from proceeding expeditiously with regard to initiating the investigation, reaching preliminary or final determinations, whether affirmative or negative, or from applying provisional or final measures, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

    13.4     The Member which intends to initiate any investigation or is conducting such an investigation shall permit, upon request, the Member or Members the products of which are subject to such  investigation access to non‑confidential evidence, including the non‑confidential summary of confidential data being used for initiating or conducting the investigation.

    Article 14

    Calculation of the Amount of a Subsidy in Terms of the Benefit to the Recipient

                For the purpose of Part V, any method used by the investigating authority to calculate the benefit to the recipient conferred pursuant to paragraph 1 of Article 1 shall be provided for in the national legislation or implementing regulations of the Member concerned and its application to each particular case shall be transparent and adequately explained.   Furthermore, any such method shall be consistent with the following guidelines:

                (a)        government provision of equity capital shall not be considered as conferring a benefit, unless the investment decision can be regarded as inconsistent with the usual investment practice (including for the provision of risk capital) of private investors in the territory of that Member;

                (b)        a loan by a government shall not be considered as conferring a benefit, unless there is a difference between the amount that the firm receiving the loan pays on the government loan and the amount the firm would pay on a comparable commercial loan which the firm could actually obtain on the market.   In this case the benefit shall be the difference between these two amounts;

                (c)        a loan guarantee by a government shall not be considered as conferring a benefit, unless there is a difference between the amount that the firm receiving the guarantee pays on a loan guaranteed by the government and the amount that the firm would pay on a comparable commercial loan absent the government guarantee.   In this case the benefit shall be the difference between these two amounts adjusted for any differences in fees;

                (d)        the provision of goods or services or purchase of goods by a government shall not be considered as conferring a benefit unless the provision is made for less than adequate remuneration, or the purchase is made for more than adequate remuneration.   The  adequacy of remuneration shall be determined in relation to prevailing market conditions for the good or service in question in the country of provision or purchase (including price, quality, availability, marketability, transportation and other conditions of purchase or sale).

    Article 15

    Determination of Injury[116]

    15.1     A determination of injury for purposes of Article VI of GATT 1994 shall be based on positive evidence and involve an objective examination of both (a) the volume of the subsidized imports and the effect of the subsidized imports on prices in the domestic market for like products[117] and (b) the consequent impact of these imports on the domestic producers of such products.

    15.2     With regard to the volume of the subsidized imports, the investigating authorities shall consider whether there has been a significant increase in subsidized imports, either in absolute terms or relative to production or consumption in the importing Member.   With regard to the effect of the subsidized imports on prices, the investigating authorities shall consider whether there has been a significant price undercutting by the subsidized imports as compared with the price of a like product of the importing Member, or whether the effect of such imports is otherwise to depress prices to a significant degree or to prevent price increases, which otherwise would have occurred, to a significant degree.   No one or several of these factors can necessarily give decisive guidance.  

    15.3     Where imports of a product from more than one country are simultaneously subject to countervailing duty investigations, the investigating authorities may cumulatively assess the effects of such imports only if they determine that (a) the amount of subsidization established in relation to the imports from each country is more than de minimis as defined in paragraph 9 of Article 11 and the volume of imports from each country is not negligible and (b) a cumulative assessment of the effects of the imports is appropriate in light of the conditions of competition between the imported products and the conditions of competition between the imported products and the like domestic product.

    15.4     The examination of the impact of the subsidized imports on the domestic industry shall include an evaluation of all relevant economic factors and indices having a bearing on the state of the industry, including actual and potential decline in output, sales, market share, profits, productivity, return on  investments, or utilization of capacity;  factors affecting domestic prices;  actual and potential negative effects on cash flow, inventories, employment, wages, growth, ability to raise capital or investments and, in the case of agriculture, whether there has been an increased burden on government support programmes.  This list is not exhaustive, nor can one or several of these factors necessarily give decisive guidance.

    15.5     It must be demonstrated that the subsidized imports are, through the effects[118] of subsidies,  causing injury within the meaning of this Agreement.  The demonstration of a causal relationship between the subsidized imports and the injury to the domestic industry shall be based on an examination of all relevant evidence before the authorities.  The authorities shall also examine any known factors other than the subsidized imports which at the same time are injuring the domestic industry, and the injuries caused by these other factors must not be attributed to the subsidized imports.  Factors which may be relevant in this respect include, inter alia, the volumes and prices of non‑subsidized imports of the product in question, contraction in demand or changes in the patterns of consumption, trade restrictive practices of and competition between the foreign and domestic producers, developments in technology and the export performance and productivity of the domestic industry.

    15.6     The effect of the subsidized imports shall be assessed in relation to the domestic production of the like product when available data permit the separate identification of that production on the basis of such criteria as the production process, producers' sales and profits.  If such separate identification of that production is not possible, the effects of the subsidized imports shall be assessed by the examination of the production of the narrowest group or range of products, which includes the like product, for which the necessary information can be provided.

    15.7     A determination of a threat of material injury shall be based on facts and not merely on allegation, conjecture or remote possibility.   The change in circumstances which would create a situation in which the subsidy would cause injury must be clearly foreseen and imminent.   In making a determination  regarding the existence of a threat of material injury, the investigating authorities should consider, inter alia, such factors as: 

                (i)         nature of the subsidy or subsidies in question and the trade effects likely to arise therefrom; 

                (ii)        a significant rate of increase of subsidized imports into the domestic market indicating the likelihood of substantially increased importation; 

                (iii)       sufficient freely disposable, or an imminent, substantial increase in, capacity of the exporter indicating the likelihood of substantially increased subsidized exports to the importing Member's market, taking into account the availability of other export markets to absorb any additional exports; 

                (iv)       whether imports are entering at prices that will have a significant depressing or suppressing effect on domestic prices, and would likely increase demand for further imports;  and

                (v)        inventories of the product being investigated. 

    No one of these factors by itself can necessarily give decisive guidance but the totality of the factors considered must lead to the conclusion that further subsidized exports are imminent and that, unless protective action is taken, material injury would occur.

    15.8     With respect to cases where injury is threatened by subsidized imports, the application of countervailing measures shall be considered and decided with special care.

    Article 16

    Definition of Domestic Industry

    16.1     For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "domestic industry" shall, except as provided in paragraph 2, be interpreted as referring to the domestic producers as a whole of the like products or to those of them whose collective output of the products constitutes a major proportion of the total  domestic production of those products, except that when producers are related[119] to the exporters or importers or are themselves importers of the allegedly subsidized product or a like product from other countries, the term "domestic industry" may be interpreted as referring to the rest of the producers.

    16.2.    In exceptional circumstances, the territory of a Member may, for the production in question, be divided into two or more competitive markets and the producers within each market may be regarded as a separate industry if (a) the producers within such market sell all or almost all of their production of the product in question in that market, and  (b) the demand in that market is not to any substantial degree supplied by producers of the product in question located elsewhere in the territory.   In such circumstances, injury may be found to exist even where a major portion of the total domestic industry is not injured, provided there is a concentration of subsidized imports into such an isolated market and provided further that the subsidized imports are causing injury to the producers of all or almost all of the production within such market.

    16.3     When the domestic industry has been interpreted as referring to the producers in a certain area,  i.e. a market as defined in paragraph 2, countervailing duties shall be levied only on the products in question consigned for final consumption to that area.   When the constitutional law of the importing Member does not permit the levying of countervailing duties on such a basis, the importing Member may levy the countervailing duties without limitation only if (a) the exporters shall have been given an opportunity to cease exporting at subsidized prices to the area concerned or otherwise give assurances pursuant to Article 18, and adequate assurances in this regard have not been promptly given, and (b) such duties cannot be levied only on products of specific producers which supply the area in question.

    16.4     Where two or more countries have reached under the provisions of paragraph 8(a) of Article XXIV of GATT 1994 such a level of integration that they have the characteristics of a single, unified market, the industry in the entire area of integration shall be taken to be the domestic industry referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2.

    16.5     The provisions of paragraph 6 of Article 15 shall be applicable to this Article.

    Article 17

    Provisional Measures

    17.1     Provisional measures may be applied only if: 

                (a)        an investigation has been initiated in accordance with the provisions of Article 11,  a public notice has been given to that effect and interested Members and interested parties have been given adequate opportunities to submit information and make comments;  

                (b)        a preliminary affirmative determination has been made that a subsidy exists and that there is injury to a domestic industry caused by subsidized imports;  and

                (c)        the authorities concerned judge such measures necessary to prevent injury being caused during the investigation. 

    17.2     Provisional measures may take the form of provisional countervailing duties guaranteed by cash deposits or bonds equal to the amount of the provisionally calculated amount of subsidization.

    17.3     Provisional measures shall not be applied sooner than 60 days from the date of initiation of the investigation.

    17.4     The application of provisional measures shall be limited to as short a period as possible, not exceeding four months. 

    17.5     The relevant provisions of Article 19 shall be followed in the application of provisional measures.

    Article 18

    Undertakings

    18.1     Proceedings may[120] be suspended or terminated without the imposition of provisional measures or countervailing duties upon receipt of satisfactory voluntary undertakings under which:

                (a)        the government of the exporting Member agrees to eliminate or limit the subsidy or take other measures concerning its effects;  or

                (b)        the exporter agrees to revise its prices so that the investigating  authorities are satisfied that the injurious effect of the subsidy is  eliminated.   Price increases under such undertakings shall not be higher  than necessary to eliminate the amount of the subsidy.     It is desirable  that the price increases be less than the amount of the subsidy if such  increases would be adequate to remove the injury to the domestic industry.

    18.2     Undertakings shall not be sought or accepted unless the authorities of the importing Member  have made a preliminary affirmative determination of subsidization and injury caused by such subsidization and, in case of undertakings from exporters, have obtained the consent of the exporting Member.

    18.3     Undertakings offered need not be accepted if the authorities of the importing Member consider their acceptance impractical, for example if the number of actual or potential exporters is too great, or for other reasons, including reasons of general policy.  Should the case arise and where practicable, the authorities shall provide to the exporter the reasons which have led them to consider acceptance of an undertaking as inappropriate, and shall, to the extent possible, give the exporter an opportunity to make comments thereon.

    18.4     If an undertaking is accepted, the investigation of subsidization and injury shall nevertheless be completed if the exporting Member so desires or the importing Member so decides.  In such a case, if a negative determination of subsidization or injury is made, the undertaking shall automatically lapse, except in cases where such a determination is due in large part to the existence of an undertaking.  In such cases, the authorities concerned may require that an undertaking be maintained for a reasonable  period consistent with the provisions of this Agreement.  In the event that an affirmative determination of subsidization and injury is made, the undertaking shall continue consistent with its terms and the provisions of this Agreement.

    18.5     Price undertakings may be suggested by the authorities of the importing Member, but no exporter shall be forced to enter into such undertakings.   The fact that governments or exporters do not offer such undertakings, or do not accept an invitation to do so, shall in no way prejudice the consideration of the case.  However, the authorities are free to determine that a threat of injury is more likely to be realized if the subsidized imports continue.

    18.6     Authorities of an importing Member may require any government or exporter from whom an  undertaking has been accepted to provide periodically information relevant to the fulfilment of such an undertaking, and to permit verification of pertinent data.   In case of violation of an undertaking, the  authorities of the importing Member may take, under this Agreement in conformity with its provisions, expeditious actions which may constitute immediate application of provisional measures using the best information available.  In such cases, definitive duties may be levied in accordance with this Agreement on products entered for consumption not more than 90 days before the application of such provisional  measures, except that any such retroactive assessment shall not apply to imports entered before the violation of the undertaking.

    Article 19

    Imposition and Collection of Countervailing Duties

    19.1     If, after reasonable efforts have been made to complete consultations, a Member makes a final determination of the existence and amount of the subsidy and that, through the effects of the subsidy, the subsidized imports are causing injury, it may impose a countervailing duty in accordance with the provisions of this Article unless the subsidy or subsidies are withdrawn.

    19.2     The decision whether or not to impose a countervailing duty in cases where all requirements for the imposition have been fulfilled, and the decision whether the amount of the countervailing duty to be imposed shall be the full amount of the subsidy or less, are decisions to be made by the authorities of the importing Member.   It is desirable that the imposition should be permissive in the territory of all Members, that the duty should be less than the total amount of the subsidy if such lesser duty would be adequate to remove the injury to the domestic industry, and that procedures should be established which would allow the authorities concerned to take due account of representations made by domestic interested parties[121] whose interests might be adversely affected by the imposition of a countervailing duty.

    19.3     When a countervailing duty is imposed in respect of any product, such countervailing duty shall be levied, in the appropriate amounts in each case, on a non‑discriminatory basis on imports of such product from all sources found to be subsidized and causing injury, except as to imports from those sources which have renounced any subsidies in question or from which undertakings under the terms of this Agreement have been accepted.   Any exporter whose exports are subject to a definitive countervailing duty but who was not actually investigated for reasons other than a refusal to  cooperate, shall be entitled to an expedited review in order that the investigating authorities promptly establish an individual countervailing duty rate for that exporter.

    19.4     No countervailing duty shall be levied[122] on any imported product in excess of the amount of the subsidy found to exist, calculated in terms of subsidization per unit of the subsidized and exported product.

    Article 20

    Retroactivity

    20.1     Provisional measures and countervailing duties shall only be applied to products which enter for consumption after the time when the decision under paragraph 1 of Article 17 and paragraph 1 of Article 19, respectively, enters into force, subject to the exceptions set out in this Article.

    20.2     Where a final determination of injury (but not of a threat thereof or of a material retardation of the establishment of an industry) is made or, in the case of a final determination of a threat of injury, where the effect of the subsidized imports would, in the absence of the provisional measures, have led to a determination of injury, countervailing duties may be levied retroactively for the period for which provisional measures, if any, have been applied.

    20.3     If the definitive countervailing duty is higher than the amount guaranteed by the cash deposit or bond, the difference shall not be collected.   If the definitive duty is less than the amount guaranteed by the cash deposit or bond, the excess amount shall be reimbursed or the bond released in an expeditious manner.

    20.4     Except as provided in paragraph 2, where a determination of threat of injury or material retardation is made (but no injury has yet occurred) a definitive countervailing duty may be imposed only from the date of the determination of threat of injury or material retardation, and any cash deposit made during the period of the application of provisional measures shall be refunded and any bonds released in an expeditious manner.

    20.5     Where a final determination is negative, any cash deposit made during the period of the application of provisional measures shall be refunded and any bonds released in an expeditious manner.

    20.6     In critical circumstances where for the subsidized product in question the authorities find that injury which is difficult to repair is caused by massive imports in a relatively short period of a product benefiting from subsidies paid or bestowed inconsistently with the provisions of GATT 1994 and of this Agreement and where it is deemed necessary, in order to preclude the recurrence of such injury, to assess countervailing duties retroactively on those imports, the definitive countervailing duties may be assessed on imports which were entered for consumption not more than 90 days prior to the date of application of provisional measures.

    Article 21

    Duration and Review of Countervailing Duties and Undertakings

    21.1     A countervailing duty shall remain in force only as long as and to the extent necessary to counteract subsidization which is causing injury.

    21.2     The authorities shall review the need for the continued imposition of the duty, where warranted, on their own initiative or, provided that a reasonable period of time has elapsed since the imposition of the definitive countervailing duty, upon request by any interested party which submits positive  information substantiating the need for a review.  Interested parties shall have the right to request the authorities to examine whether the continued imposition of the duty is necessary to offset subsidization, whether the injury would be likely to continue or recur if the duty were removed or varied, or both.  If, as a result of the review under this paragraph, the authorities determine that the countervailing duty is no longer warranted, it shall be terminated immediately.

    21.3     Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, any definitive countervailing duty shall be terminated on a date not later than five years from its imposition (or from the date of the most recent review under paragraph 2 if that review has covered both subsidization and injury, or under this paragraph), unless the authorities determine, in a review initiated before that date on their own initiative or upon a duly substantiated request made by or on behalf of the domestic industry within a reasonable period of time prior to that date, that the expiry of the duty would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of subsidization and injury.[123]  The duty may remain in force pending the outcome of such a review.

    21.4     The provisions of Article 12 regarding evidence and procedure shall apply to any review carried out under this Article.  Any such review shall be carried out expeditiously and shall normally be concluded within 12 months of the date of initiation of the review.

    21.5     The provisions of this Article shall apply mutatis mutandis to undertakings accepted under Article 18.

    Article 22

    Public Notice and Explanation of

    Determinations

    22.1     When the authorities are satisfied that there is sufficient evidence to justify the initiation  of an investigation pursuant to Article 11, the Member or Members the products of which are subject to such investigation and other interested parties known to the investigating authorities to have an interest therein shall be notified and a public notice shall be given.

    22.2     A public notice of the initiation of an investigation shall contain, or otherwise make available through a separate report[124], adequate information on the following:

                (i)         the name of the exporting country or countries and the product involved;

                (ii)        the date of initiation of the investigation;

                (iii)       a description of the subsidy practice or practices to be investigated;

                (iv)       a summary of the factors on which the  allegation of injury is based;

                (v)        the address to which representations by interested Members and interested parties should be directed;  and

                (vi)       the time‑limits allowed to interested Members and interested parties for making their views known.

    22.3     Public notice shall be given of any preliminary or final determination, whether affirmative or negative, of any decision to accept an undertaking pursuant to Article 18, of the termination of such an undertaking, and of the termination of a definitive countervailing duty.  Each such notice shall set forth, or otherwise make available through a separate report, in sufficient detail the findings and conclusions reached on all issues of fact and law considered material by the investigating authorities.  All such notices and reports shall be forwarded to the Member or Members the products of which are subject to such determination or undertaking and to other interested parties known to have an interest therein.

    22.4     A public notice of the imposition of provisional measures shall set forth, or otherwise make available through a separate report, sufficiently detailed explanations for the preliminary determinations on the existence of a subsidy and injury and shall refer to the matters of fact and law which have led to arguments being accepted or rejected.  Such a notice or report shall, due regard being paid to the requirement for the protection of confidential information, contain in particular:

                (i)         the names of the suppliers or, when this is impracticable, the supplying countries involved;

                (ii)        a description of the  product which is sufficient for customs purposes;

                (iii)       the amount of subsidy established and the basis on which the existence of a subsidy has been determined;

                (iv)       considerations relevant to the injury determination as set out in Article 15;

                (v)        the main reasons leading to the determination.

    22.5     A public notice of conclusion or suspension of an investigation in the case of an affirmative determination providing for the imposition of a definitive duty or the acceptance of an undertaking shall contain, or otherwise make available through a separate report, all relevant information on the matters of fact and law and reasons which have led to the imposition of final measures or the acceptance of an undertaking, due regard being paid to the requirement for the protection of confidential information.  In particular, the notice or report shall contain the information described in paragraph 4, as well as the reasons for the acceptance or rejection of relevant arguments or claims made by interested Members and by the exporters and importers.

    22.6     A public notice of the termination or suspension of an investigation following the acceptance of an undertaking pursuant to Article 18 shall include, or otherwise make available through a separate report, the non‑confidential part of this undertaking.

    22.7     The provisions of this Article shall apply mutatis mutandis to the initiation and completion of reviews pursuant to Article 21 and to decisions under Article 20 to apply duties retroactively.

    Article 23

    Judicial Review

                Each Member whose national legislation contains provisions on countervailing  duty measures shall maintain judicial, arbitral or administrative tribunals or procedures for the purpose, inter alia, of the prompt review of administrative actions relating to final determinations and reviews of  determinations within the meaning of Article 21.  Such tribunals or procedures shall be independent of the authorities responsible for the determination or review in question, and shall provide all interested parties who participated in the administrative proceeding and are directly and individually affected by the administrative actions with access to review.

    PART VI:  INSTITUTIONS

    Article 24

    Committee on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures and Subsidiary Bodies

    24.1     There is hereby established a Committee on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures composed of representatives from each of the Members.  The Committee shall elect its own Chairman and shall meet not less than twice a year and otherwise as envisaged by relevant provisions of this Agreement at the request of any Member.  The Committee shall carry out responsibilities as assigned to it under this Agreement or by the Members and it shall afford Members the opportunity of consulting on any matter relating to the operation of the Agreement or the furtherance of its objectives.  The WTO Secretariat shall act as the secretariat to the Committee.

    24.2     The Committee may set up subsidiary bodies as appropriate.

    24.3     The Committee shall establish a Permanent Group of Experts composed of five independent persons, highly qualified in the fields of subsidies and trade relations.  The experts will be elected by the Committee and one of them will be replaced every year.  The PGE may be requested to assist a panel, as provided for in paragraph 5 of Article 4.  The Committee may also seek an advisory opinion on the existence and nature of any subsidy.

    24.4     The PGE may be consulted by any Member and may give advisory opinions on the nature of any subsidy proposed to be introduced or currently maintained by that Member.  Such advisory opinions will be confidential and may not be invoked in proceedings under Article 7.

    24.5     In carrying out their functions, the Committee and any subsidiary bodies may consult with and seek information from any source they deem appropriate.  However, before the Committee or a subsidiary body seeks such information from a source within the jurisdiction of a Member, it shall inform the Member involved.

    PART VII:  NOTIFICATION AND SURVEILLANCE

    Article 25

    Notifications

    25.1     Members agree that, without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article XVI of GATT 1994, their notifications of subsidies shall be submitted not later than 30 June of each year and shall conform to the provisions of paragraphs 2 through 6.

    25.2     Members shall notify any subsidy as defined in paragraph 1 of Article 1, which is specific within the meaning of Article 2, granted or maintained within their territories.

    25.3     The content of notifications should be sufficiently specific to enable other Members to evaluate the trade effects and to understand the operation of notified subsidy programmes.  In this connection, and without prejudice to the contents and form of the questionnaire on subsidies[125], Members shall ensure that their notifications contain the following information:

                (i)         form of a subsidy (i.e. grant, loan, tax concession, etc.);

                (ii)        subsidy per unit or, in cases where this is not possible, the total amount or the annual  amount budgeted for that subsidy (indicating, if possible, the average subsidy per unit in the previous year);

                (iii)       policy objective and/or purpose of a subsidy;

                (iv)       duration of a subsidy and/or any other time‑limits attached to it;

                (v)        statistical data permitting an assessment of the trade effects of a subsidy.

    25.4     Where specific points in paragraph 3 have not been addressed in a notification, an explanation shall be provided in the notification itself.

    25.5     If subsidies are granted to specific products or sectors, the notifications should be organized by product or sector.

    25.6     Members which consider that there are no measures in their territories requiring notification under paragraph 1 of Article XVI of GATT 1994 and this Agreement shall so inform the Secretariat in writing.

    25.7     Members recognize that notification of a measure does not prejudge either its legal status under GATT 1994 and this Agreement, the effects under this Agreement, or the nature of the measure itself.

    25.8     Any Member may, at any time, make a written request for information on the nature and extent of any subsidy granted or maintained by another Member (including any subsidy referred to in Part IV), or for an explanation of the reasons for which a specific measure has been considered as not subject to the requirement of notification.

    25.9     Members so requested shall provide such information as quickly as possible and in a comprehensive manner, and shall be ready, upon request, to provide additional information to the requesting Member.   In particular, they shall provide sufficient details to enable the other Member to  assess their compliance with the terms of this Agreement.   Any Member which considers that such information has not been provided may bring the matter to the attention of the Committee.

    25.10   Any Member which considers that any measure of another Member having the effects of a  subsidy has not been notified in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article XVI of GATT 1994 and this Article may bring the matter to the attention of such other Member.   If the alleged subsidy is not thereafter notified promptly, such Member may itself bring the alleged subsidy in question to the notice of the Committee.

    25.11   Members shall report without delay to the Committee all preliminary or final actions taken with respect to countervailing duties.  Such reports shall be available in the Secretariat for inspection by other Members.  Members shall also submit, on a semi‑annual basis, reports on any countervailing duty actions taken within the preceding six months.  The semi‑annual reports shall be submitted on an agreed standard form.

    25.12   Each Member shall notify the Committee (a) which of its authorities are competent to initiate and conduct investigations referred to in Article 11 and (b) its domestic procedures governing the initiation and conduct of such investigations.

    Article 26

    Surveillance

    26.1     The Committee shall examine new and full notifications submitted under paragraph 1 of Article XVI of GATT 1994 and paragraph 1 of Article 25 of this Agreement at special sessions  held every third year.  Notifications submitted in the intervening years (updating notifications) shall be examined at each regular meeting of the Committee.

    26.2     The Committee shall examine reports submitted under paragraph 11 of Article 25 at each regular meeting of the Committee.  

    PART VIII:  DEVELOPING COUNTRY MEMBERS

    Article 27

    Special and Differential Treatment of Developing Country Members

    27.1     Members recognize that subsidies may play an important role in economic development programmes of developing country Members.

    27.2     The prohibition of paragraph 1(a) of Article 3 shall not apply to: 

                (a)        developing country Members referred to in Annex VII.

                (b)        other developing country Members for a period of eight years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, subject to compliance with the provisions in paragraph  4.

    27.3     The prohibition of paragraph 1(b) of Article 3 shall not apply to developing country Members for a period of five years, and shall not apply to least developed country Members for a period of eight years, from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.

    27.4     Any developing country Member referred to in paragraph 2(b) shall phase out its export subsidies within the eight‑year period, preferably in a progressive manner.  However, a developing country Member shall not increase the level of its export subsidies[126], and shall eliminate them within a period shorter than that provided for in this paragraph when the use of such export subsidies is inconsistent  with its development needs.  If a developing country Member deems it necessary to apply such subsidies beyond the 8‑year period, it shall not later than one year before the expiry of this period enter into consultation with the Committee, which will determine whether an extension of this period is justified, after examining all the relevant economic, financial and development needs of the developing country Member in question.  If the Committee determines that the extension is justified, the developing country Member concerned shall hold annual consultations with the Committee to determine the necessity of  maintaining the subsidies.  If no such determination is made by the Committee, the developing country Member shall phase out the remaining export subsidies within two years from the end of the last authorized period.

    27.5     A developing country Member which has reached export competitiveness in any given product shall phase out its export subsidies for such product(s) over a period of two years.  However, for a developing country Member which is referred to in Annex VII and which has reached export  competitiveness in one or more products, export subsidies on such products shall be gradually phased out over a period of eight years. 

    27.6     Export competitiveness in a product exists if a developing country Member's exports of that product have reached a share of at least 3.25 per cent in world trade of that product for two consecutive calendar years.  Export competitiveness shall exist either (a) on the basis of notification by the developing country Member having reached export competitiveness, or (b) on the basis of a computation undertaken by the Secretariat at the request of any Member.  For the purpose of this paragraph, a product is defined as a section heading of the Harmonized System Nomenclature.  The Committee shall review the operation of this provision five years from the date of the entry into force of  the WTO Agreement.

    27.7     The provisions of Article 4 shall not apply to a developing country Member in the case of export  subsidies which are in conformity with the provisions of paragraphs 2 through 5.  The relevant provisions in such a case shall be those of Article 7.

    27.8     There shall be no presumption in terms of paragraph 1 of Article 6 that a subsidy granted by a developing country Member results in serious prejudice, as defined in this Agreement.  Such serious prejudice, where applicable under the terms of paragraph 9, shall be demonstrated by positive evidence, in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 3 through 8 of Article 6.

    27.9     Regarding actionable subsidies granted or maintained by a developing country Member other than those referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 6, action may not be authorized or taken under Article 7 unless nullification or impairment of tariff concessions or other obligations under GATT 1994 is found to exist as a result of such a subsidy, in such a way as to displace or impede imports of a like product of another Member into the market of the subsidizing developing country Member or unless injury to a domestic industry in the market of an importing Member occurs.

    27.10   Any countervailing duty investigation of a product originating in a developing country Member shall be terminated as soon as the authorities concerned determine that:

                (a)        the overall level of subsidies granted upon the product in question does not exceed 2 per cent of its value calculated on a per unit basis;  or

                (b)        the volume of the subsidized imports represents less than 4 per cent of the total imports of the like product in the importing Member, unless imports from developing country Members whose individual shares of total imports represent less than 4 per cent collectively account for more than 9 per cent of the total imports of the like product in the importing Member.

    27.11   For those developing country Members within the scope of paragraph 2(b) which have eliminated  export subsidies prior to the expiry of the period of eight years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, and for those developing country Members referred to in Annex VII, the number in  paragraph 10(a) shall be 3 per cent rather than 2 per cent.  This provision shall apply from the date that the elimination of export subsidies is notified to the Committee, and for so long as export subsidies are not granted by the notifying developing country Member.  This provision shall expire eight years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.

    27.12   The provisions of paragraphs 10 and 11 shall govern any determination of de minimis under paragraph 3 of Article 15.

    27.13   The provisions of Part III shall not apply to direct forgiveness of debts, subsidies to cover social costs, in whatever form, including relinquishment of government revenue and other transfer of liabilities when such subsidies are granted within and directly linked to a privatization programme of a developing country Member, provided that both such programme and the subsidies involved are granted for a limited period and notified to the Committee and that the programme results in eventual privatization of the enterprise concerned.

    27.14   The Committee shall, upon request by an interested Member, undertake a review of a specific export subsidy practice of a developing country Member to examine whether the practice is in conformity with its development needs.

    27.15   The Committee shall, upon request by an interested developing country Member, undertake a review of a specific countervailing measure to examine whether it is consistent with the provisions of paragraphs 10 and 11 as applicable to the developing country Member in question.

    PART IX:  TRANSITIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

    Article 28

    Existing Programmes

    28.1     Subsidy programmes which have been established within the territory of any Member before the date on which such a Member signed the WTO Agreement and which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement shall be:

                (a)        notified to the Committee not later than 90 days after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement for such Member;  and

                (b)        brought into conformity with the provisions of this Agreement within three years of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement for such Member and until then shall not be subject to Part II.

    28.2     No Member shall extend the scope of any such programme, nor shall such a programme be renewed upon its expiry.

    Article 29

    Transformation into a Market Economy

    29.1     Members in the process of transformation from a centrally‑planned into a market, free‑enterprise economy may apply programmes and measures necessary for such a transformation.

    29.2     For such Members, subsidy programmes falling within the scope of Article 3, and notified according to paragraph 3, shall be phased out or brought into conformity with Article 3 within a period of seven years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.  In such a case, Article 4 shall not apply.  In addition during the same period:

                (a)        Subsidy programmes falling within the scope of paragraph 1(d) of Article 6 shall not be actionable under Article 7;

                (b)        With respect to other actionable subsidies, the provisions of paragraph 9 of Article 27 shall apply.

    29.3     Subsidy programmes falling within the scope of Article 3 shall be notified to the Committee by the earliest practicable date after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.  Further notifications of such subsidies may be made up to two years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.

    29.4     In exceptional circumstances Members referred to in paragraph 1 may be given departures from their notified programmes and measures and their time‑frame by the Committee if such departures are deemed necessary for the process of transformation.

    PART X:  DISPUTE SETTLEMENT

    Article 30

                The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically provided herein.

    PART XI:  FINAL PROVISIONS

    Article 31

    Provisional Application

                The provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 6 and the provisions of Article 8 and Article 9 shall apply for a period of five years, beginning with the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.  Not later than 180 days before the end of this period, the Committee shall review the operation of those provisions, with a view to determining whether to extend their application, either as presently drafted or in a modified form, for a further period.

    Article 32

    Other Final Provisions

    32.1     No specific action against a subsidy of another Member can be taken except in accordance with the provisions of GATT 1994, as interpreted by this Agreement.[127]

    32.2     Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the other Members.

    32.3     Subject to paragraph 4, the provisions of this Agreement shall apply to investigations, and reviews of existing measures, initiated pursuant to applications which have been made on or after the date of entry into force for a Member of the WTO Agreement.

    32.4     For the purposes of paragraph 3 of Article 21, existing countervailing measures shall be deemed to be imposed on a date not later than the date of entry into force for a Member of the WTO Agreement, except in cases in which the domestic legislation of a Member in force at that date already included a clause of the type provided for in that paragraph.

    32.5     Each Member shall take all necessary steps, of a general or particular character, to ensure, not later than the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement for it, the conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures with the provisions of this Agreement as they may apply to the Member in question.

    32.6     Each Member shall inform the Committee of any changes in its laws and regulations relevant to this Agreement and in the administration of such laws and regulations.

    32.7     The Committee shall review annually the implementation and operation of this Agreement, taking into account the objectives thereof.  The Committee shall inform annually the Council for Trade in Goods of developments during the period covered by such reviews.

    32.8     The Annexes to this Agreement constitute an integral part thereof.

    ANNEX I

    ILLUSTRATIVE LIST OF EXPORT SUBSIDIES

                (a)        The provision by governments of direct subsidies to a firm or an industry contingent upon export performance.

                (b)        Currency retention schemes or any similar practices which involve a bonus on exports.

                (c)        Internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, provided or mandated by governments, on terms more favourable than for domestic shipments.

                (d)        The provision by governments or their agencies either directly or indirectly through government‑mandated schemes, of imported or domestic products or services for use in the production of exported goods, on terms or conditions more favourable than for provision of like or directly  competitive products or services for use in the production of goods for domestic consumption, if (in the case of products) such terms or conditions are more favourable than those commercially available[128] on world markets to their exporters.

                (e)        The full or partial exemption remission, or deferral specifically related to exports, of direct taxes[129] or social welfare charges paid or payable by industrial or commercial enterprises.[130]

                (f)        The allowance of special deductions directly related to exports or export performance, over and above those granted in respect to production for domestic consumption, in the calculation of the base on which direct taxes are charged.

                (g)        The exemption or remission, in respect of the production and distribution of exported products, of indirect taxes58 in excess of those levied in respect of the production and distribution of like products when sold for domestic consumption.

                (h)        The exemption, remission or deferral of prior‑stage cumulative indirect taxes58 on goods or services used in the production of exported products in excess of the exemption, remission or deferral of like prior‑stage cumulative indirect taxes on goods or services used in the  production of like products when sold for domestic consumption;  provided, however, that prior‑stage cumulative indirect taxes may be exempted, remitted or deferred on exported products even when not exempted, remitted or deferred on like products when sold for domestic consumption, if the prior‑stage cumulative indirect taxes are levied on inputs that are consumed in the production of the exported product  (making normal allowance for waste).[131]   This item shall be interpreted in accordance with the guidelines on consumption of inputs in the production process contained in Annex II.

                (i)         The remission or drawback of import charges58 in excess of those levied on imported inputs that are consumed in the production of the exported product (making normal allowance for waste);  provided, however, that in particular cases a firm may use a quantity of home market  inputs equal to, and having the same quality and characteristics as, the imported inputs as a substitute for them in order to benefit from this provision if the import and the corresponding export operations both occur within a reasonable time period, not to exceed two years.   This  item shall be interpreted in accordance with the guidelines on consumption of inputs in the production process contained in Annex II and the guidelines in the determination of substitution drawback systems as export subsidies contained in Annex III.

                (j)         The provision by governments (or special institutions controlled by governments) of export credit guarantee or insurance programmes, of insurance or guarantee programmes against increases in the cost of exported products or of exchange risk programmes, at premium rates which are inadequate to cover the long‑term operating costs and losses of the programmes.

                (k)        The grant by governments (or special institutions controlled by and/or acting under the authority of governments) of export credits at rates below those which they actually have to pay for the funds so employed (or would have to pay if they borrowed on international capital markets in order to obtain funds of the same maturity and other credit terms and denominated in the same currency as the export credit), or the payment by them of all or part of the costs incurred by exporters or financial institutions in obtaining credits, in so far as they are used to secure a material advantage in the field of export credit terms.

    Provided, however, that if a Member is a party to an international undertaking on official export credits to which at least twelve original Members to this Agreement are parties as of 1 January 1979 (or a successor undertaking which has been adopted by those original Members), or if in practice a Member applies the interest rates provisions of the relevant undertaking, an export credit practice which is in conformity with those provisions shall not be considered an export subsidy prohibited by this Agreement.

                (l)         Any other charge on the public account constituting an export subsidy in the sense of Article XVI of GATT 1994.

    ANNEX II

    GUIDELINES ON CONSUMPTION OF INPUTS IN THE PRODUCTION PROCESS[132]

    I

    1.         Indirect tax rebate schemes can allow for exemption, remission or deferral of prior‑stage cumulative indirect taxes levied on inputs that are consumed in the production of the exported product (making normal allowance for waste).   Similarly, drawback schemes can allow for the remission or  drawback of import charges levied on inputs that are consumed in the production of the exported product (making normal allowance for waste).

    2.         The Illustrative List of Export Subsidies in Annex I of this Agreement makes reference to the term "inputs that are consumed in the production of the exported product" in paragraphs (h) and (i).  Pursuant to paragraph (h), indirect tax rebate schemes can constitute an export subsidy to the extent  that they result in exemption, remission or deferral of prior‑stage cumulative indirect taxes in excess of the amount of such taxes actually levied on inputs that are consumed in the production of the exported product.   Pursuant to paragraph (i), drawback schemes can constitute an export subsidy to the extent  that they result in a remission or drawback of import charges in excess of those actually levied on inputs that are consumed in the production of the exported product.   Both paragraphs stipulate that normal allowance for waste must be made in findings regarding consumption of inputs in the production of the exported product.   Paragraph (i) also provides for substitution, where appropriate.

    II

                In examining whether inputs are consumed in the production of the exported product, as part of a countervailing duty investigation pursuant to this Agreement, investigating authorities should proceed on the following basis:

    1.         Where it is alleged that an indirect tax rebate scheme, or a drawback scheme, conveys a subsidy by reason of over‑rebate or excess drawback of indirect taxes or import charges on inputs consumed in the production of the exported product, the investigating authorities should first determine whether the government of the exporting Member has in place and applies a system or procedure to confirm which inputs are consumed in the production of the exported product and in what amounts.   Where such a system or procedure is determined to be applied, the investigating authorities should then examine the system or procedure to see whether it is reasonable, effective for the purpose intended, and based on generally accepted commercial practices in the country of export.   The investigating authorities may deem it necessary to carry out, in accordance with paragraph 6 of Article 12, certain practical tests in order to verify information or to satisfy themselves that the system or procedure is being effectively applied.

    2.         Where there is no such system or procedure, where it is not reasonable, or where it is instituted and considered reasonable but is found not to be applied or not to be applied effectively, a further examination by the exporting Member based on the actual inputs involved would need to be carried out in the context of determining whether an excess payment occurred.   If the investigating authorities deemed it necessary, a further examination would be carried out in accordance with paragraph 1.

    3.         Investigating authorities should treat inputs as physically incorporated if such inputs are used in the production process and are physically present in the product exported.   The Members note that an input need not be present in the final product in the same form in which it entered the production process.

    4.         In determining the amount of a particular input that is consumed in the production of the exported product, a "normal allowance for waste" should be taken into account, and such waste should be treated as consumed in the production of the exported product.   The term "waste" refers to that portion of a given input which does not serve an independent function in the production process, is not consumed in the production of the exported product (for reasons such as inefficiencies) and is not recovered, used or sold by the same manufacturer.

    5.         The investigating authority's determination of whether the claimed allowance for waste is "normal" should take into account the production process, the average experience of the industry in the country of export, and other technical factors, as appropriate.   The investigating authority should bear in mind that an important question is whether the authorities in the exporting Member have reasonably calculated the amount of waste, when such an amount is intended to be included in the tax or duty rebate or remission.

    ANNEX III

    GUIDELINES IN THE DETERMINATION OF SUBSTITUTION DRAWBACK SYSTEMS AS EXPORT SUBSIDIES

    I

                Drawback systems can allow for the refund or drawback of import charges on inputs which are consumed in the production process of another product and where the export of this latter product contains domestic inputs having the same quality and characteristics as those substituted for the imported inputs.  Pursuant to paragraph (i) of the Illustrative List of Export Subsidies in Annex I, substitution drawback systems can constitute an export subsidy to the extent that they result in an excess drawback of the import charges levied initially on the imported inputs for which drawback is being claimed.

    II

                In examining any substitution drawback system as part of a countervailing duty investigation pursuant to this Agreement, investigating authorities should proceed on the following basis:

    1.         Paragraph (i) of the Illustrative List stipulates that home market inputs may be substituted for imported inputs in the production of a product for export provided such inputs are equal in quantity to, and have the same quality and characteristics as, the imported inputs being substituted.   The existence of a verification system or procedure is important because it enables the government of the exporting Member to ensure and demonstrate that the quantity of inputs for which drawback is claimed does not exceed the quantity of similar products exported, in whatever form, and that there is not drawback of import charges in excess of those originally levied on the imported inputs in question.

    2.         Where it is alleged that a substitution drawback system conveys a subsidy, the investigating authorities should first proceed to determine whether the government of the exporting Member has in place and applies a verification system or procedure.   Where such a system or procedure is determined to be applied, the investigating authorities should then examine the verification procedures to see whether they are reasonable, effective for the purpose intended, and based on generally accepted commercial practices in the country of export.   To the extent that the procedures are determined to meet this test and are effectively applied, no subsidy should be presumed to exist.   It may be deemed necessary by the investigating authorities to carry out, in accordance with paragraph 6 of Article 12, certain practical tests in order to verify information or to satisfy themselves that the verification procedures are being effectively applied.

    3.         Where there are no verification procedures, where they are not reasonable, or where such procedures are instituted and considered reasonable but are found not to be actually applied or not applied effectively, there may be a subsidy.   In such cases a further examination by the exporting Member based on the actual transactions involved would need to be carried out to determine whether an excess payment occurred.   If the investigating authorities deemed it necessary, a further examination would be carried out in accordance with paragraph 2.

    4.         The existence of a substitution drawback provision under which exporters are allowed to select particular import shipments on which drawback is claimed should not of itself be considered to convey a subsidy.

    5.         An excess drawback of import charges in the sense of paragraph (i) would be  deemed to exist where governments paid interest on any monies refunded under their drawback schemes, to the extent of the interest actually paid or payable.

    ANNEX IV

    CALCULATION OF THE TOTAL AD VALOREM SUBSIDIZATION

    (PARAGRAPH 1(A) OF ARTICLE 6)[133]

    1.         Any calculation of the amount of a subsidy for the purpose of paragraph 1(a) of Article 6 shall be done in terms of the cost to the granting government.

    2.         Except as provided in paragraphs 3 through 5, in determining whether the overall rate of subsidization exceeds 5 per cent of the value of the product, the value of the product shall be calculated as the total value of the recipient firm's[134] sales in the most recent 12-month period, for which sales data is available, preceding the period in which the subsidy is granted.[135]

    3.         Where the subsidy is tied to the production or sale of a given product, the value of the product shall be calculated as the total value of the recipient firm's sales of that product in the most recent 12-month period, for which sales data is available, preceding the period in which the subsidy is granted.

    4.         Where the recipient firm is in a start‑up situation, serious prejudice shall be deemed to exist if the overall rate of subsidization exceeds 15 per cent of the total funds invested.  For purposes of this  paragraph, a start‑up period will not extend beyond the first year of production.[136]

    5.         Where the recipient firm is located in an inflationary economy country, the value of the product shall be calculated as the recipient firm's total sales (or sales of the relevant product, if the subsidy is tied) in the preceding calendar year indexed by the rate of inflation experienced in the 12 months preceding the month in which the subsidy is to be given.

    6.         In determining the overall rate of subsidization in a given year, subsidies given under different programmes and by different authorities in the territory of a Member shall be aggregated.

    7.         Subsidies granted prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, the benefits of which are allocated to future production, shall be included in the overall rate of subsidization.

    8.         Subsidies which are non‑actionable under relevant provisions of this Agreement shall not be included in the calculation of the amount of a subsidy for the purpose of paragraph 1(a) of Article 6.

    ANNEX V

    PROCEDURES FOR DEVELOPING INFORMATION CONCERNING SERIOUS PREJUDICE

    1.         Every Member shall cooperate in the development of evidence to be examined by a panel in procedures under paragraphs 4 through 6 of Article 7.  The parties to the dispute and any third‑country Member concerned shall notify to the DSB, as soon as the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 7 have  been invoked, the organization responsible for administration of this provision within its territory and the procedures to be used to comply with requests for information.

    2.         In cases where matters are referred to the DSB under paragraph 4 of Article 7, the DSB shall, upon request, initiate the procedure to obtain such information from the government of the subsidizing Member as necessary to establish the existence and amount of subsidization, the value of total sales of the subsidized firms, as well as information necessary to analyze the adverse effects caused by the subsidized product.[137]  This process may include, where appropriate, presentation of questions to the government of the subsidizing Member and of the complaining Member to collect information, as well as to clarify and obtain elaboration of information available to the parties to a dispute through the notification procedures set forth in Part VII.[138]

    3.         In the case of effects in third-country markets, a party to a dispute may collect information, including through the use of questions to the government of the third-country Member, necessary to analyse adverse effects, which is not otherwise reasonably available from the complaining Member  or the subsidizing Member.   This requirement should be administered in such a way as not to impose an unreasonable burden on the third‑country Member.   In particular, such a Member is not expected to make a market or price analysis specially for that purpose.   The information to be supplied is that which is already available or can be readily obtained by this Member (e.g. most recent statistics which have already been gathered by relevant statistical services but which have not yet been published, customs data concerning imports and declared values of the products concerned, etc.).   However, if a party to a dispute undertakes a detailed market analysis at its own expense, the task of the person or firm  conducting such an analysis shall be facilitated by the authorities of the third‑country Member and such a person or firm shall be given access to all information which is not normally maintained confidential by the government.

    4.         The DSB shall designate a representative to serve the function of facilitating the information‑gathering process.  The sole purpose of the representative shall be to ensure the timely development of the information necessary to facilitate expeditious subsequent multilateral review of the dispute.  In particular, the representative may suggest ways to most efficiently solicit necessary information as well as encourage the cooperation of the parties.

    5.         The information‑gathering process outlined in paragraphs 2 through 4 shall be completed within 60 days of the date on which the matter has been referred to the DSB under paragraph 4 of Article 7.  The information obtained during this process shall be submitted to the panel established by the DSB in accordance with the provisions of Part X.  This information should include,  inter alia, data concerning the amount of the subsidy in question (and, where appropriate, the value of total sales of the subsidized firms), prices of the subsidized product, prices of the non‑subsidized product, prices of other suppliers to the market, changes in the supply of the subsidized product to the market in question and changes in market shares.  It should also include rebuttal evidence, as well as such supplemental information as the panel deems relevant in the course of reaching its conclusions.

    6.         If the subsidizing and/or third‑country Member fail to cooperate in the information‑gathering process, the complaining Member will present its case of serious prejudice, based on evidence available to it, together with facts and circumstances of the non-cooperation of the subsidizing and/or third‑country Member.   Where information is unavailable due to non-cooperation by the subsidizing and/or third‑country Member, the panel may complete the record as necessary relying on best information otherwise available.

    7.         In making its determination, the panel should draw adverse inferences from instances of non- cooperation by any party involved in the information‑gathering process.

    8.         In making a determination to use either best information available or adverse inferences, the panel shall consider the advice of the DSB representative nominated under paragraph 4 as to the reasonableness of any requests for information and the efforts made by parties to comply with these requests in a cooperative and timely manner.

    9.         Nothing in the information‑gathering process shall limit the ability of the panel to seek such  additional information it deems essential to a proper resolution to the dispute, and which was not adequately sought or developed during that process.   However, ordinarily the panel should not request additional information to complete the record where the information would support a particular party's position and the absence of that information in the record is the result of unreasonable non-cooperation by that party in the information‑gathering process.

    ANNEX VI

    PROCEDURES FOR ON‑THE‑SPOT INVESTIGATIONS PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH 6 OF ARTICLE 12

    1.         Upon initiation of an investigation, the authorities of the exporting Member and the firms known to be concerned should be informed of the intention to carry out on‑the‑spot investigations.

    2.         If in exceptional circumstances it is intended to include non‑governmental experts in the investigating team, the firms and the authorities of the exporting Member should be so informed.  Such non‑governmental experts should be subject to effective sanctions for breach of confidentiality requirements.

    3.         It should be standard practice to obtain explicit agreement of the firms concerned in the exporting Member before the visit is finally scheduled.

    4.         As soon as the agreement of the firms concerned has been obtained, the investigating authorities should notify the authorities of the exporting Member of the names and addresses of the firms to be visited and the dates agreed.

    5.         Sufficient advance notice should be given to the firms in question before the visit is made.

    6.         Visits to explain the questionnaire should only be made at the request of an exporting firm.  In case of such a request the investigating authorities may place themselves at the disposal of the firm;  such a visit may only be made if (a) the authorities of the importing Member notify the representatives of the government of the Member in question and (b) the latter do not object to the visit.

    7.         As the main purpose of the on‑the‑spot investigation is to verify information provided or to obtain further details, it should be carried out after the response to the questionnaire has been received unless the firm agrees to the contrary and the government of the exporting Member is informed by the investigating authorities of the anticipated visit and does not object to it;  further, it should be standard practice prior to the visit to advise the firms concerned of the general nature of the information to be verified and of any further information which needs to be provided, though this should not preclude requests to be made on the spot for further details to be provided in the light of information obtained.

    8.         Enquiries or questions put by the authorities or firms of the exporting Members and essential to a successful on‑the‑spot investigation should, whenever possible, be answered before the visit is made.

    ANNEX VII

    DEVELOPING COUNTRY MEMBERS REFERRED TO IN PARAGRAPH 2(A) OF ARTICLE 27

                The developing country Members not subject to the provisions of paragraph 1(a) of Article 3 under the terms of  paragraph 2(a) of Article 27 are:

                (a)        Least‑developed countries designated as such by the United Nations which are Members of the WTO.

                (b)        Each of the following developing countries which are Members of the WTO shall be subject to the provisions which are applicable to other developing country Members according to paragraph 2(b) of Article 27 when GNP per capita has reached $1,000 per annum[139]:  Bolivia, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Morocco, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe.

    AGREEMENT ON SAFEGUARDS

    Members,

                Having in mind the overall objective of the Members to improve and strengthen the international trading system based on GATT 1994;

                Recognizing the need to clarify and reinforce the disciplines of GATT 1994, and specifically those of its Article XIX (Emergency Action on Imports of Particular Products), to re‑establish multilateral control over safeguards and eliminate measures that escape such control;

                Recognizing the importance of structural adjustment and the need to enhance rather than limit competition in international markets;  and

                Recognizing further that, for these purposes, a comprehensive agreement, applicable to all Members and based on the basic principles of GATT 1994, is called for;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    Article 1 

    General Provision

                This Agreement establishes rules for the application of safeguard measures which shall be understood to mean those measures provided for in Article XIX of GATT 1994.

    Article 2

    Conditions

    1.         A Member[140] may apply a safeguard measure to a product only if that Member has determined, pursuant to the provisions set out below, that such product is being imported into its territory in such increased quantities, absolute or relative to domestic production, and under such conditions as to cause  or threaten to cause serious injury to the domestic industry that produces like or directly competitive products.

    2.         Safeguard measures shall be applied to a product being imported irrespective of its source.

    Article 3

    Investigation

    1.         A Member may apply a safeguard measure only following an investigation by the competent authorities of that Member pursuant to procedures previously established and made public in consonance with Article X of GATT 1994.  This investigation shall include reasonable public notice to all interested parties and public hearings or other appropriate means in which importers, exporters and other interested parties could present evidence and their views, including the opportunity to respond to the presentations of other parties and to submit their views, inter alia, as to whether or not the application of a safeguard measure would be in the public interest.  The competent authorities shall publish a report setting forth their findings and reasoned conclusions reached on all pertinent issues of fact and law.

    2.         Any information which is by nature confidential or which is provided on a confidential basis shall, upon cause being shown, be treated as such by the competent authorities.  Such information shall not be disclosed without permission of the party submitting it.  Parties providing confidential information may be requested to furnish non‑confidential summaries thereof or, if such parties indicate that such information cannot be summarized, the reasons why a summary cannot be provided.  However, if the competent authorities find that a request for confidentiality is not warranted and if the party concerned is either unwilling to make the information public or to authorize its disclosure in generalized or summary form, the authorities may disregard such information unless it can be demonstrated to their satisfaction from appropriate sources that the information is correct.

    Article 4

     Determination of Serious Injury or Threat Thereof

    1.         For the purposes of this Agreement:

                (a)        "serious injury" shall be understood to mean a significant overall impairment in the position of a domestic industry;

                (b)        "threat of serious injury" shall be understood to mean serious injury that is clearly imminent, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2.  A determination of the existence of a threat of serious injury shall be based on facts and not merely on allegation, conjecture or remote possibility;  and

                (c)        in determining injury or threat thereof, a "domestic industry" shall be understood to mean the producers as a whole of the like or directly competitive products operating within the territory of a Member, or those whose collective output of the like or directly competitive products constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of those products.

    2.         (a)        In the investigation to determine whether increased imports have caused or are  threatening to cause serious injury to a domestic industry under the terms of this Agreement, the competent authorities shall evaluate all relevant factors of an objective  and quantifiable nature having a bearing on the situation of that industry, in particular, the rate and amount of the increase in imports of the product concerned in absolute and relative terms, the share of the domestic market taken by increased imports, changes in the level of sales, production, productivity, capacity utilization, profits  and losses, and employment.

                (b)        The determination referred to in subparagraph (a) shall not be made unless this investigation demonstrates, on the basis of objective evidence, the existence of the causal link between increased imports of the product concerned and serious injury or threat thereof.  When factors other than increased imports are causing injury to the domestic industry at the same time, such injury shall not be attributed to increased imports.

                (c)        The competent authorities shall publish promptly, in accordance with the provisions of Article 3, a detailed analysis of the case under investigation as well as a demonstration of the relevance of the factors examined.

    Article 5

    Application of Safeguard Measures

    1.         A Member shall apply safeguard measures only to the extent necessary to prevent or remedy serious injury and to facilitate adjustment.  If a quantitative restriction is used, such a measure shall  not reduce the quantity of imports below the level of a recent period which shall be the average of imports in the last three representative years for which statistics are available, unless clear justification is given that a different level is necessary to prevent or remedy serious injury.  Members should choose measures most suitable for the achievement of these objectives.

    2.         (a)        In cases in which a quota is allocated among supplying countries, the Member applying the restrictions may seek agreement with respect to the allocation of shares in the quota with all other Members having a substantial interest in supplying the product concerned.  In cases in which this method is not reasonably practicable, the Member concerned shall allot to Members having a substantial interest in supplying the product shares based upon the proportions, supplied by such Members during a previous representative period, of the total quantity or value of imports of the product, due account being taken of any special factors which may have affected or may be affecting the trade in the product.

                (b)        A Member may depart from the provisions in subparagraph (a) provided that consultations under paragraph 3 of Article 12 are conducted under the auspices of the Committee on Safeguards provided for in paragraph 1 of Article 13 and that clear demonstration is provided to the Committee that (i) imports from certain Members have increased in disproportionate percentage in relation to the total increase of imports of the product  concerned in the representative period, (ii) the reasons for the departure from the provisions in subparagraph (a) are justified, and (iii) the conditions of such departure are equitable to all suppliers of the product concerned.  The duration of any such measure shall not be extended beyond the initial period under paragraph 1 of Article 7.  The departure referred to above shall not be permitted in the case of threat of serious injury.

    Article 6

    Provisional Safeguard Measures

                In critical circumstances where delay would cause damage which it would be difficult to repair, a Member may take a provisional safeguard measure pursuant to a preliminary determination that there is clear evidence that increased imports have caused or are threatening to cause serious injury.  The duration of the provisional measure shall not exceed 200 days, during which period the pertinent requirements of Articles 2 through 7 and 12 shall be met.  Such measures should take the form of tariff increases to be promptly refunded if the subsequent investigation referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 4 does not determine that increased imports have caused or threatened to cause serious injury to a domestic industry.  The duration of any such provisional measure shall be counted as a part of the initial period and any extension referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of Article 7.

    Article 7

    Duration and Review of Safeguard Measures

    1.         A Member shall apply safeguard measures only for such period of time as may be necessary to prevent or remedy serious injury and to facilitate adjustment.  The period shall not exceed four years, unless it is extended under paragraph 2.

    2.         The period mentioned in paragraph 1 may be extended provided that the competent authorities of the importing Member have determined, in conformity with the procedures set out in Articles 2, 3, 4 and 5, that  the safeguard measure continues to be necessary to prevent or remedy serious injury and  that there is evidence that the industry is adjusting, and provided that the pertinent provisions of Articles 8 and 12 are observed.

    3.         The total period of application of a safeguard measure including the period of application of any provisional measure, the period of initial application and any extension thereof, shall not exceed eight years.

    4.         In order to facilitate adjustment in a situation where the expected duration of a safeguard measure as notified under the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 12 is over one year, the Member applying the measure shall progressively liberalize it at regular intervals during the period of application.  If the duration of the measure exceeds three years, the Member applying such a measure shall review the situation not later than the mid‑term of the measure and, if appropriate, withdraw it or increase the pace of liberalization.  A measure extended under paragraph 2 shall not be more restrictive than it was at the end of the initial period, and should continue to be liberalized.

    5.         No safeguard measure shall be applied again to the import of a product which has been subject to such a measure, taken after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, for a period of time equal to that during which such measure had been previously applied, provided that the period of non‑application is at least two years.

    6.         Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 5, a safeguard measure with a duration of 180 days or less may be applied again to the import of a product if:

                (a)        at least one year has elapsed since the date of introduction of a safeguard measure on the import of that product;  and

                (b)        such a safeguard measure has not been applied on the same product more than twice in the five‑year period immediately preceding the date of introduction of the measure.

    Article 8

    Level of Concessions and Other Obligations

    1.         A Member proposing to apply a safeguard measure or seeking an extension of a safeguard measure shall endeavour to maintain a substantially equivalent level of concessions and other obligations to that existing under GATT 1994 between it and the exporting Members which would be affected by such a measure, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 3 of Article 12.  To achieve this  objective, the Members concerned may agree on any adequate means of trade compensation for the adverse effects of the measure on their trade.

    2.         If no agreement is reached within 30 days in the consultations under paragraph 3 of Article 12, then the affected exporting Members shall be free, not later than 90 days after the measure is applied, to suspend, upon the expiration of 30 days from the day on which written notice of such suspension is received by the Council for Trade in Goods, the application of substantially equivalent concessions or other obligations under GATT 1994, to the trade of the Member applying the safeguard measure, the suspension of which the Council for Trade in Goods does not disapprove.

    3.         The right of suspension referred to in paragraph 2 shall not be exercised for the first three years that a safeguard measure is in effect, provided that the safeguard measure has been taken as a result of an absolute increase in imports and that such a measure conforms to the provisions of this Agreement.

    Article 9

    Developing Country Members

    1.         Safeguard measures shall not be applied against a product originating in a developing country Member as long as its share of imports of the product concerned in the importing Member does not exceed 3 per cent, provided that developing country Members with less than 3 per cent import share  collectively account for not more than 9 per cent of total imports of the product concerned.[141]

    2.         A developing country Member shall have the right to extend the period of application of a safeguard measure for a period of up to two years beyond the maximum period provided for in paragraph 3 of Article 7.  Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 5 of Article 7, a developing  country Member shall have the right to apply a safeguard measure again to the import of a product which has been subject to such a measure, taken after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, after a period of time equal to half that during which such a measure has been previously applied, provided that the period of non‑application is at least two years.

    Article 10

    Pre‑existing Article XIX Measures

                Members shall terminate all safeguard measures taken pursuant to Article XIX of GATT 1947 that were in existence on the date of entry into force of the WTO  Agreement not later than eight years after the date on which they were first applied or five years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, whichever comes later.

    Article 11

    Prohibition and Elimination of Certain Measures

    1.         (a)        A Member shall not take or seek any emergency action on imports of particular products as set forth in Article XIX of GATT 1994 unless such action conforms with the provisions of that Article applied in accordance with this Agreement. 

                (b)        Furthermore, a Member shall not seek, take or maintain any voluntary export restraints, orderly marketing arrangements or any other similar measures on the export or the import side.[142],[143]  These include actions taken by a single Member as well as actions under agreements, arrangements and understandings entered into by two or more Members.  Any such measure in effect on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement shall be brought into conformity with this Agreement or phased out in accordance with paragraph 2.

                (c)        This Agreement does not apply to measures sought, taken or maintained by a Member pursuant to provisions of GATT 1994 other than Article XIX, and Multilateral Trade Agreements in Annex 1A other than this Agreement, or pursuant to protocols and agreements or arrangements concluded within the framework of GATT 1994.

    2.         The phasing out of measures referred to in paragraph 1(b) shall be carried out according to  timetables to be presented to the Committee on Safeguards by the Members concerned not later than 180 days after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.  These timetables shall provide for all measures referred to in paragraph 1 to be phased out or brought into conformity with this Agreement within a period not exceeding four years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, subject to not more than one specific measure per importing Member[144], the duration of which shall not extend beyond 31 December 1999.  Any such exception must be mutually agreed between the Members directly concerned and notified to the Committee on Safeguards for its review and acceptance within 90 days of the entry into force of the WTO Agreement.  The Annex to this Agreement indicates a measure which has been agreed as falling under this exception.

    3.         Members shall not encourage or support the adoption or maintenance by public and private enterprises of non‑governmental measures equivalent to those referred to in paragraph 1.

    Article 12

    Notification and Consultation

    1.         A Member shall immediately notify the Committee on Safeguards upon:

    (a)        initiating an investigatory process relating to serious injury or threat thereof and the reasons for it;

    (b)        making a finding of serious injury or threat thereof caused by increased imports;  and

    (c)        taking a decision to apply or extend a safeguard measure.

    2.         In making the notifications referred to in paragraphs 1(b) and 1(c), the Member proposing to apply or extend a safeguard measure shall provide the Committee on Safeguards with all pertinent information, which shall include evidence of serious injury or threat thereof caused by increased imports, precise description of the product involved and the proposed measure, proposed date of introduction, expected duration and timetable for progressive liberalization.  In the case of an extension of a measure,  evidence that the industry concerned is adjusting shall also be provided.  The Council for Trade in Goods or the Committee on Safeguards may request such additional information as they may consider necessary from the Member proposing to apply or extend the measure.

    3.         A Member proposing to apply or extend a safeguard measure shall provide adequate opportunity for prior consultations with those Members having a substantial interest as exporters of the product concerned, with a view to,  inter alia, reviewing the information provided under paragraph 2, exchanging views on the measure and reaching an understanding on ways to achieve the objective set out in paragraph 1 of Article 8.

    4.         A Member shall make a notification to the Committee on Safeguards before taking a provisional safeguard measure referred to in Article 6.  Consultations shall be initiated immediately after the measure is taken.

    5.         The results of the consultations referred to in this Article, as well as the results of mid‑term reviews referred to in paragraph 4 of Article 7, any form of compensation referred to in paragraph 1 of Article 8, and proposed suspensions of concessions and other obligations referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 8, shall be notified immediately to the Council for Trade in Goods by the Members concerned.

    6.         Members shall notify promptly the Committee on Safeguards of their laws, regulations and administrative procedures relating to safeguard measures as well as any modifications made to them.

    7.         Members maintaining measures described in Article 10 and paragraph 1 of Article 11 which exist on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement  shall notify such measures to the Committee on Safeguards not later than 60 days after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.

    8.         Any Member may notify the Committee on Safeguards of all laws, regulations, administrative procedures and any measures or actions dealt with in this Agreement that have not been notified by other Members that are required by this Agreement to make such notifications.

    9.         Any Member may notify the Committee on Safeguards of any non‑governmental measures referred to in paragraph 3 of Article 11.

    10.       All notifications to the Council for Trade in Goods referred to in this Agreement shall normally be made through the Committee on Safeguards.

    11.       The provisions on notification in this Agreement shall not require any Member to disclose confidential information the disclosure of which would impede law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest or would prejudice the legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises, public or private.

    Article 13

    Surveillance

    1.         A Committee on Safeguards is hereby established, under the authority of the Council for Trade in Goods, which shall be open to the participation of any Member indicating its wish to serve on it.  The Committee will have the following functions:

                (a)        to monitor, and report annually to the Council for Trade in Goods on, the general implementation of this Agreement and make recommendations towards its improvement;

                (b)        to find, upon request of an affected Member, whether or not the procedural requirements of this Agreement have been complied with in connection with a safeguard measure, and report its findings to the Council for Trade in Goods;

                (c)        to assist Members, if they so request, in their consultations under the provisions of this Agreement;

                (d)        to examine measures covered by Article 10 and paragraph 1 of Article 11, monitor  the phase‑out of such measures and report as appropriate to the Council for Trade in Goods;

                (e)        to review, at the request of the Member taking a safeguard measure, whether proposals to suspend concessions or other obligations are "substantially equivalent", and report as appropriate to the Council for Trade in Goods;

                (f)        to receive and review all notifications provided for in this Agreement and report as appropriate to the Council for Trade in Goods;  and

                (g)        to perform any other function connected with this Agreement that the Council for Trade in Goods may determine.

    2.         To assist the Committee in carrying out its surveillance function, the Secretariat shall prepare annually a factual report on the operation of this Agreement based on notifications and other reliable information available to it.

    Article 14

    Dispute Settlement

                The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the Dispute Settlement Understanding shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes arising under this Agreement.

    ANNEX

    EXCEPTION REFERRED TO IN PARAGRAPH 2 OF ARTICLE 11

    Members concerned Product Termination
    EC/Japan Passenger cars, off road vehicles, light commercial vehicles, light trucks (up to 5 tonnes), and the same vehicles in wholly knocked‑down form (CKD sets). 31 December 1999

    ANNEX 1B

    GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES

    PART I            SCOPE AND DEFINITION

                Article I           Scope and Definition

    PART II           GENERAL OBLIGATIONS AND DISCIPLINES

    Article II            Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment
    Article III           Transparency
    Article III bis      Disclosure of Confidential Information
    Article IV           Increasing Participation of Developing Countries
    Article V            Economic Integration
    Article V bis       Labour Markets Integration Agreements
    Article VI           Domestic Regulation
    Article VII          Recognition
    Article VIII        Monopolies and Exclusive Service Suppliers
    Article IX           Business Practices
    Article X            Emergency Safeguard Measures
    Article XI           Payments and Transfers
    Article XII          Restrictions to Safeguard the Balance of Payments
    Article XIII        Government Procurement
    Article XIV        General Exceptions
    Article XIV bis   Security Exceptions
    Article XV         Subsidies

    PART III          SPECIFIC COMMITMENTS

                Article XVI        Market Access

    Article XVII       National Treatment

                Article XVIII      Additional Commitments

    PART IV          PROGRESSIVE LIBERALIZATION

    Article XIX        Negotiation of Specific Commitments
    Article XX         Schedules of Specific Commitments
    Article XXI        Modification of Schedules

    PART V           INSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS

    Article XXII       Consultation
    Article XXIII      Dispute Settlement and Enforcement
    Article XXIV     Council for Trade in Services
    Article XXV       Technical Cooperation
    Article XXVI     Relationship with Other International Organizations

    PART VI          FINAL PROVISIONS

    Article XXVII    Denial of Benefits
    Article XXVIII   Definitions
    Article XXIX     Annexes
     
    Annex on Article II Exemptions
    Annex on Movement of Natural Persons Supplying Services under the Agreement
    Annex on Air Transport Services
    Annex on Financial Services
    Second Annex on Financial Services
    Annex on Negotiations on Maritime Transport Services
    Annex on Telecommunications
    Annex on Negotiations on Basic Telecommunications

    GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES

    Members,

               Recognizing the growing importance of trade in services for the growth and development of the world economy;

                Wishing to establish a multilateral framework of principles and rules for trade in services with a view to the expansion of such trade under conditions of transparency and progressive liberalization and as a means of promoting the economic growth of all trading partners and the development of developing countries;

                Desiring the early achievement of progressively higher levels of liberalization of trade in services through successive rounds of multilateral negotiations aimed at promoting the interests of all participants on a mutually advantageous basis and at securing an overall balance of rights and obligations, while giving due respect to national policy objectives;

                Recognizing the right of Members to regulate, and to introduce new regulations, on the supply of services within their territories in order to meet national policy objectives and, given asymmetries existing with respect to the degree of development of services regulations in different countries, the particular need of developing countries to exercise this right;

                Desiring to facilitate the increasing participation of developing countries in trade in services and the expansion of their service exports including, inter alia, through the strengthening of their domestic services capacity and its efficiency and competitiveness;

                Taking particular account of the serious difficulty of the least-developed countries in view of their special economic situation and their development, trade and financial needs;

                Hereby agree as follows:

    PART I

    SCOPE AND DEFINITION

    Article I

    Scope and Definition

    1.         This Agreement applies to measures by Members affecting trade in services.

    2.         For the purposes of this Agreement, trade in services is defined as the supply of a service:

                (a)        from the territory of one Member into the territory of any other Member;

                (b)        in the territory of one Member to the service consumer of any other Member;

                (c)       by a service supplier of one Member, through commercial presence in the territory of any other Member;

                (d)        by a service supplier of one Member, through presence of natural persons of a Member in the territory of any other Member.

    3.         For the purposes of this Agreement:

                (a)        "measures by Members" means measures taken by:

                            (i)           central, regional or local governments and authorities;  and

                            (ii)          non-governmental bodies in the exercise of powers delegated by central, regional or local governments or authorities;

                In fulfilling its obligations and commitments under the Agreement, each Member shall take such reasonable measures as may be available to it to ensure their observance by regional and local governments and authorities and non-governmental bodies within its territory;

                (b)        "services" includes any service in any sector except services supplied in the exercise of governmental authority;

                (c)        "a service supplied in the exercise of governmental authority" means any service which is supplied neither on a commercial basis, nor in competition with one or more service suppliers.

    PART II

    GENERAL OBLIGATIONS AND DISCIPLINES

    Article II

    Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment

    1.         With respect to any measure covered by this Agreement, each Member shall accord immediately and unconditionally to services and service suppliers of any other Member treatment no less favourable than that it accords to like services and service suppliers of any other country.

    2.         A Member may maintain a measure inconsistent with paragraph 1 provided that such a measure is listed in, and meets the conditions of, the Annex on Article II Exemptions.

    3.         The provisions of this Agreement shall not be so construed as to prevent any Member from conferring or according advantages to adjacent countries in order to facilitate exchanges limited to contiguous frontier zones of services that are both locally produced and consumed.

    Article III

    Transparency

    1.         Each Member shall publish promptly and, except in emergency situations, at the latest by the time of their entry into force, all relevant measures of general application which pertain to or affect the operation of this Agreement.  International agreements pertaining to or affecting trade in services to which a Member is a signatory shall also be published.

    2.         Where publication as referred to in paragraph 1 is not practicable, such information shall be made otherwise publicly available.

    3.         Each Member shall promptly and at least annually inform the Council for Trade in Services of the introduction of any new, or any changes to existing, laws, regulations or administrative guidelines which significantly affect trade in services covered by its specific commitments under this Agreement.

    4.         Each Member shall respond promptly to all requests by any other Member for specific information on any of its measures of general application or international agreements within the meaning of paragraph 1.  Each Member shall also establish one or more enquiry points to provide specific information to other Members, upon request, on all such matters as well as those subject to the notification requirement in paragraph 3.  Such enquiry points shall be established within two years from the date of entry into force of the Agreement Establishing the WTO (referred to in this Agreement as the "WTO Agreement").  Appropriate flexibility with respect to the time-limit within which such enquiry points are to be established may be agreed upon for individual developing country Members.  Enquiry points need not be depositories of laws and regulations.

    5.         Any Member may notify to the Council for Trade in Services any measure, taken by any other  Member, which it considers affects the operation of this Agreement.

    Article III bis

    Disclosure of Confidential Information

                Nothing in this Agreement shall require any Member to provide confidential information, the disclosure of which would impede law enforcement, or otherwise be contrary to the public interest, or which would prejudice legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises, public or private.

    Article IV

    Increasing Participation of Developing Countries

    1.         The increasing participation of developing country Members in world trade shall be facilitated through negotiated specific commitments, by different Members pursuant to Parts III and IV of this Agreement, relating to:

                (a)        the strengthening of their domestic services capacity and its efficiency and competitiveness, inter alia through access to technology on a commercial basis;

                (b)        the improvement of their access to distribution channels and information networks;  and

                (c)        the liberalization of market access in sectors and modes of supply of export interest to them.

    2.         Developed country Members, and to the extent possible other Members, shall establish contact points within two years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement to facilitate the access of developing country Members' service suppliers to information, related to their respective markets, concerning:

                (a)        commercial and technical aspects of the supply of services;

                (b)        registration, recognition and obtaining of professional qualifications;  and

                (c)        the availability of services technology.

    3.         Special priority shall be given to the least-developed country Members in the implementation of paragraphs 1 and 2.  Particular account shall be taken of the serious difficulty of the least-developed countries in accepting negotiated specific commitments in view of their special economic situation and their development, trade and financial needs.

    Article V

    Economic Integration

    1.         This Agreement shall not prevent any of its Members from being a party to or entering into an agreement liberalizing trade in services between or among the parties to such an agreement, provided that such an agreement:

                (a)        has substantial sectoral coverage[145], and

                (b)        provides for the absence or elimination of substantially all discrimination, in the sense of Article XVII, between or among the parties, in the sectors covered under subparagraph (a), through:

                            (i)           elimination of existing discriminatory measures, and/or

                            (ii)          prohibition of new or more discriminatory measures,

                            either at the entry into force of that agreement or on the basis of a reasonable time-frame, except for measures permitted under Articles XI, XII, XIV and XIV bis.

    2.         In evaluating whether the conditions under paragraph 1(b) are met, consideration may be given to the relationship of the agreement to a wider process of economic integration or trade liberalization among the countries concerned.

    3.         (a)        Where developing countries are parties to an agreement of the type referred to in paragraph 1, flexibility shall be provided for regarding the conditions set out in paragraph 1, particularly with reference to subparagraph (b) thereof, in accordance with the level of development of the countries concerned, both overall and in individual sectors and subsectors.

                (b)        Notwithstanding paragraph 6, in the case of an agreement of the type referred to in paragraph 1 involving only developing countries, more favourable treatment may be granted to juridical persons owned or controlled by natural persons of the parties to such an agreement.

    4.         Any agreement referred to in paragraph 1 shall be designed to facilitate trade between the parties to the agreement and shall not in respect of any Member outside the agreement raise the overall level of barriers to trade in services within the respective sectors or subsectors compared to the level applicable prior to such an agreement.

    5.         If, in the conclusion, enlargement or any significant modification of any agreement under paragraph 1, a Member intends to withdraw or modify a specific commitment inconsistently with the terms and conditions set out in its Schedule, it shall provide at least 90 days advance notice of such modification or withdrawal and the procedure set forth in paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of Article XXI shall apply.

    6.         A service supplier of any other Member that is a juridical person constituted under the laws of a party to an agreement referred to in paragraph 1 shall be entitled to treatment granted under such agreement, provided that it engages in substantive business operations in the territory of the parties to such agreement.

    7.         (a)        Members which are parties to any agreement referred to in paragraph 1 shall promptly notify any such agreement and any enlargement or any significant modification of that agreement to the Council for Trade in Services. They shall also make available to the Council such relevant information as may be requested by it.  The Council may establish a working  party to examine such an agreement or enlargement or modification of that agreement and to report to the Council  on its consistency with this Article.

                (b)        Members which are parties to any agreement referred to in paragraph 1 which is implemented on the basis of a time-frame shall report periodically to the Council for Trade in Services on its implementation. The Council may establish a working party to examine such reports if it deems such a working party necessary.

                (c)        Based on the reports of the working parties referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b), the Council may make recommendations to the parties as it deems appropriate.

    8.         A Member which is a party to any agreement referred to in paragraph 1 may not seek compensation for trade benefits that may accrue to any other Member from such agreement. 

    Article V bis

    Labour Markets Integration Agreements

                This Agreement shall not prevent any of its Members from being a party to an agreement establishing full integration[146] of the labour markets between or among the parties to such an agreement, provided that such an agreement:

                (a)        exempts citizens of parties to the agreement from requirements concerning residency and work permits;

                (b)        is notified to the Council for Trade in Services.

    Article VI

    Domestic Regulation

    1.         In sectors where specific commitments are undertaken, each Member shall ensure that all measures of general application affecting trade in services are administered in a reasonable, objective and impartial manner.

    2.         (a)        Each Member shall maintain or institute as soon as practicable judicial, arbitral or administrative tribunals or procedures which provide, at the request of an affected service supplier, for the prompt review of, and where justified, appropriate remedies for, administrative decisions affecting trade in services.  Where such procedures are not independent of the agency entrusted with the administrative decision concerned, the  Member shall ensure that the procedures in fact provide for an objective and impartial review.

                (b)        The provisions of subparagraph (a) shall not be construed to require a Member to institute such tribunals or procedures where this would be inconsistent with its constitutional structure or the nature of its legal system.

    3.         Where authorization is required for the supply of a service on which a specific commitment has been made, the competent authorities of a Member shall, within a reasonable period of time after the submission of an application considered complete under domestic laws and regulations, inform the applicant of the decision concerning the application.  At the request of the applicant, the competent authorities of the Member shall provide, without undue delay, information concerning the status of the application.

    4.         With a view to ensuring that measures relating to qualification requirements and procedures, technical standards and licensing requirements do not constitute unnecessary barriers to trade in services, the Council for Trade in Services shall, through appropriate bodies it may establish, develop any necessary disciplines.  Such disciplines shall aim to ensure that such requirements are, inter alia:

                (a)        based on objective and transparent criteria, such as competence and the ability to  supply the service;

                (b)        not more burdensome than necessary to ensure the quality of the service;

                (c)        in the case of licensing procedures, not in themselves a restriction on the supply of the service.

    5.         (a)        In sectors in which a Member has undertaken specific commitments, pending the entry into force of disciplines developed in these sectors pursuant to paragraph 4, the  Member shall not apply licensing and qualification requirements and technical standards that nullify or impair such specific commitments in a manner which:

                            (i)           does not comply with the criteria outlined in subparagraphs 4(a), (b) or (c);  and

                            (ii)          could not reasonably have been expected of that Member at the time the specific commitments in those sectors were made.

                (b)        In determining whether a Member is in conformity with the obligation under paragraph 5(a), account shall be taken of international standards of relevant international organizations[147] applied by that Member.

    6.         In sectors where specific commitments regarding professional services are undertaken, each Member shall provide for adequate procedures to verify the competence of professionals of any other Member.

    Article VII

    Recognition

    1.         For the purposes of the fulfilment, in whole or in part, of its standards or criteria for the authorization, licensing or certification of services suppliers, and subject to the requirements of paragraph 3, a Member may recognize the education or experience obtained, requirements met, or licenses or certifications granted in a particular country.  Such recognition, which may be achieved through harmonization or otherwise, may be based upon an agreement or arrangement with the country concerned or may be accorded autonomously.

    2.         A Member that is a party to an agreement or arrangement of the type referred to in paragraph 1, whether existing or future, shall afford adequate opportunity for other interested Members to negotiate their accession to such an agreement or arrangement or to negotiate comparable ones with it.  Where a Member accords recognition autonomously, it shall afford adequate opportunity for any other Member to demonstrate that education, experience, licenses, or certifications obtained or requirements met in that other Member's territory should be recognized.

    3.         A Member shall not accord recognition in a manner which would constitute a means of discrimination between countries in the application of its standards or criteria for the authorization, licensing or certification of services suppliers, or a disguised restriction on trade in services.

    4.         Each Member shall:

                (a)        within 12 months from the date on which the WTO Agreement takes effect for it, inform the Council for Trade in Services of its existing recognition measures and state whether such measures are based on agreements or arrangements of the type referred to in paragraph 1; 

                (b)        promptly inform the Council for Trade in Services as far in advance as possible of the opening of negotiations on an agreement or arrangement of the type referred to in paragraph 1 in order to provide adequate opportunity to any other Member to indicate their interest in participating in the negotiations before they enter a substantive phase;

                (c)        promptly inform the Council for Trade in Services when it adopts new recognition measures or significantly modifies existing ones and state whether the measures are based on an agreement or arrangement of the type referred to in paragraph 1.

    5.         Wherever appropriate, recognition should be based on multilaterally agreed criteria.  In appropriate cases, Members shall work in cooperation with relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations towards the establishment and adoption of common international standards and criteria for recognition and common international standards for the practice of relevant services trades and professions.

    Article VIII

    Monopolies and Exclusive Service Suppliers

    1.         Each Member shall ensure that any monopoly supplier of a service in its territory does not, in the supply of the monopoly service in the relevant market, act in a manner inconsistent with that Member's obligations under Article II and specific commitments.

    2.         Where a Member's monopoly supplier competes, either directly or through an affiliated company, in the supply of a service outside the scope of its monopoly rights and which is subject to that Member's specific commitments, the Member shall ensure that such a supplier does not abuse its monopoly position to act in its territory in a manner inconsistent with such commitments.

    3.         The Council for Trade in Services may, at the request of a Member which has a reason to believe that a monopoly supplier of a service of any other Member is acting in a manner inconsistent with paragraph 1 or 2, request the Member establishing, maintaining or authorizing such supplier to provide specific information concerning the relevant operations.

    4.         If, after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement, a Member grants monopoly rights regarding the supply of a service covered by its specific commitments, that Member shall notify the Council for Trade in Services no later than three months before the intended implementation of the grant of monopoly rights and the provisions of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of Article XXI shall apply.

    5.         The provisions of this Article shall also apply to cases of exclusive service suppliers, where a Member, formally or in effect, (a) authorizes or establishes a small number of service suppliers and (b) substantially prevents competition among those suppliers in its territory.

    Article IX

    Business Practices

    1.         Members recognize that certain business practices of service suppliers, other than those falling under Article VIII, may restrain competition and thereby restrict trade in services.

    2.         Each Member shall, at the request of any other Member, enter into consultations with a view to eliminating practices referred to in paragraph 1.  The Member addressed shall accord full and sympathetic consideration to such a request and shall cooperate through the supply of publicly available non-confidential information of relevance to the matter in question.  The Member addressed shall also provide other information available to the requesting Member, subject to its domestic law and to the conclusion of satisfactory agreement concerning the safeguarding of its confidentiality by the requesting Member.

    Article X

    Emergency Safeguard Measures

    1.         There shall be multilateral negotiations on the question of emergency safeguard measures based on the principle of non-discrimination.  The results of such negotiations shall enter into effect on a date not later than three years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.

    2.         In the period before the entry into effect of the results of the negotiations referred to in paragraph 1, any Member may, notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article XXI, notify the Council on Trade in Services of its intention to modify or withdraw a specific commitment after a period of one year from the date on which the commitment enters into force;  provided that the Member shows cause to the Council that the modification or withdrawal cannot await the lapse of the three-year period provided for in paragraph 1 of Article XXI.

    3.         The provisions of paragraph 2 shall cease to apply three years after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.

    Article XI

    Payments and Transfers

    1.         Except under the circumstances envisaged in Article XII, a Member shall not apply restrictions on international transfers and payments for current transactions relating to its specific commitments.

    2.         Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the rights and obligations of the members of the International Monetary Fund under the Articles of Agreement of the Fund, including the use of exchange actions which are in conformity with the Articles of Agreement, provided that a Member shall not impose restrictions on any capital transactions inconsistently with its specific commitments regarding such transactions, except under Article XII or at the request of the Fund.

    Article XII

    Restrictions to Safeguard the Balance of Payments

    1.         In the event of serious balance-of-payments and external financial difficulties or threat thereof, a Member may adopt or maintain restrictions on trade in services on which it has undertaken specific commitments, including on payments or transfers for transactions related to such commitments.  It is recognized that particular pressures on the balance of payments of a Member in the process of economic development or economic transition may necessitate the use of restrictions to ensure, inter alia, the maintenance of a level of financial reserves adequate for the implementation of its programme of economic development or economic transition.

    2.         The restrictions referred to in paragraph 1:

                (a)        shall not discriminate among Members;

                (b)        shall be consistent with the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund;

                (c)        shall avoid unnecessary damage to the commercial, economic and financial interests of any other Member;

                (d)        shall not exceed those necessary to deal with the circumstances described in paragraph 1;

                (e)        shall be temporary and be phased out progressively as the situation specified in paragraph 1 improves.

    3.         In determining the incidence of such restrictions, Members may give priority to the supply of services which are more essential to their economic or development programmes.  However, such restrictions shall not be adopted or maintained for the purpose of protecting a particular service sector.

    4.         Any restrictions adopted or maintained under paragraph 1, or any changes therein, shall be promptly notified to the General Council.

    5.         (a)        Members applying the provisions of this Article shall consult promptly with the  Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions on restrictions adopted under this Article.

                (b)        The Ministerial Conference shall establish procedures[148] for periodic consultations with the objective of enabling such recommendations to be made to the Member concerned as it may deem appropriate.

                (c)        Such consultations shall assess the balance-of-payment situation of the Member concerned and the restrictions adopted or maintained under this Article, taking into account, inter alia, such factors as:

                            (i)           the nature and extent of the balance-of-payments and the external financial difficulties;

                            (ii)          the external economic and trading environment of the consulting Member;

                            (iii)         alternative corrective measures which may be available.

                (d)        The consultations shall address the compliance of any restrictions with paragraph 2, in particular the progressive phaseout of restrictions in accordance with paragraph 2(e).

                (e)        In such consultations, all findings of statistical and other facts presented by the International Monetary Fund relating to foreign exchange, monetary reserves and balance of payments, shall be accepted and conclusions shall be based on the assessment by the Fund of the balance-of-payments and the external financial situation of the consulting Member.

    6.         If a Member which is not a member of the International Monetary Fund wishes to apply the provisions of this Article, the Ministerial Conference shall establish a review procedure and any other procedures necessary.

    Article XIII

    Government Procurement

    1.         Articles II, XVI and XVII shall not apply to laws, regulations or requirements governing the procurement by governmental agencies of services purchased for governmental purposes and not with a view to commercial resale or with a view to use in the supply of services for commercial sale.

    2.         There shall be multilateral negotiations on government procurement in services under this Agreement within two years from the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.

    Article XIV

    General Exceptions

                Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where like conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on trade in services, nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any Member of measures:

                (a)        necessary to protect public morals or to maintain public order;[149]